Facebook Messenger driver for Stealth
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Latest commit e817d16 Nov 29, 2018

README.md

Stealth Facebook

This integration adds support for Facebook bots within Stealth.

Gem Version

Configure Your Facebook Page

To create your Facebook bot, visit the Facebook Developers page. Full instructions are provided on the Facebook Messenger Docs page.

When configuring your webhooks, you'll want to enable the messages, messaging_referrals, and messaging_postbacks web hooks like so:

Facebook Config Screenshot

message_reads

Beginning with version 0.13.0 of this gem, message_reads webhooks are supported. When enabled in your Facebook configuration, they will appear as current_message.read. That will return a hash:

{
  watermark: 1458668856253,
  seq: 38
}

More info about message_reads webhooks can be found in the Facebook Developer docs.

Configure The Integration

default: &default
  facebook:
    verify_token: <%= ENV['FACEBOOK_VERIFY_TOKEN'] %>
    page_access_token: <%= ENV['FACEBOOK_ACCESS_TOKEN'] %>
    setup:
      greeting: # Greetings are broken up by locale
        - locale: default
          text: "Welcome to my Facebook Bot."
      get_started:
        payload: new_user
      persistent_menu:
        - locale: default
          composer_input_disabled: false
          call_to_actions:
          - type: payload
            text: Some Button
            payload: some_button

production:
  <<: *default

development:
  facebook:
  verify_token: <%= ENV['FACEBOOK_VERIFY_TOKEN'] %>
  page_access_token: <%= ENV['FACEBOOK_ACCESS_TOKEN'] %>
  setup:
    greeting: # Greetings are broken up by locale
      - locale: default
        text: "Welcome to my Facebook Bot."
    get_started:
      payload: new_user
    persistent_menu:
      - locale: default
        composer_input_disabled: false
        call_to_actions:
        - type: payload
          text: Some Button
          payload: some_button
        - type: nested
          text: Developer
          buttons:
          - type: payload
            text: Restart
            payload: developer_restart

test:
  <<: *default

As with all Stealth integrations, integrations can be specified by environment. You'll want to replace FACEBOOK_VERIFY_TOKEN and FACEBOOK_ACCESS_TOKEN with your respective keys from your Facebook page.

These are the supported setup options:

greeting

This is the message a user will see via Messenger before they have ever sent your bot a message.

get_started

When the user presses the Get Started button in Messenger, the payload specified here is the payload that will be sent to your bot.

persistent_menu

These are the items that appear in the Facebook Messenger drawer. You can specify menu items for each locale individually or use default to make the menu apply to all locales.

The composer_input_disabled disables the keyboard input. This is helpful if you anticipate all user replies will come from suggested replies. It defaults to false which means the keyboard input is enabled.

The call_to_actions list defines the buttons. In the above example, the production environment has a single button defined with the label Some Button. It's type is set to payload. The payload value specifies the payload that will be sent to the bot when the button is pressed.

In the development environment, there is a Developer sub-menu that contains a single button labeled Restart. This just showcases the ability to have sub-menus within the drawer. It's a common practice to introduce a developer_restart payload button in development so you can easily restart the bot.

In addition to the payload type, the persistent menu supports url and call type buttons.

Uploading the Persistent Menu

Each time you make a change to the persistent menu, you will have to upload the change to Facebook. This integration provides a command line task to automate this:

stealth setup facebook

Profile Data

By default, your Facebook bots may retrieve the id, name, first_name, last_name, and profile_pic fields for users that have made this information public and have opted-in to your bot. More info here.

To fetch a user's profile with stealth-facebook you can call the following:

fb_profile = Stealth::Services::Facebook::Client.fetch_profile(
  recipient_id: current_user_id
)

fb_profile is a hash that contains the fields above:

{
  'id'            => 1464633220279330,
  'name'          => "Carol Robbins",
  'first_name'    => "Carol",
  'last_name'     => "Robbins",
  'profile_pic'   => "https://platform-lookaside.fbsbx.com/platform/profilepic/?psid=1464633220279330&width=1024&ext=1537650777&hash=AeQzWeTgFqlAyiye"
}

If your bot has permission to retrieve additional fields, you can specify them as an array of symbols via the fields argument:

fb_profile = Stealth::Services::Facebook::Client.fetch_profile(
  recipient_id: current_user_id,
  fields: [:id, :name, :first_name, :last_name, :profile_pic, :gender, :locale]
)

Analytics

If you'd like to track custom bot metrics in addition to the ones provided automatically by Facebook Analytics, you can do so starting with version 0.12.0 of this gem.

In order to send these metrics, you'll need to include the app_id of the bot as well as the page_id of the Facebook page (attached to the bot) to services.yml:

default: &default
  facebook:
    verify_token: <%= ENV['FACEBOOK_VERIFY_TOKEN'] %>
    page_access_token: <%= ENV['FACEBOOK_ACCESS_TOKEN'] %>
    app_id: <%= ENV['FACEBOOK_APP_ID'] %>
    page_id: <%= ENV['FACEBOOK_PAGE_ID'] %>
    ...

Then to collect a metric:

Stealth::Services::Facebook::Client.track(recipient_id: u.recipient_id, metric: 'name of your metric', value: 2)

You can specify additional options:

Stealth::Services::Facebook::Client.track(recipient_id: u.recipient_id, metric: 'signup', value: 2, options: { 'fb_description' => 'A signup occured.' })

More info about events, such as which options are available, can be found on Facebook's Events API docs page.

Replies

Here are the supported replies for the Facebook integration:

text

These are standard text replies. It can sent like:

- reply_type: text
  text: Hello World!

Text replies can also include suggestions, which will be rendered as quick replies:

- reply_type: text
  text: What is your favorite color?
  suggestions:
    - text: Blue
    - text: Red

Although not as common, text replies can also include buttons:

- reply_type: text
  text: Would you like to give us a call?
  buttons:
    - type: call
      phone_number: "+15552991212"
      text: 'Yes'
    - type: payload
      text: 'No'
      payload: 'No'

suggestions

Though suggestions are not a reply type on their own, they are frequently used to optimize the accuracy and speed of your bot. In the text reply type above, we used simple labels for our suggestions. Facebook supports a few special types of quick replies, however.

Location

You can ask a user for their location:

- reply_type: text
  text: "Where are you located?"
  suggestions:
    - type: location

If the user chooses to share their location, the lat and lng will be available via current_message.location:

current_message.location[:lat]
current_message.location[:lng]

Email

As of Facebook Messenger Platform 2.3, Facebook now supports a standard way to ask for a user's email:

- reply_type: text
  text: "What is your email address?"
  suggestions:
    - type: email

The email address the user sends back will be available as the string in current_message.payload

Phone

As of Facebook Messenger Platform 2.3, Facebook now supports a standard way to ask for a user's phone number:

- reply_type: text
  text: "What is your phone number?"
  suggestions:
    - type: phone

The phone number the user sends back will be available as the string in current_message.payload

Images

While images are not a special quick reply type, you can include and image_url for a quick reply as way of adding an icon to a quick reply button:

- reply_type: text
  text: "What is your favorite color?"
  suggestions:
    - text: Red
      image_url: "http://example.com/img/red.png"
    - text: Blue
      image_url: "http://example.com/img/blue.png"

More info here.

buttons

As with suggestions, buttons are not a reply type of their own but are used to make your bot more efficient. Facebook supports a few button types and these are the ones currently supported by this integration:

payload

This is the most common button type. When a user presses a button that is payload type, that payload string will be sent to your bot. For example:

- reply_type: text
  text: Please press the button below
  buttons:
    - type: payload
      text: 'Press me!'
      payload: 'button pressed'

When a user presses the button labeled "Press me!", the payload button pressed will be accessible in bot via current_message.payload.

url

The url button is useful when sharing a link to a website. By default, it will open up within Facebook Messenger.

- reply_type: text
  text: Find out more via our website
  buttons:
    - type: url
      text: 'Visit website'
      url: 'https://example.org'

You can also specify the height of the webview window that opens up in Messenger via: webview_height. You can choose between compact, tall, and full.

More info here.

call

The call button type will prompt the user to dial the specified number. The number will be pre-filled in, but the user will still have to confirm by confirming via the modal that is shown. To create a call button:

- reply_type: text
  text: Give us a ring!
  buttons:
    - type: call
      text: 'Call'
      phone_number: "+15552991212"

Delay

Delays are a very important part of bot design. They introduce a pause between text replies to give the user a chance to read each reply. With this integration, in addition to introducing a delay, we will also send a typing indicator to the user to indicate another reply is forthcoming. To insert a delay in your bot:

- reply_type: delay
  duration: 2

This will add a 2 second delay (with typing indicator). The duration can be specified as any floating point value, in seconds.

Cards

Facebook distinguishes between a single card and a carousel of cards. This integration does not, however. You can send a single card the same way you would send 10 cards (the current maximum).

- reply_type: cards
  sharable: true
  aspect_ratio: horizontal
  elements:
    - title: My App
      subtitle: Download our app below or visit our website for more info.
      image_url: "https://my-app.com/app-image.png"
      buttons:
        - type: url
          url: "https://my-app.com"
          text: 'View'
          webview_height: 'tall'
        - type: url
          url: "https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/my-app"
          text: 'Download iOS App'

The above is a single card with two buttons. If you want to include more cards, though, you would just need to specify another listing under the elements heading.

The sharable and aspect_ratio attributes are optional. When sharable is set to true, a native share button is shown in Messenger for the message. The aspect_ratio attribute specifies the aspect ratio of the main card image (specified by image_url). It can be set to horizontal or square with the default being horizontal.

More info about Facebook cards here.

List

A Facebook list is useful for displaying things like a news feed. You can find more info about Facebook lists here.

To generate a list via Stealth Facebook:

- reply_type: list
  top_element_style: large
  buttons:
    - type: payload
      text: View More
      payload: view_more
  elements:
    - title: Your Daily News Update
      subtitle: The following stories have been curated just for you.
      image_url: "https://loremflickr.com/320/240"
      buttons:
        - type: url
          url: "https://news-articles.com/199"
          text: 'View'
          webview_height: 'tall'
    - title: Breakthrough in AI
      subtitle: Major breakthrough in the AI space.
      image_url: "https://loremflickr.com/320/320"
      default_action:
        - url: "https://news-articles.com/232"
          webview_height: 'tall'

The list itself supports having a single button that will be rendered on the bottom of the list. Each individual list item supports having one button as well. List items should have between 2-4 elements.

In addition to the button, a list item can specify a default action. The default action is what will fired when a user taps the list item. A default action can be specified by setting the default_action attribute. The default_action should be configured as you would a url type button.

The image of the first item in the list is displayed as a cover photo by default. To disable the cover image, set top_element_style to compact.

Images

To send an image:

- reply_type: image
  image_url: 'https://example.org/image.png'

The image_url should be set to URL where the image has been uploaded.

Image replies support buttons and suggestions like text replies.

Files

To send a file:

- reply_type: file
  file_url: 'https://example.org/some.pdf'

The file_url should be set to URL where the file has been uploaded.

File replies support buttons and suggestions like text replies.

Video

To send a video:

- reply_type: video
  video_url: 'https://example.org/cool_video.mp4'

The video_url should be set to URL where the video has been uploaded.

Video replies support buttons and suggestions like text replies.

Audio

To send an audio clip:

- reply_type: audio
  audio_url: 'https://example.org/podcast.mp3'

The audio_url should be set to URL where the video has been uploaded.

Audio replies support buttons and suggestions like text replies.