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Terraform is a tool for building, changing, and combining infrastructure safely and efficiently.
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.github Update Mar 6, 2019
addrs command/state: update and fix the state list command Oct 19, 2018
backend grammatical updates to comments and docs (#20195) Mar 21, 2019
builtin helper/plugin: Implement Schema.SkipCoreTypeCheck Mar 21, 2019
command grammatical updates to comments and docs (#20195) Mar 21, 2019
communicator grammatical updates to comments and docs (#20195) Mar 21, 2019
config grammatical updates to comments and docs (#20195) Mar 21, 2019
configs grammatical updates to comments and docs (#20195) Mar 21, 2019
contrib Remove support for the -module-depth flag Nov 2, 2018
dag terraform: ugly huge change to weave in new HCL2-oriented types Oct 17, 2018
digraph Fix TestWriteDot random order error Jul 29, 2014
docs mons-months: fix typo in maintainer-etiquette Sep 25, 2017
e2e command: Use vendoring when building helper programs in tests Nov 19, 2018
examples Fix Google Cloud Platform name across docs. Jan 15, 2019
flatmap flatmap: be resilient to lying "foo.#" key Jun 23, 2017
helper helper/plugin: Implement Schema.SkipCoreTypeCheck Mar 21, 2019
httpclient Allow callers to append to user agent Mar 15, 2018
internal grammatical updates to comments and docs (#20195) Mar 21, 2019
lang lang/funcs: Port the "reverse" function from the old functions set Mar 20, 2019
moduledeps plugin/discovery: PluginRequirements can specify SHA256 digests Jun 9, 2017
plans plans/objchange: Don't panic when prior state contains nested map blocks Mar 18, 2019
plugin grammatical updates to comments and docs (#20195) Mar 21, 2019
providers core: Allow legacy SDK to opt out of plan-time safety checks Feb 12, 2019
provisioners provisioners: Add Factory type and FactoryFixed helper Oct 17, 2018
registry plugin/discovery: Parse warnings from TF Registry Mar 18, 2019
repl command: "terraform init" can partially initialize for 0.12upgrade Jan 14, 2019
scripts build: refresh cookie (#20558) Mar 5, 2019
state remove single rand source to prevent races Feb 22, 2019
states command: Fix various issues in the "terraform state ..." subcommands Mar 18, 2019
svchost backend/remote: cleanup test connections Feb 7, 2019
terraform core: Upgrade flatmap to JSON when dynamic attributes are present Mar 21, 2019
test-fixtures main: allow overriding host-based discovery in CLI config Oct 26, 2017
tfdiags tfdiags: Document missing tests Nov 15, 2018
tools plugin/discovery: Return tfdiags from Get Mar 18, 2019
vendor vendor: go get Mar 20, 2019
version release: clean up after v0.12.0-beta1 Feb 28, 2019
website website: Fix several spelling errors Mar 22, 2019
.gitignore Updating Makefile + Add gitignore Jun 6, 2017
.go-version bump go version to 1.12.1 Mar 14, 2019
.travis.yml bump go version to 1.12.1 Mar 14, 2019 Makefile/docs: Lock in 1.6 req, doc vendored deps Feb 24, 2016 Update Mar 20, 2019
CODEOWNERS First pass at adding CODEOWNERS to link remote-state backends with ma… Feb 11, 2019
Dockerfile build: Stop using deprecated MAINTAINER in Dockerfile Oct 28, 2017
LICENSE Adding license Jul 28, 2014
Makefile build: Run "go generate" in modules mode Feb 6, 2019 README: Fix typo Mar 12, 2019
Vagrantfile Switch to Go 1.11.5 Jan 31, 2019
checkpoint.go fixing version numbers RCs should be labeled x.x.x-rcx Feb 7, 2015
commands.go command/jsonprovider: export providers schemas to json (#20446) Feb 25, 2019
config.go main: allow overriding host-based discovery in CLI config Oct 26, 2017
config_test.go main: allow overriding host-based discovery in CLI config Oct 26, 2017
config_unix.go Use build-in method to get user homedir instead of eval on sh Mar 21, 2018
config_windows.go config looks in a plugin directory if it exists Sep 27, 2014
go.mod vendor: go get Mar 20, 2019
go.sum vendor: go get Mar 20, 2019
help.go help: Make version and help flags consistent Aug 1, 2018
main.go Implement the remote enhanced backend Nov 6, 2018
main_test.go main: make configuration available when initializing commands Sep 29, 2017
panic.go panic: Instruct the user to include terraform's version for bug reports. May 14, 2015
plugins.go keep .terraform.d/plugins for discovery Aug 9, 2017
signal_unix.go Forward SIGTERM and handle that as an interrupt Dec 8, 2016
signal_windows.go Forward SIGTERM and handle that as an interrupt Dec 8, 2016
synchronized_writers.go main: synchronize writes to VT100-faker on Windows May 4, 2017
version.go states/statemgr: Fix the Filesystem state manager tests Nov 19, 2018



Terraform is a tool for building, changing, and versioning infrastructure safely and efficiently. Terraform can manage existing and popular service providers as well as custom in-house solutions.

The key features of Terraform are:

  • Infrastructure as Code: Infrastructure is described using a high-level configuration syntax. This allows a blueprint of your datacenter to be versioned and treated as you would any other code. Additionally, infrastructure can be shared and re-used.

  • Execution Plans: Terraform has a "planning" step where it generates an execution plan. The execution plan shows what Terraform will do when you call apply. This lets you avoid any surprises when Terraform manipulates infrastructure.

  • Resource Graph: Terraform builds a graph of all your resources, and parallelizes the creation and modification of any non-dependent resources. Because of this, Terraform builds infrastructure as efficiently as possible, and operators get insight into dependencies in their infrastructure.

  • Change Automation: Complex changesets can be applied to your infrastructure with minimal human interaction. With the previously mentioned execution plan and resource graph, you know exactly what Terraform will change and in what order, avoiding many possible human errors.

For more information, see the introduction section of the Terraform website.

Getting Started & Documentation

If you're new to Terraform and want to get started creating infrastructure, please checkout our Getting Started guide, available on the Terraform website.

All documentation is available on the Terraform website:

Developing Terraform

If you wish to work on Terraform itself or any of its built-in providers, you'll first need Go installed on your machine (version 1.11+ is required). Alternatively, you can use the Vagrantfile in the root of this repo to stand up a virtual machine with the appropriate dev tooling already set up for you.

This repository contains only Terraform core, which includes the command line interface and the main graph engine. Providers are implemented as plugins that each have their own repository in the terraform-providers organization on GitHub. Instructions for developing each provider are in the associated README file. For more information, see the provider development overview.

For local development of Terraform core, first make sure Go is properly installed and that a GOPATH has been set. You will also need to add $GOPATH/bin to your $PATH.

Next, using Git, clone this repository into $GOPATH/src/

You'll need to run make tools to install some required tools, then make. This will compile the code and then run the tests. If this exits with exit status 0, then everything is working! You only need to run make tools once (or when the tools change).

$ cd "$GOPATH/src/"
$ make tools
$ make

To compile a development version of Terraform and the built-in plugins, run make dev. This will build everything using gox and put Terraform binaries in the bin and $GOPATH/bin folders:

$ make dev
$ bin/terraform

If you're developing a specific package, you can run tests for just that package by specifying the TEST variable. For example below, onlyterraform package tests will be run.

$ make test TEST=./terraform

If you're working on a specific provider which has not been separated into an individual repository and only wish to rebuild that provider, you can use the plugin-dev target. For example, to build only the Test provider:

$ make plugin-dev PLUGIN=provider-test


Terraform uses Go Modules for dependency management, but for the moment is continuing to use Go 1.6-style vendoring for compatibility with tools that have not yet been updated for full Go Modules support.

If you're developing Terraform, there are a few tasks you might need to perform.

Adding a dependency

If you're adding a dependency, you'll need to vendor it in the same Pull Request as the code that depends on it. You should do this in a separate commit from your code, as makes PR review easier and Git history simpler to read in the future.

To add a dependency:

Assuming your work is on a branch called my-feature-branch, the steps look like this:

  1. Add an import statement to a suitable package in the Terraform code.

  2. Run go mod vendor to download the latest version of the module containing the imported package into the vendor/ directory, and update the go.mod and go.sum files.

  3. Review the changes in git and commit them.

Updating a dependency

To update a dependency:

  1. Run go get -u module-path@version-number, such as go get -u

  2. Run go mod vendor to update the vendored copy in the vendor/ directory.

  3. Review the changes in git and commit them.

Acceptance Tests

Terraform has a comprehensive acceptance test suite covering the built-in providers. Our Contributing Guide includes details about how and when to write and run acceptance tests in order to help contributions get accepted quickly.

Cross Compilation and Building for Distribution

If you wish to cross-compile Terraform for another architecture, you can set the XC_OS and XC_ARCH environment variables to values representing the target operating system and architecture before calling make. The output is placed in the pkg subdirectory tree both expanded in a directory representing the OS/architecture combination and as a ZIP archive.

For example, to compile 64-bit Linux binaries on Mac OS X, you can run:

$ XC_OS=linux XC_ARCH=amd64 make bin
$ file pkg/linux_amd64/terraform
terraform: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, not stripped

XC_OS and XC_ARCH can be space separated lists representing different combinations of operating system and architecture. For example, to compile for both Linux and Mac OS X, targeting both 32- and 64-bit architectures, you can run:

$ XC_OS="linux darwin" XC_ARCH="386 amd64" make bin
$ tree ./pkg/ -P "terraform|*.zip"
├── darwin_386
│   └── terraform
├── darwin_amd64
│   └── terraform
├── linux_386
│   └── terraform
├── linux_amd64
│   └── terraform

4 directories, 8 files

Note: Cross-compilation uses gox, which requires toolchains to be built with versions of Go prior to 1.5. In order to successfully cross-compile with older versions of Go, you will need to run gox -build-toolchain before running the commands detailed above.


When using docker you don't need to have any of the Go development tools installed and you can clone terraform to any location on disk (doesn't have to be in your $GOPATH). This is useful for users who want to build master or a specific branch for testing without setting up a proper Go environment.

For example, run the following command to build terraform in a linux-based container for macOS.

docker run --rm -v $(pwd):/go/src/ -w /go/src/ -e XC_OS=darwin -e XC_ARCH=amd64 golang:latest bash -c "apt-get update && apt-get install -y zip && make bin"


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