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{-# LANGUAGE CPP #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveFunctor #-}
{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances #-}
{-# LANGUAGE GADTs #-}
{-# LANGUAGE GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving #-}
{-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses #-}
{-# LANGUAGE RecordWildCards #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeOperators #-}
{-# LANGUAGE UndecidableInstances #-}
module Servant.Server.Internal.RoutingApplication where
import Control.Monad
(ap, liftM)
import Control.Monad.Base
(MonadBase (..))
import Control.Monad.Catch
(MonadThrow (..))
import Control.Monad.Reader
(MonadReader (..), ReaderT (..), runReaderT)
import Control.Monad.Trans
(MonadIO (..), MonadTrans (..))
import Control.Monad.Trans.Control
(ComposeSt, MonadBaseControl (..), MonadTransControl (..),
defaultLiftBaseWith, defaultRestoreM)
import Control.Monad.Trans.Resource
(MonadResource (..), ResourceT, runInternalState,
runResourceT, transResourceT, withInternalState)
import Network.Wai
(Application, Request, Response, ResponseReceived)
import Prelude ()
import Prelude.Compat
import Servant.Server.Internal.Handler
import Servant.Server.Internal.ServantErr
type RoutingApplication =
Request -- ^ the request, the field 'pathInfo' may be modified by url routing
-> (RouteResult Response -> IO ResponseReceived) -> IO ResponseReceived
-- | The result of matching against a path in the route tree.
data RouteResult a =
Fail ServantErr -- ^ Keep trying other paths. The @ServantErr@
-- should only be 404, 405 or 406.
| FailFatal !ServantErr -- ^ Don't try other paths.
| Route !a
deriving (Eq, Show, Read, Functor)
instance Applicative RouteResult where
pure = return
(<*>) = ap
instance Monad RouteResult where
return = Route
Route a >>= f = f a
Fail e >>= _ = Fail e
FailFatal e >>= _ = FailFatal e
newtype RouteResultT m a = RouteResultT { runRouteResultT :: m (RouteResult a) }
deriving (Functor)
instance MonadTrans RouteResultT where
lift = RouteResultT . liftM Route
instance (Functor m, Monad m) => Applicative (RouteResultT m) where
pure = return
(<*>) = ap
instance Monad m => Monad (RouteResultT m) where
return = RouteResultT . return . Route
m >>= k = RouteResultT $ do
a <- runRouteResultT m
case a of
Fail e -> return $ Fail e
FailFatal e -> return $ FailFatal e
Route b -> runRouteResultT (k b)
instance MonadIO m => MonadIO (RouteResultT m) where
liftIO = lift . liftIO
instance MonadBase b m => MonadBase b (RouteResultT m) where
liftBase = lift . liftBase
instance MonadBaseControl b m => MonadBaseControl b (RouteResultT m) where
type StM (RouteResultT m) a = ComposeSt RouteResultT m a
liftBaseWith = defaultLiftBaseWith
restoreM = defaultRestoreM
instance MonadTransControl RouteResultT where
type StT RouteResultT a = RouteResult a
liftWith f = RouteResultT $ liftM return $ f runRouteResultT
restoreT = RouteResultT
instance MonadThrow m => MonadThrow (RouteResultT m) where
throwM = lift . throwM
toApplication :: RoutingApplication -> Application
toApplication ra request respond = ra request routingRespond
where
routingRespond :: RouteResult Response -> IO ResponseReceived
routingRespond (Fail err) = respond $ responseServantErr err
routingRespond (FailFatal err) = respond $ responseServantErr err
routingRespond (Route v) = respond v
-- | A 'Delayed' is a representation of a handler with scheduled
-- delayed checks that can trigger errors.
--
-- Why would we want to delay checks?
--
-- There are two reasons:
--
-- 1. In a straight-forward implementation, the order in which we
-- perform checks will determine the error we generate. This is
-- because once an error occurs, we would abort and not perform
-- any subsequent checks, but rather return the current error.
--
-- This is not a necessity: we could continue doing other checks,
-- and choose the preferred error. However, that would in general
-- mean more checking, which leads us to the other reason.
--
-- 2. We really want to avoid doing certain checks too early. For
-- example, captures involve parsing, and are much more costly
-- than static route matches. In particular, if several paths
-- contain the "same" capture, we'd like as much as possible to
-- avoid trying the same parse many times. Also tricky is the
-- request body. Again, this involves parsing, but also, WAI makes
-- obtaining the request body a side-effecting operation. We
-- could/can work around this by manually caching the request body,
-- but we'd rather keep the number of times we actually try to
-- decode the request body to an absolute minimum.
--
-- We prefer to have the following relative priorities of error
-- codes:
--
-- @
-- 404
-- 405 (bad method)
-- 401 (unauthorized)
-- 415 (unsupported media type)
-- 406 (not acceptable)
-- 400 (bad request)
-- @
--
-- Therefore, while routing, we delay most checks so that they
-- will ultimately occur in the right order.
--
-- A 'Delayed' contains many delayed blocks of tests, and
-- the actual handler:
--
-- 1. Delayed captures. These can actually cause 404, and
-- while they're costly, they should be done first among the
-- delayed checks (at least as long as we do not decouple the
-- check order from the error reporting, see above). Delayed
-- captures can provide inputs to the actual handler.
--
-- 2. Method check(s). This can cause a 405. On success,
-- it does not provide an input for the handler. Method checks
-- are comparatively cheap.
--
-- 3. Authentication checks. This can cause 401.
--
-- 4. Accept and content type header checks. These checks
-- can cause 415 and 406 errors.
--
-- 5. Query parameter checks. They require parsing and can cause 400 if the
-- parsing fails. Query parameter checks provide inputs to the handler
--
-- 6. Header Checks. They also require parsing and can cause 400 if parsing fails.
--
-- 7. Body check. The request body check can cause 400.
--
data Delayed env c where
Delayed :: { capturesD :: env -> DelayedIO captures
, methodD :: DelayedIO ()
, authD :: DelayedIO auth
, acceptD :: DelayedIO ()
, contentD :: DelayedIO contentType
, paramsD :: DelayedIO params
, headersD :: DelayedIO headers
, bodyD :: contentType -> DelayedIO body
, serverD :: captures
-> params
-> headers
-> auth
-> body
-> Request
-> RouteResult c
} -> Delayed env c
instance Functor (Delayed env) where
fmap f Delayed{..} =
Delayed
{ serverD = \ c p h a b req -> f <$> serverD c p h a b req
, ..
} -- Note [Existential Record Update]
-- | Computations used in a 'Delayed' can depend on the
-- incoming 'Request', may perform 'IO, and result in a
-- 'RouteResult, meaning they can either suceed, fail
-- (with the possibility to recover), or fail fatally.
--
newtype DelayedIO a = DelayedIO { runDelayedIO' :: ReaderT Request (ResourceT (RouteResultT IO)) a }
deriving
( Functor, Applicative, Monad
, MonadIO, MonadReader Request
, MonadThrow
, MonadResource
)
instance MonadBase IO DelayedIO where
liftBase = liftIO
liftRouteResult :: RouteResult a -> DelayedIO a
liftRouteResult x = DelayedIO $ lift . lift $ RouteResultT . return $ x
instance MonadBaseControl IO DelayedIO where
-- type StM DelayedIO a = StM (ReaderT Request (ResourceT (RouteResultT IO))) a
-- liftBaseWith f = DelayedIO $ liftBaseWith $ \g -> f (g . runDelayedIO')
-- restoreM = DelayedIO . restoreM
type StM DelayedIO a = RouteResult a
liftBaseWith f = DelayedIO $ ReaderT $ \req -> withInternalState $ \s ->
liftBaseWith $ \runInBase -> f $ \x ->
runInBase (runInternalState (runReaderT (runDelayedIO' x) req) s)
restoreM = DelayedIO . lift . withInternalState . const . restoreM
runDelayedIO :: DelayedIO a -> Request -> ResourceT IO (RouteResult a)
runDelayedIO m req = transResourceT runRouteResultT $ runReaderT (runDelayedIO' m) req
-- | A 'Delayed' without any stored checks.
emptyDelayed :: RouteResult a -> Delayed env a
emptyDelayed result =
Delayed (const r) r r r r r r (const r) (\ _ _ _ _ _ _ -> result)
where
r = return ()
-- | Fail with the option to recover.
delayedFail :: ServantErr -> DelayedIO a
delayedFail err = liftRouteResult $ Fail err
-- | Fail fatally, i.e., without any option to recover.
delayedFailFatal :: ServantErr -> DelayedIO a
delayedFailFatal err = liftRouteResult $ FailFatal err
-- | Gain access to the incoming request.
withRequest :: (Request -> DelayedIO a) -> DelayedIO a
withRequest f = do
req <- ask
f req
-- | Add a capture to the end of the capture block.
addCapture :: Delayed env (a -> b)
-> (captured -> DelayedIO a)
-> Delayed (captured, env) b
addCapture Delayed{..} new =
Delayed
{ capturesD = \ (txt, env) -> (,) <$> capturesD env <*> new txt
, serverD = \ (x, v) p h a b req -> ($ v) <$> serverD x p h a b req
, ..
} -- Note [Existential Record Update]
-- | Add a parameter check to the end of the params block
addParameterCheck :: Delayed env (a -> b)
-> DelayedIO a
-> Delayed env b
addParameterCheck Delayed {..} new =
Delayed
{ paramsD = (,) <$> paramsD <*> new
, serverD = \c (p, pNew) h a b req -> ($ pNew) <$> serverD c p h a b req
, ..
}
-- | Add a parameter check to the end of the params block
addHeaderCheck :: Delayed env (a -> b)
-> DelayedIO a
-> Delayed env b
addHeaderCheck Delayed {..} new =
Delayed
{ headersD = (,) <$> headersD <*> new
, serverD = \c p (h, hNew) a b req -> ($ hNew) <$> serverD c p h a b req
, ..
}
-- | Add a method check to the end of the method block.
addMethodCheck :: Delayed env a
-> DelayedIO ()
-> Delayed env a
addMethodCheck Delayed{..} new =
Delayed
{ methodD = methodD <* new
, ..
} -- Note [Existential Record Update]
-- | Add an auth check to the end of the auth block.
addAuthCheck :: Delayed env (a -> b)
-> DelayedIO a
-> Delayed env b
addAuthCheck Delayed{..} new =
Delayed
{ authD = (,) <$> authD <*> new
, serverD = \ c p h (y, v) b req -> ($ v) <$> serverD c p h y b req
, ..
} -- Note [Existential Record Update]
-- | Add a content type and body checks around parameter checks.
--
-- We'll report failed content type check (415), before trying to parse
-- query parameters (400). Which, in turn, happens before request body parsing.
addBodyCheck :: Delayed env (a -> b)
-> DelayedIO c -- ^ content type check
-> (c -> DelayedIO a) -- ^ body check
-> Delayed env b
addBodyCheck Delayed{..} newContentD newBodyD =
Delayed
{ contentD = (,) <$> contentD <*> newContentD
, bodyD = \(content, c) -> (,) <$> bodyD content <*> newBodyD c
, serverD = \ c p h a (z, v) req -> ($ v) <$> serverD c p h a z req
, ..
} -- Note [Existential Record Update]
-- | Add an accept header check before handling parameters.
-- In principle, we'd like
-- to take a bad body (400) response take precedence over a
-- failed accept check (406). BUT to allow streaming the body,
-- we cannot run the body check and then still backtrack.
-- We therefore do the accept check before the body check,
-- when we can still backtrack. There are other solutions to
-- this, but they'd be more complicated (such as delaying the
-- body check further so that it can still be run in a situation
-- where we'd otherwise report 406).
addAcceptCheck :: Delayed env a
-> DelayedIO ()
-> Delayed env a
addAcceptCheck Delayed{..} new =
Delayed
{ acceptD = acceptD *> new
, ..
} -- Note [Existential Record Update]
-- | Many combinators extract information that is passed to
-- the handler without the possibility of failure. In such a
-- case, 'passToServer' can be used.
passToServer :: Delayed env (a -> b) -> (Request -> a) -> Delayed env b
passToServer Delayed{..} x =
Delayed
{ serverD = \ c p h a b req -> ($ x req) <$> serverD c p h a b req
, ..
} -- Note [Existential Record Update]
-- | Run a delayed server. Performs all scheduled operations
-- in order, and passes the results from the capture and body
-- blocks on to the actual handler.
--
-- This should only be called once per request; otherwise the guarantees about
-- effect and HTTP error ordering break down.
runDelayed :: Delayed env a
-> env
-> Request
-> ResourceT IO (RouteResult a)
runDelayed Delayed{..} env = runDelayedIO $ do
r <- ask
c <- capturesD env
methodD
a <- authD
acceptD
content <- contentD
p <- paramsD -- Has to be before body parsing, but after content-type checks
h <- headersD
b <- bodyD content
liftRouteResult (serverD c p h a b r)
-- | Runs a delayed server and the resulting action.
-- Takes a continuation that lets us send a response.
-- Also takes a continuation for how to turn the
-- result of the delayed server into a response.
runAction :: Delayed env (Handler a)
-> env
-> Request
-> (RouteResult Response -> IO r)
-> (a -> RouteResult Response)
-> IO r
runAction action env req respond k = runResourceT $
runDelayed action env req >>= go >>= liftIO . respond
where
go (Fail e) = return $ Fail e
go (FailFatal e) = return $ FailFatal e
go (Route a) = liftIO $ do
e <- runHandler a
case e of
Left err -> return . Route $ responseServantErr err
Right x -> return $! k x
{- Note [Existential Record Update]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Due to GHC issue <https://ghc.haskell.org/trac/ghc/ticket/2595 2595>, we cannot
do the more succint thing - just update the records we actually change.
-}