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# Natural Language Toolkit: Texts
#
# Copyright (C) 2001-2012 NLTK Project
# Author: Steven Bird <sb@csse.unimelb.edu.au>
# Edward Loper <edloper@gradient.cis.upenn.edu>
# URL: <http://www.nltk.org/>
# For license information, see LICENSE.TXT
"""
This module brings together a variety of NLTK functionality for
text analysis, and provides simple, interactive interfaces.
Functionality includes: concordancing, collocation discovery,
regular expression search over tokenized strings, and
distributional similarity.
"""
from math import log
from collections import defaultdict
import re
from nltk.probability import FreqDist, LidstoneProbDist
from nltk.probability import ConditionalFreqDist as CFD
from nltk.util import tokenwrap, LazyConcatenation
from nltk.model import NgramModel
from nltk.metrics import f_measure, BigramAssocMeasures
from nltk.collocations import BigramCollocationFinder
class ContextIndex(object):
"""
A bidirectional index between words and their 'contexts' in a text.
The context of a word is usually defined to be the words that occur
in a fixed window around the word; but other definitions may also
be used by providing a custom context function.
"""
@staticmethod
def _default_context(tokens, i):
"""One left token and one right token, normalized to lowercase"""
if i == 0: left = '*START*'
else: left = tokens[i-1].lower()
if i == len(tokens) - 1: right = '*END*'
else: right = tokens[i+1].lower()
return (left, right)
def __init__(self, tokens, context_func=None, filter=None, key=lambda x:x):
self._key = key
self._tokens = tokens
if not context_func:
self._context_func = self._default_context
if filter:
tokens = [t for t in tokens if filter(t)]
self._word_to_contexts = CFD((self._key(w), self._context_func(tokens, i))
for i, w in enumerate(tokens))
self._context_to_words = CFD((self._context_func(tokens, i), self._key(w))
for i, w in enumerate(tokens))
def tokens(self):
"""
:rtype: list(str)
:return: The document that this context index was
created from.
"""
return self._tokens
def word_similarity_dict(self, word):
"""
Return a dictionary mapping from words to 'similarity scores,'
indicating how often these two words occur in the same
context.
"""
word = self._key(word)
word_contexts = set(self._word_to_contexts[word])
scores = {}
for w, w_contexts in self._word_to_contexts.items():
scores[w] = f_measure(word_contexts, set(w_contexts))
return scores
def similar_words(self, word, n=20):
scores = defaultdict(int)
for c in self._word_to_contexts[self._key(word)]:
for w in self._context_to_words[c]:
if w != word:
print w, c, self._context_to_words[c][word], self._context_to_words[c][w]
scores[w] += self._context_to_words[c][word] * self._context_to_words[c][w]
return sorted(scores, key=scores.get)[:n]
def common_contexts(self, words, fail_on_unknown=False):
"""
Find contexts where the specified words can all appear; and
return a frequency distribution mapping each context to the
number of times that context was used.
:param words: The words used to seed the similarity search
:type words: str
:param fail_on_unknown: If true, then raise a value error if
any of the given words do not occur at all in the index.
"""
words = [self._key(w) for w in words]
contexts = [set(self._word_to_contexts[w]) for w in words]
empty = [words[i] for i in range(len(words)) if not contexts[i]]
common = reduce(set.intersection, contexts)
if empty and fail_on_unknown:
raise ValueError("The following word(s) were not found:",
" ".join(words))
elif not common:
# nothing in common -- just return an empty freqdist.
return FreqDist()
else:
fd = FreqDist(c for w in words
for c in self._word_to_contexts[w]
if c in common)
return fd
class ConcordanceIndex(object):
"""
An index that can be used to look up the offset locations at which
a given word occurs in a document.
"""
def __init__(self, tokens, key=lambda x:x):
"""
Construct a new concordance index.
:param tokens: The document (list of tokens) that this
concordance index was created from. This list can be used
to access the context of a given word occurrence.
:param key: A function that maps each token to a normalized
version that will be used as a key in the index. E.g., if
you use ``key=lambda s:s.lower()``, then the index will be
case-insensitive.
"""
self._tokens = tokens
"""The document (list of tokens) that this concordance index
was created from."""
self._key = key
"""Function mapping each token to an index key (or None)."""
self._offsets = defaultdict(list)
"""Dictionary mapping words (or keys) to lists of offset
indices."""
# Initialize the index (self._offsets)
for index, word in enumerate(tokens):
word = self._key(word)
self._offsets[word].append(index)
def tokens(self):
"""
:rtype: list(str)
:return: The document that this concordance index was
created from.
"""
return self._tokens
def offsets(self, word):
"""
:rtype: list(int)
:return: A list of the offset positions at which the given
word occurs. If a key function was specified for the
index, then given word's key will be looked up.
"""
word = self._key(word)
return self._offsets[word]
def __repr__(self):
return '<ConcordanceIndex for %d tokens (%d types)>' % (
len(self._tokens), len(self._offsets))
def print_concordance(self, word, width=75, lines=25):
"""
Print a concordance for ``word`` with the specified context window.
:param word: The target word
:type word: str
:param width: The width of each line, in characters (default=80)
:type width: int
:param lines: The number of lines to display (default=25)
:type lines: int
"""
half_width = (width - len(word) - 2) / 2
context = width/4 # approx number of words of context
offsets = self.offsets(word)
if offsets:
lines = min(lines, len(offsets))
print "Displaying %s of %s matches:" % (lines, len(offsets))
for i in offsets:
if lines <= 0:
break
left = (' ' * half_width +
' '.join(self._tokens[i-context:i]))
right = ' '.join(self._tokens[i+1:i+context])
left = left[-half_width:]
right = right[:half_width]
print left, self._tokens[i], right
lines -= 1
else:
print "No matches"
class TokenSearcher(object):
"""
A class that makes it easier to use regular expressions to search
over tokenized strings. The tokenized string is converted to a
string where tokens are marked with angle brackets -- e.g.,
``'<the><window><is><still><open>'``. The regular expression
passed to the ``findall()`` method is modified to treat angle
brackets as nongrouping parentheses, in addition to matching the
token boundaries; and to have ``'.'`` not match the angle brackets.
"""
def __init__(self, tokens):
self._raw = ''.join('<'+w+'>' for w in tokens)
def findall(self, regexp):
"""
Find instances of the regular expression in the text.
The text is a list of tokens, and a regexp pattern to match
a single token must be surrounded by angle brackets. E.g.
>>> from nltk.text import TokenSearcher
>>> from nltk.book import text1, text5, text9
>>> text5.findall("<.*><.*><bro>")
you rule bro; telling you bro; u twizted bro
>>> text1.findall("<a>(<.*>)<man>")
monied; nervous; dangerous; white; white; white; pious; queer; good;
mature; white; Cape; great; wise; wise; butterless; white; fiendish;
pale; furious; better; certain; complete; dismasted; younger; brave;
brave; brave; brave
>>> text9.findall("<th.*>{3,}")
thread through those; the thought that; that the thing; the thing
that; that that thing; through these than through; them that the;
through the thick; them that they; thought that the
:param regexp: A regular expression
:type regexp: str
"""
# preprocess the regular expression
regexp = re.sub(r'\s', '', regexp)
regexp = re.sub(r'<', '(?:<(?:', regexp)
regexp = re.sub(r'>', ')>)', regexp)
regexp = re.sub(r'(?<!\\)\.', '[^>]', regexp)
# perform the search
hits = re.findall(regexp, self._raw)
# Sanity check
for h in hits:
if not h.startswith('<') and h.endswith('>'):
raise ValueError('Bad regexp for TokenSearcher.findall')
# postprocess the output
hits = [h[1:-1].split('><') for h in hits]
return hits
class Text(object):
"""
A wrapper around a sequence of simple (string) tokens, which is
intended to support initial exploration of texts (via the
interactive console). Its methods perform a variety of analyses
on the text's contexts (e.g., counting, concordancing, collocation
discovery), and display the results. If you wish to write a
program which makes use of these analyses, then you should bypass
the ``Text`` class, and use the appropriate analysis function or
class directly instead.
A ``Text`` is typically initialized from a given document or
corpus. E.g.:
>>> import nltk.corpus
>>> from nltk.text import Text
>>> moby = Text(nltk.corpus.gutenberg.words('melville-moby_dick.txt'))
"""
# This defeats lazy loading, but makes things faster. This
# *shouldn't* be necessary because the corpus view *should* be
# doing intelligent caching, but without this it's running slow.
# Look into whether the caching is working correctly.
_COPY_TOKENS = True
def __init__(self, tokens, name=None):
"""
Create a Text object.
:param tokens: The source text.
:type tokens: sequence of str
"""
if self._COPY_TOKENS:
tokens = list(tokens)
self.tokens = tokens
if name:
self.name = name
elif ']' in tokens[:20]:
end = tokens[:20].index(']')
self.name = " ".join(map(str, tokens[1:end]))
else:
self.name = " ".join(map(str, tokens[:8])) + "..."
#////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
# Support item & slice access
#////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
def __getitem__(self, i):
if isinstance(i, slice):
return self.tokens[i.start:i.stop]
else:
return self.tokens[i]
def __len__(self):
return len(self.tokens)
#////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
# Interactive console methods
#////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
def concordance(self, word, width=79, lines=25):
"""
Print a concordance for ``word`` with the specified context window.
Word matching is not case-sensitive.
:seealso: ``ConcordanceIndex``
"""
if '_concordance_index' not in self.__dict__:
print "Building index..."
self._concordance_index = ConcordanceIndex(self.tokens,
key=lambda s:s.lower())
self._concordance_index.print_concordance(word, width, lines)
def collocations(self, num=20, window_size=2):
"""
Print collocations derived from the text, ignoring stopwords.
:seealso: find_collocations
:param num: The maximum number of collocations to print.
:type num: int
:param window_size: The number of tokens spanned by a collocation (default=2)
:type window_size: int
"""
if not ('_collocations' in self.__dict__ and self._num == num and self._window_size == window_size):
self._num = num
self._window_size = window_size
print "Building collocations list"
from nltk.corpus import stopwords
ignored_words = stopwords.words('english')
finder = BigramCollocationFinder.from_words(self.tokens, window_size)
finder.apply_freq_filter(2)
finder.apply_word_filter(lambda w: len(w) < 3 or w.lower() in ignored_words)
bigram_measures = BigramAssocMeasures()
self._collocations = finder.nbest(bigram_measures.likelihood_ratio, num)
colloc_strings = [w1+' '+w2 for w1, w2 in self._collocations]
print tokenwrap(colloc_strings, separator="; ")
def count(self, word):
"""
Count the number of times this word appears in the text.
"""
return self.tokens.count(word)
def index(self, word):
"""
Find the index of the first occurrence of the word in the text.
"""
return self.tokens.index(word)
def readability(self, method):
# code from nltk_contrib.readability
raise NotImplementedError
def generate(self, length=100):
"""
Print random text, generated using a trigram language model.
:param length: The length of text to generate (default=100)
:type length: int
:seealso: NgramModel
"""
if '_trigram_model' not in self.__dict__:
print "Building ngram index..."
estimator = lambda fdist, bins: LidstoneProbDist(fdist, 0.2)
self._trigram_model = NgramModel(3, self, estimator)
text = self._trigram_model.generate(length)
print tokenwrap(text)
def similar(self, word, num=20):
"""
Distributional similarity: find other words which appear in the
same contexts as the specified word; list most similar words first.
:param word: The word used to seed the similarity search
:type word: str
:param num: The number of words to generate (default=20)
:type num: int
:seealso: ContextIndex.similar_words()
"""
if '_word_context_index' not in self.__dict__:
print 'Building word-context index...'
self._word_context_index = ContextIndex(self.tokens,
filter=lambda x:x.isalpha(),
key=lambda s:s.lower())
# words = self._word_context_index.similar_words(word, num)
word = word.lower()
wci = self._word_context_index._word_to_contexts
if word in wci.conditions():
contexts = set(wci[word])
fd = FreqDist(w for w in wci.conditions() for c in wci[w]
if c in contexts and not w == word)
words = fd.keys()[:num]
print tokenwrap(words)
else:
print "No matches"
def common_contexts(self, words, num=20):
"""
Find contexts where the specified words appear; list
most frequent common contexts first.
:param word: The word used to seed the similarity search
:type word: str
:param num: The number of words to generate (default=20)
:type num: int
:seealso: ContextIndex.common_contexts()
"""
if '_word_context_index' not in self.__dict__:
print 'Building word-context index...'
self._word_context_index = ContextIndex(self.tokens,
key=lambda s:s.lower())
try:
fd = self._word_context_index.common_contexts(words, True)
if not fd:
print "No common contexts were found"
else:
ranked_contexts = fd.keys()[:num]
print tokenwrap(w1+"_"+w2 for w1,w2 in ranked_contexts)
except ValueError, e:
print e
def dispersion_plot(self, words):
"""
Produce a plot showing the distribution of the words through the text.
Requires pylab to be installed.
:param words: The words to be plotted
:type word: str
:seealso: nltk.draw.dispersion_plot()
"""
from nltk.draw import dispersion_plot
dispersion_plot(self, words)
def plot(self, *args):
"""
See documentation for FreqDist.plot()
:seealso: nltk.prob.FreqDist.plot()
"""
self.vocab().plot(*args)
def vocab(self):
"""
:seealso: nltk.prob.FreqDist
"""
if "_vocab" not in self.__dict__:
print "Building vocabulary index..."
self._vocab = FreqDist(self)
return self._vocab
def findall(self, regexp):
"""
Find instances of the regular expression in the text.
The text is a list of tokens, and a regexp pattern to match
a single token must be surrounded by angle brackets. E.g.
>>> from nltk.book import text1, text5, text9
>>> text5.findall("<.*><.*><bro>")
you rule bro; telling you bro; u twizted bro
>>> text1.findall("<a>(<.*>)<man>")
monied; nervous; dangerous; white; white; white; pious; queer; good;
mature; white; Cape; great; wise; wise; butterless; white; fiendish;
pale; furious; better; certain; complete; dismasted; younger; brave;
brave; brave; brave
>>> text9.findall("<th.*>{3,}")
thread through those; the thought that; that the thing; the thing
that; that that thing; through these than through; them that the;
through the thick; them that they; thought that the
:param regexp: A regular expression
:type regexp: str
"""
if "_token_searcher" not in self.__dict__:
self._token_searcher = TokenSearcher(self)
hits = self._token_searcher.findall(regexp)
hits = [' '.join(h) for h in hits]
print tokenwrap(hits, "; ")
#////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
# Helper Methods
#////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
_CONTEXT_RE = re.compile('\w+|[\.\!\?]')
def _context(self, tokens, i):
"""
One left & one right token, both case-normalized. Skip over
non-sentence-final punctuation. Used by the ``ContextIndex``
that is created for ``similar()`` and ``common_contexts()``.
"""
# Left context
j = i-1
while j>=0 and not self._CONTEXT_RE.match(tokens[j]):
j = j-1
if j == 0: left = '*START*'
else: left = tokens[j]
# Right context
j = i+1
while j<len(tokens) and not self._CONTEXT_RE.match(tokens[j]):
j = j+1
if j == len(tokens): right = '*END*'
else: right = tokens[j]
return (left, right)
#////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
# String Display
#////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
def __repr__(self):
"""
:return: A string representation of this FreqDist.
:rtype: string
"""
return '<Text: %s>' % self.name
# Prototype only; this approach will be slow to load
class TextCollection(Text):
"""A collection of texts, which can be loaded with list of texts, or
with a corpus consisting of one or more texts, and which supports
counting, concordancing, collocation discovery, etc. Initialize a
TextCollection as follows:
>>> import nltk.corpus
>>> from nltk.text import TextCollection
>>> from nltk.book import text1, text2, text3
>>> gutenberg = TextCollection(nltk.corpus.gutenberg)
>>> mytexts = TextCollection([text1, text2, text3])
Iterating over a TextCollection produces all the tokens of all the
texts in order.
"""
def __init__(self, source, name=None):
if hasattr(source, 'words'): # bridge to the text corpus reader
source = [source.words(f) for f in source.fileids()]
self._texts = source
Text.__init__(self, LazyConcatenation(source))
self._idf_cache = {}
def tf(self, term, text, method=None):
""" The frequency of the term in text. """
return float(text.count(term)) / len(text)
def idf(self, term, method=None):
""" The number of texts in the corpus divided by the
number of texts that the term appears in.
If a term does not appear in the corpus, 0.0 is returned. """
# idf values are cached for performance.
idf = self._idf_cache.get(term)
if idf is None:
matches = len(list(True for text in self._texts if term in text))
if not matches:
# FIXME Should this raise some kind of error instead?
idf = 0.0
else:
idf = log(float(len(self._texts)) / matches)
self._idf_cache[term] = idf
return idf
def tf_idf(self, term, text):
return self.tf(term, text) * self.idf(term)
def demo():
from nltk.corpus import brown
text = Text(brown.words(categories='news'))
print text
print
print "Concordance:"
text.concordance('news')
print
print "Distributionally similar words:"
text.similar('news')
print
print "Collocations:"
text.collocations()
print
print "Automatically generated text:"
text.generate()
print
print "Dispersion plot:"
text.dispersion_plot(['news', 'report', 'said', 'announced'])
print
print "Vocabulary plot:"
text.plot(50)
print
print "Indexing:"
print "text[3]:", text[3]
print "text[3:5]:", text[3:5]
print "text.vocab()['news']:", text.vocab()['news']
if __name__ == '__main__':
demo()
__all__ = ["ContextIndex",
"ConcordanceIndex",
"TokenSearcher",
"Text",
"TextCollection"]
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