Skip to content
An extension of the Kodkod relational model finder
Java Other
  1. Java 98.8%
  2. Other 1.2%
Branch: master
Clone or download
This branch is 659 commits ahead, 8 commits behind emina:master.

Latest commit

Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.


Type Name Latest commit message Commit time
Failed to load latest commit information.


Pardinus is Kodkod's (slightly bulkier) Iberian cousin.

Build Status

This repository includes the source code for the Pardinus solver, an extension to the Kodkod solver for relational logic. It extends Kodkod with the following functionalities:

  • Target-oriented and weighted-target oriented model finding
  • Model finding over (past and future) LTL relational formulas
  • Symbolic bound declarations
  • Decomposed parallelized model finding
  • Unbounded relational model finding

Pardinus is developed at the High-Assurance Software Laboratory (HASLab), from INESC TEC and University of Minho, and is led by Alcino Cunha and Nuno Macedo. It is used as a back-end for Electrum Analyzer, which is itself an extension to the Alloy Analyzer.

Pardinus is open-source and available under the MIT license, as is Kodkod. However, the implementation relies on third-party solvers (SAT4J, MiniSat, Glucose/Syrup, (P)Lingeling, Yices, and Electrod), some of which are released under stricter licenses (see the various LICENSE files in the distribution for details).

Building Pardinus

Pardinus inherits Kodkod's building and running instructions.

Kodkod uses the Waf build system, which requires Python 2.5 or later. You will also need Java 8 and a C/C++ compiler, and your JAVA_HOME environment variable needs to point to the JDK 8 home directory.

  • Set the JAVA_HOME variable. For example, on OS X:

    $ export JAVA_HOME=`/usr/libexec/java_home`

  • Clone the Pardinus repository:

    $ git clone
    $ cd Pardinus

  • Download Waf 1.8.12 and make it executable:

    $ wget --no-check-certificate
    $ chmod u+x waf-1.8.12
    $ alias waf=$PWD/waf-1.8.12

  • Build the native libraries, pardinus.jar, and examples.jar and install them into the pardinus/lib directory:

    $ waf configure --prefix=. --libdir=lib build install


  • Nuno Macedo, HASLab, INESC TEC & Universidade do Minho, Portugal, 2013 - present
  • Alcino Cunha, HASLab, INESC TEC & Universidade do Minho, Portugal, 2013 - present
  • Eduardo Pessoa, HASLab, INESC TEC & Universidade do Minho, Portugal, 2015 - 2016
  • Tiago Guimarães, HASLab, INESC TEC & Universidade do Minho, Portugal, 2013 - 2014


Pardinus (1.1.0) (April 2019)

  • Major changes to the solving engine

Pardinus (1.0.0) (January 2018)

Pardinus (0.3.1) (November 2016)

  • Support for symbolic bound declaration
  • Described in the ATVA 17 paper

Pardinus (0.3.0) (September 2016)

Pardinus (0.2.0) (April 2016)

  • Initial support for decomposed model finding
  • Support for Syrup (parallel Glucose)

Pardinus (0.1.1) (October 2014)

  • Support for weighted target-oriented model finding
  • Merged Alloy Analyzer's Kodkod 2.0 tweaks into Kodkod 2.1
  • Supported scenario exploration operations from extended Alloy Analyzer
  • Described in the FASE 15 paper

Pardinus (0.1.0) (October 2013)

  • Initial support for target-oriented model finding
  • Extended support to Max-SAT SAT4J and Yices
  • Described in the FASE 14 paper
You can’t perform that action at this time.