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Ed25519 for consensus-critical contexts

This library provides an Ed25519 implementation with validation rules intended for consensus-critical contexts.

Ed25519 signatures are widely used in consensus-critical contexts (e.g., blockchains), where different nodes must agree on whether or not a given signature is valid. However, Ed25519 does not clearly define criteria for signature validity, and even standards-conformant implementations are not required to agree on whether a signature is valid.

Different Ed25519 implementations may not (and in practice, do not) agree on validation criteria in subtle edge cases. This poses a double risk to the use of Ed25519 in consensus-critical contexts. First, the presence of multiple Ed25519 implementations may open the possibility of consensus divergence. Second, even when a single implementation is used, the protocol implicitly includes that particular version's validation criteria as part of the consensus rules. However, if the implementation is not intended to be used in consensus-critical contexts, it may change validation criteria between releases.

For instance, the initial implementation of Zcash consensus in zcashd inherited validity criteria from a then-current version of libsodium (1.0.15). Due to a bug in libsodium, this was different from the intended criteria documented in the Zcash protocol specification 3 (before the specification was changed to match libsodium 1.0.15 in specification version 2020.1.2). Also, libsodium never guaranteed stable validity criteria, and changed behavior in a later point release. This forced zcashd to use an older version of the library before eventually patching a newer version to have consistent validity criteria. To be compatible, Zebra had to implement a special library, ed25519-zebra to provide Zcash-flavored Ed25519, attempting to match libsodium 1.0.15 exactly. And the initial attempt to implement ed25519-zebra was also incompatible, because it precisely matched the wrong compile-time configuration of libsodium.

This problem is fixed by ZIP215, a specification of a precise set of validation criteria for Ed25519 signatures. This repository contains a fork of Go's crypto/ed25519 package with support for ZIP215 verification.

Note that the ZIP215 rules ensure that individual and batch verification are guaranteed to give the same results, so unlike ed25519.Verify, ed25519consensus.Verify is compatible with batch verification (though this is not yet implemented by this library).


Go Ed25519 suitable for use in consensus-critical contexts.







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