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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- |
-- Module : Network.HTTP
-- Copyright : See LICENSE file
-- License : BSD
--
-- Maintainer : Ganesh Sittampalam <http@projects.haskell.org>
-- Stability : experimental
-- Portability : non-portable (not tested)
--
-- The 'Network.HTTP' module provides a simple interface for sending and
-- receiving content over HTTP in Haskell. Here's how to fetch a document from
-- a URL and return it as a String:
--
-- >
-- > simpleHTTP (getRequest "http://www.haskell.org/") >>= fmap (take 100) . getResponseBody
-- > -- fetch document and return it (as a 'String'.)
--
-- Other functions let you control the submission and transfer of HTTP
-- 'Request's and 'Response's more carefully, letting you integrate the use
-- of 'Network.HTTP' functionality into your application.
--
-- The module also exports the main types of the package, 'Request' and 'Response',
-- along with 'Header' and functions for working with these.
--
-- The actual functionality is implemented by modules in the @Network.HTTP.*@
-- namespace, letting you either use the default implementation here
-- by importing @Network.HTTP@ or, for more specific uses, selectively
-- import the modules in @Network.HTTP.*@. To wit, more than one kind of
-- representation of the bulk data that flows across a HTTP connection is
-- supported. (see "Network.HTTP.HandleStream".)
--
-- /NOTE:/ The 'Request' send actions will normalize the @Request@ prior to transmission.
-- Normalization such as having the request path be in the expected form and, possibly,
-- introduce a default @Host:@ header if one isn't already present. If you do not
-- want the requests tampered with, but sent as-is, please import and use the
-- the "Network.HTTP.HandleStream" or "Network.HTTP.Stream" modules instead. They
-- export the same functions, but leaves construction and any normalization of
-- @Request@s to the user.
--
-- /NOTE:/ This package only supports HTTP; it does not support HTTPS.
-- Attempts to use HTTPS result in an error.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
module Network.HTTP
( module Network.HTTP.Base
, module Network.HTTP.Headers
{- the functionality that the implementation modules,
Network.HTTP.HandleStream and Network.HTTP.Stream,
exposes:
-}
, simpleHTTP -- :: Request -> IO (Result Response)
, simpleHTTP_ -- :: Stream s => s -> Request -> IO (Result Response)
, sendHTTP -- :: Stream s => s -> Request -> IO (Result Response)
, sendHTTP_notify -- :: Stream s => s -> Request -> IO () -> IO (Result Response)
, receiveHTTP -- :: Stream s => s -> IO (Result Request)
, respondHTTP -- :: Stream s => s -> Response -> IO ()
, module Network.TCP
, getRequest -- :: String -> Request_String
, headRequest -- :: String -> Request_String
, postRequest -- :: String -> Request_String
, postRequestWithBody -- :: String -> String -> String -> Request_String
, getResponseBody -- :: Result (Request ty) -> IO ty
, getResponseCode -- :: Result (Request ty) -> IO ResponseCode
) where
-----------------------------------------------------------------
------------------ Imports --------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------
import Network.HTTP.Headers
import Network.HTTP.Base
import qualified Network.HTTP.HandleStream as S
-- old implementation: import Network.HTTP.Stream
import Network.TCP
import Network.Stream ( Result )
import Network.URI ( parseURI )
import Data.Maybe ( fromMaybe )
{-
Note: if you switch over/back to using Network.HTTP.Stream here, you'll
have to wrap the results from 'openStream' as Connections via 'hstreamToConnection'
prior to delegating to the Network.HTTP.Stream functions.
-}
-- | @simpleHTTP req@ transmits the 'Request' @req@ by opening a /direct/, non-persistent
-- connection to the HTTP server that @req@ is destined for, followed by transmitting
-- it and gathering up the response as a 'Result'. Prior to sending the request,
-- it is normalized (via 'normalizeRequest'). If you have to mediate the request
-- via an HTTP proxy, you will have to normalize the request yourself. Or switch to
-- using 'Network.Browser' instead.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > simpleHTTP (getRequest "http://hackage.haskell.org/")
-- > simpleHTTP (getRequest "http://hackage.haskell.org:8012/")
simpleHTTP :: (HStream ty) => Request ty -> IO (Result (Response ty))
simpleHTTP r = do
auth <- getAuth r
failHTTPS (rqURI r)
c <- openStream (host auth) (fromMaybe 80 (port auth))
let norm_r = normalizeRequest defaultNormalizeRequestOptions{normDoClose=True} r
simpleHTTP_ c norm_r
-- | Identical to 'simpleHTTP', but acting on an already opened stream.
simpleHTTP_ :: HStream ty => HandleStream ty -> Request ty -> IO (Result (Response ty))
simpleHTTP_ s r = do
let norm_r = normalizeRequest defaultNormalizeRequestOptions{normDoClose=True} r
S.sendHTTP s norm_r
-- | @sendHTTP hStream httpRequest@ transmits @httpRequest@ (after normalization) over
-- @hStream@, but does not alter the status of the connection, nor request it to be
-- closed upon receiving the response.
sendHTTP :: HStream ty => HandleStream ty -> Request ty -> IO (Result (Response ty))
sendHTTP conn rq = do
let norm_r = normalizeRequest defaultNormalizeRequestOptions rq
S.sendHTTP conn norm_r
-- | @sendHTTP_notify hStream httpRequest action@ behaves like 'sendHTTP', but
-- lets you supply an IO @action@ to execute once the request has been successfully
-- transmitted over the connection. Useful when you want to set up tracing of
-- request transmission and its performance.
sendHTTP_notify :: HStream ty
=> HandleStream ty
-> Request ty
-> IO ()
-> IO (Result (Response ty))
sendHTTP_notify conn rq onSendComplete = do
let norm_r = normalizeRequest defaultNormalizeRequestOptions rq
S.sendHTTP_notify conn norm_r onSendComplete
-- | @receiveHTTP hStream@ reads a 'Request' from the 'HandleStream' @hStream@
receiveHTTP :: HStream ty => HandleStream ty -> IO (Result (Request ty))
receiveHTTP conn = S.receiveHTTP conn
-- | @respondHTTP hStream httpResponse@ transmits an HTTP 'Response' over
-- the 'HandleStream' @hStream@. It could be used to implement simple web
-- server interactions, performing the dual role to 'sendHTTP'.
respondHTTP :: HStream ty => HandleStream ty -> Response ty -> IO ()
respondHTTP conn rsp = S.respondHTTP conn rsp
-- | A convenience constructor for a GET 'Request'.
--
-- If the URL isn\'t syntactically valid, the function raises an error.
getRequest
:: String -- ^URL to fetch
-> Request_String -- ^The constructed request
getRequest urlString =
case parseURI urlString of
Nothing -> error ("getRequest: Not a valid URL - " ++ urlString)
Just u -> mkRequest GET u
-- | A convenience constructor for a HEAD 'Request'.
--
-- If the URL isn\'t syntactically valid, the function raises an error.
headRequest
:: String -- ^URL to fetch
-> Request_String -- ^The constructed request
headRequest urlString =
case parseURI urlString of
Nothing -> error ("headRequest: Not a valid URL - " ++ urlString)
Just u -> mkRequest HEAD u
-- | A convenience constructor for a POST 'Request'.
--
-- If the URL isn\'t syntactically valid, the function raises an error.
postRequest
:: String -- ^URL to POST to
-> Request_String -- ^The constructed request
postRequest urlString =
case parseURI urlString of
Nothing -> error ("postRequest: Not a valid URL - " ++ urlString)
Just u -> mkRequest POST u
-- | A convenience constructor for a POST 'Request'.
--
-- It constructs a request and sets the body as well as
-- the Content-Type and Content-Length headers. The contents of the body
-- are forced to calculate the value for the Content-Length header.
--
-- If the URL isn\'t syntactically valid, the function raises an error.
postRequestWithBody
:: String -- ^URL to POST to
-> String -- ^Content-Type of body
-> String -- ^The body of the request
-> Request_String -- ^The constructed request
postRequestWithBody urlString typ body =
case parseURI urlString of
Nothing -> error ("postRequestWithBody: Not a valid URL - " ++ urlString)
Just u -> setRequestBody (mkRequest POST u) (typ, body)
-- | @getResponseBody response@ takes the response of a HTTP requesting action and
-- tries to extricate the body of the 'Response' @response@. If the request action
-- returned an error, an IO exception is raised.
getResponseBody :: Result (Response ty) -> IO ty
getResponseBody (Left err) = fail (show err)
getResponseBody (Right r) = return (rspBody r)
-- | @getResponseBody response@ takes the response of a HTTP requesting action and
-- tries to extricate the status code of the 'Response' @response@. If the request action
-- returned an error, an IO exception is raised.
getResponseCode :: Result (Response ty) -> IO ResponseCode
getResponseCode (Left err) = fail (show err)
getResponseCode (Right r) = return (rspCode r)
--
-- * TODO
-- - request pipelining
-- - https upgrade (includes full TLS, i.e. SSL, implementation)
-- - use of Stream classes will pay off
-- - consider C implementation of encryption\/decryption
-- - comm timeouts
-- - MIME & entity stuff (happening in separate module)
-- - support \"*\" uri-request-string for OPTIONS request method
--
--
-- * Header notes:
--
-- [@Host@]
-- Required by HTTP\/1.1, if not supplied as part
-- of a request a default Host value is extracted
-- from the request-uri.
--
-- [@Connection@]
-- If this header is present in any request or
-- response, and it's value is "close", then
-- the current request\/response is the last
-- to be allowed on that connection.
--
-- [@Expect@]
-- Should a request contain a body, an Expect
-- header will be added to the request. The added
-- header has the value \"100-continue\". After
-- a 417 \"Expectation Failed\" response the request
-- is attempted again without this added Expect
-- header.
--
-- [@TransferEncoding,ContentLength,...@]
-- if request is inconsistent with any of these
-- header values then you may not receive any response
-- or will generate an error response (probably 4xx).
--
--
-- * Response code notes
-- Some response codes induce special behaviour:
--
-- [@1xx@] \"100 Continue\" will cause any unsent request body to be sent.
-- \"101 Upgrade\" will be returned.
-- Other 1xx responses are ignored.
--
-- [@417@] The reason for this code is \"Expectation failed\", indicating
-- that the server did not like the Expect \"100-continue\" header
-- added to a request. Receipt of 417 will induce another
-- request attempt (without Expect header), unless no Expect header
-- had been added (in which case 417 response is returned).
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