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sangyye and k8s-ci-robot [stable/postgresql] Ignore lost+found in the mountPath directory (#14684
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* Ignore lost+found in the mountPath directory

Signed-off-by: Christian Vervoorts <christian.vervoorts@dg-i.net>

* Bump Chart Version

Signed-off-by: Christian Vervoorts <christian.vervoorts@dg-i.net>
Latest commit cb794f4 Jun 12, 2019

README.md

PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) with an emphasis on extensibility and on standards-compliance.

TL;DR;

$ helm install stable/postgresql

Introduction

This chart bootstraps a PostgreSQL deployment on a Kubernetes cluster using the Helm package manager.

Bitnami charts can be used with Kubeapps for deployment and management of Helm Charts in clusters. This chart has been tested to work with NGINX Ingress, cert-manager, fluentd and Prometheus on top of the BKPR.

Prerequisites

  • Kubernetes 1.10+
  • PV provisioner support in the underlying infrastructure

Installing the Chart

To install the chart with the release name my-release:

$ helm install --name my-release stable/postgresql

The command deploys PostgreSQL on the Kubernetes cluster in the default configuration. The configuration section lists the parameters that can be configured during installation.

Tip: List all releases using helm list

Uninstalling the Chart

To uninstall/delete the my-release deployment:

$ helm delete my-release

The command removes all the Kubernetes components associated with the chart and deletes the release.

Configuration

The following tables lists the configurable parameters of the PostgreSQL chart and their default values.

Parameter Description Default
global.imageRegistry Global Docker Image registry nil
global.postgresql.postgresqlDatabase PostgreSQL database (overrides postgresqlDatabase) nil
global.postgresql.postgresqlUsername PostgreSQL username (overrides postgresqlUsername) nil
global.postgresql.existingSecret Name of existing secret to use for PostgreSQL passwords (overrides existingSecret) nil
global.postgresql.postgresqlPassword Name of existing secret to use for PostgreSQL passwords (overrides postgresqlPassword) nil
global.postgresql.servicePort PostgreSQL port (overrides service.port) nil
global.postgresql.replicationPassword Replication user password (overrides replication.password) nil
global.imagePullSecrets Global Docker registry secret names as an array [] (does not add image pull secrets to deployed pods)
image.registry PostgreSQL Image registry docker.io
image.repository PostgreSQL Image name bitnami/postgresql
image.tag PostgreSQL Image tag {TAG_NAME}
image.pullPolicy PostgreSQL Image pull policy IfNotPresent
image.pullSecrets Specify Image pull secrets nil (does not add image pull secrets to deployed pods)
image.debug Specify if debug values should be set false
volumePermissions.image.registry Init container volume-permissions image registry docker.io
volumePermissions.image.repository Init container volume-permissions image name bitnami/minideb
volumePermissions.image.tag Init container volume-permissions image tag latest
volumePermissions.image.pullPolicy Init container volume-permissions image pull policy Always
volumePermissions.securityContext.runAsUser User ID for the init container 0
usePasswordFile Have the secrets mounted as a file instead of env vars false
replication.enabled Enable replication false
replication.user Replication user repl_user
replication.password Replication user password repl_password
replication.slaveReplicas Number of slaves replicas 1
replication.synchronousCommit Set synchronous commit mode. Allowed values: on, remote_apply, remote_write, local and off off
replication.numSynchronousReplicas Number of replicas that will have synchronous replication. Note: Cannot be greater than replication.slaveReplicas. 0
replication.applicationName Cluster application name. Useful for advanced replication settings my_application
existingSecret Name of existing secret to use for PostgreSQL passwords nil
postgresqlUsername PostgreSQL admin user postgres
postgresqlPassword PostgreSQL admin password random 10 character alphanumeric string
postgresqlDatabase PostgreSQL database nil
postgresqlDataDir PostgreSQL data dir folder /bitnami/postgresql (same value as persistence.mountPath)
postgresqlInitdbArgs PostgreSQL initdb extra arguments nil
postgresqlInitdbWalDir PostgreSQL location for transaction log nil
postgresqlConfiguration Runtime Config Parameters nil
postgresqlExtendedConf Extended Runtime Config Parameters (appended to main or default configuration) nil
pgHbaConfiguration Content of pg_hba.conf nil (do not create pg_hba.conf)
configurationConfigMap ConfigMap with the PostgreSQL configuration files (Note: Overrides postgresqlConfiguration and pgHbaConfiguration). The value is evaluated as a template. nil
extendedConfConfigMap ConfigMap with the extended PostgreSQL configuration files. The value is evaluated as a template. nil
initdbScripts Dictionary of initdb scripts nil
initdbScriptsConfigMap ConfigMap with the initdb scripts (Note: Overrides initdbScripts). The value is evaluated as a template. nil
initdbScriptsSecret Secret with initdb scripts that contain sensitive information (Note: can be used with initdbScriptsConfigMap or initdbScripts). The value is evaluated as a template. nil
service.type Kubernetes Service type ClusterIP
service.port PostgreSQL port 5432
service.nodePort Kubernetes Service nodePort nil
service.annotations Annotations for PostgreSQL service {}
service.loadBalancerIP loadBalancerIP if service type is LoadBalancer nil
service.loadBalancerSourceRanges Address that are allowed when svc is LoadBalancer []
schedulerName Name of the k8s scheduler (other than default) nil
persistence.enabled Enable persistence using PVC true
persistence.existingClaim Provide an existing PersistentVolumeClaim, the value is evaluated as a template. nil
persistence.mountPath Path to mount the volume at /bitnami/postgresql
persistence.subPath Subdirectory of the volume to mount at ""
persistence.storageClass PVC Storage Class for PostgreSQL volume nil
persistence.accessModes PVC Access Mode for PostgreSQL volume [ReadWriteOnce]
persistence.size PVC Storage Request for PostgreSQL volume 8Gi
persistence.annotations Annotations for the PVC {}
master.nodeSelector Node labels for pod assignment (postgresql master) {}
master.affinity Affinity labels for pod assignment (postgresql master) {}
master.tolerations Toleration labels for pod assignment (postgresql master) []
master.podAnnotations Map of annotations to add to the pods (postgresql master) {}
master.podLabels Map of labels to add to the pods (postgresql master) {}
master.extraVolumeMounts Additional volume mounts to add to the pods (postgresql master) []
master.extraVolume Additional volumes to add to the pods (postgresql master) []
slave.nodeSelector Node labels for pod assignment (postgresql slave) {}
slave.affinity Affinity labels for pod assignment (postgresql slave) {}
slave.tolerations Toleration labels for pod assignment (postgresql slave) []
slave.podAnnotations Map of annotations to add to the pods (postgresql slave) {}
slave.podLabels Map of labels to add to the pods (postgresql slave) {}
slave.extraVolumeMounts Additional volume mounts to add to the pods (postgresql slave) []
slave.extraVolume Additional volumes to add to the pods (postgresql slave) []
terminationGracePeriodSeconds Seconds the pod needs to terminate gracefully nil
resources CPU/Memory resource requests/limits Memory: 256Mi, CPU: 250m
securityContext.enabled Enable security context true
securityContext.fsGroup Group ID for the container 1001
securityContext.runAsUser User ID for the container 1001
serviceAccount.enabled Enable service account (Note: Service Account will only be automatically created if serviceAccount.name is not set) false
serviceAcccount.name Name of existing service account nil
livenessProbe.enabled Would you like a livenessProbe to be enabled true
networkPolicy.enabled Enable NetworkPolicy false
networkPolicy.allowExternal Don't require client label for connections true
livenessProbe.initialDelaySeconds Delay before liveness probe is initiated 30
livenessProbe.periodSeconds How often to perform the probe 10
livenessProbe.timeoutSeconds When the probe times out 5
livenessProbe.failureThreshold Minimum consecutive failures for the probe to be considered failed after having succeeded. 6
livenessProbe.successThreshold Minimum consecutive successes for the probe to be considered successful after having failed 1
readinessProbe.enabled would you like a readinessProbe to be enabled true
readinessProbe.initialDelaySeconds Delay before readiness probe is initiated 5
readinessProbe.periodSeconds How often to perform the probe 10
readinessProbe.timeoutSeconds When the probe times out 5
readinessProbe.failureThreshold Minimum consecutive failures for the probe to be considered failed after having succeeded. 6
readinessProbe.successThreshold Minimum consecutive successes for the probe to be considered successful after having failed 1
metrics.enabled Start a prometheus exporter false
metrics.service.type Kubernetes Service type ClusterIP
service.clusterIP Static clusterIP or None for headless services nil
metrics.service.annotations Additional annotations for metrics exporter pod { prometheus.io/scrape: "true", prometheus.io/port: "9187"}
metrics.service.loadBalancerIP loadBalancerIP if redis metrics service type is LoadBalancer nil
metrics.serviceMonitor.enabled Set this to true to create ServiceMonitor for Prometheus operator false
metrics.serviceMonitor.additionalLabels Additional labels that can be used so ServiceMonitor will be discovered by Prometheus {}
metrics.serviceMonitor.namespace Optional namespace in which to create ServiceMonitor nil
metrics.serviceMonitor.interval Scrape interval. If not set, the Prometheus default scrape interval is used nil
metrics.serviceMonitor.scrapeTimeout Scrape timeout. If not set, the Prometheus default scrape timeout is used nil
metrics.image.registry PostgreSQL Image registry docker.io
metrics.image.repository PostgreSQL Image name wrouesnel/postgres_exporter
metrics.image.tag PostgreSQL Image tag v0.4.7
metrics.image.pullPolicy PostgreSQL Image pull policy IfNotPresent
metrics.image.pullSecrets Specify Image pull secrets nil (does not add image pull secrets to deployed pods)
metrics.securityContext.enabled Enable security context for metrics false
metrics.securityContext.runAsUser User ID for the container for metrics 1001
metrics.livenessProbe.initialDelaySeconds Delay before liveness probe is initiated 30
metrics.livenessProbe.periodSeconds How often to perform the probe 10
metrics.livenessProbe.timeoutSeconds When the probe times out 5
metrics.livenessProbe.failureThreshold Minimum consecutive failures for the probe to be considered failed after having succeeded. 6
metrics.livenessProbe.successThreshold Minimum consecutive successes for the probe to be considered successful after having failed 1
metrics.readinessProbe.enabled would you like a readinessProbe to be enabled true
metrics.readinessProbe.initialDelaySeconds Delay before liveness probe is initiated 5
metrics.readinessProbe.periodSeconds How often to perform the probe 10
metrics.readinessProbe.timeoutSeconds When the probe times out 5
metrics.readinessProbe.failureThreshold Minimum consecutive failures for the probe to be considered failed after having succeeded. 6
metrics.readinessProbe.successThreshold Minimum consecutive successes for the probe to be considered successful after having failed 1
extraEnv Any extra environment variables you would like to pass on to the pod. The value is evaluated as a template. {}
updateStrategy Update strategy policy {type: "RollingUpdate"}

Specify each parameter using the --set key=value[,key=value] argument to helm install. For example,

$ helm install --name my-release \
  --set postgresqlPassword=secretpassword,postgresqlDatabase=my-database \
    stable/postgresql

The above command sets the PostgreSQL postgres account password to secretpassword. Additionally it creates a database named my-database.

Alternatively, a YAML file that specifies the values for the parameters can be provided while installing the chart. For example,

$ helm install --name my-release -f values.yaml stable/postgresql

Tip: You can use the default values.yaml

Production configuration

This chart includes a values-production.yaml file where you can find some parameters oriented to production configuration in comparison to the regular values.yaml.

$ helm install --name my-release -f ./values-production.yaml stable/postgresql
  • Enable replication:
- replication.enabled: false
+ replication.enabled: true
  • Number of slaves replicas:
- replication.slaveReplicas: 1
+ replication.slaveReplicas: 2
  • Set synchronous commit mode:
- replication.synchronousCommit: "off"
+ replication.synchronousCommit: "on"
  • Number of replicas that will have synchronous replication:
- replication.numSynchronousReplicas: 0
+ replication.numSynchronousReplicas: 1
  • Start a prometheus exporter:
- metrics.enabled: false
+ metrics.enabled: true

To horizontally scale this chart, first download the values-production.yaml file to your local folder, then:

$ helm install --name my-release -f ./values-production.yaml stable/postgresql
$ kubectl scale statefulset my-postgresql-slave --replicas=3

Rolling VS Immutable tags

It is strongly recommended to use immutable tags in a production environment. This ensures your deployment does not change automatically if the same tag is updated with a different image.

Bitnami will release a new chart updating its containers if a new version of the main container, significant changes, or critical vulnerabilities exist.

postgresql.conf / pg_hba.conf files as configMap

This helm chart also supports to customize the whole configuration file.

Add your custom file to "files/postgresql.conf" in your working directory. This file will be mounted as configMap to the containers and it will be used for configuring the PostgreSQL server.

Alternatively, you can specify PostgreSQL configuration parameters using the postgresqlConfiguration parameter as a dict, using camelCase, e.g. {"sharedBuffers": "500MB"}.

In addition to these options, you can also set an external ConfigMap with all the configuration files. This is done by setting the configurationConfigMap parameter. Note that this will override the two previous options.

Allow settings to be loaded from files other than the default postgresql.conf

If you don't want to provide the whole PostgreSQL configuration file and only specify certain parameters, you can add your extended .conf files to "files/conf.d/" in your working directory. Those files will be mounted as configMap to the containers adding/overwriting the default configuration using the include_dir directive that allows settings to be loaded from files other than the default postgresql.conf.

Alternatively, you can also set an external ConfigMap with all the extra configuration files. This is done by setting the extendedConfConfigMap parameter. Note that this will override the previous option.

Initialize a fresh instance

The Bitnami PostgreSQL image allows you to use your custom scripts to initialize a fresh instance. In order to execute the scripts, they must be located inside the chart folder files/docker-entrypoint-initdb.d so they can be consumed as a ConfigMap.

Alternatively, you can specify custom scripts using the initdbScripts parameter as dict.

In addition to these options, you can also set an external ConfigMap with all the initialization scripts. This is done by setting the initdbScriptsConfigMap parameter. Note that this will override the two previous options. If your initialization scripts contain sensitive information such as credentials or passwords, you can use the initdbScriptsSecret parameter.

The allowed extensions are .sh, .sql and .sql.gz.

Persistence

The Bitnami PostgreSQL image stores the PostgreSQL data and configurations at the /bitnami/postgresql path of the container.

Persistent Volume Claims are used to keep the data across deployments. This is known to work in GCE, AWS, and minikube. See the Configuration section to configure the PVC or to disable persistence.

Metrics

The chart optionally can start a metrics exporter for prometheus. The metrics endpoint (port 9187) is not exposed and it is expected that the metrics are collected from inside the k8s cluster using something similar as the described in the example Prometheus scrape configuration.

The exporter allows to create custom metrics from additional SQL queries. See the Chart's values.yaml for an example and consult the exporters documentation for more details.

NetworkPolicy

To enable network policy for PostgreSQL, install a networking plugin that implements the Kubernetes NetworkPolicy spec, and set networkPolicy.enabled to true.

For Kubernetes v1.5 & v1.6, you must also turn on NetworkPolicy by setting the DefaultDeny namespace annotation. Note: this will enforce policy for all pods in the namespace:

$ kubectl annotate namespace default "net.beta.kubernetes.io/network-policy={\"ingress\":{\"isolation\":\"DefaultDeny\"}}"

With NetworkPolicy enabled, traffic will be limited to just port 5432.

For more precise policy, set networkPolicy.allowExternal=false. This will only allow pods with the generated client label to connect to PostgreSQL. This label will be displayed in the output of a successful install.

Deploy chart using Docker Official PostgreSQL Image

From chart version 4.0.0, it is possible to use this chart with the Docker Official PostgreSQL image. Besides specifying the new Docker repository and tag, it is important to modify the PostgreSQL data directory and volume mount point. Basically, the PostgreSQL data dir cannot be the mount point directly, it has to be a subdirectory.

helm install --name postgres \
             --set image.repository=postgres \
             --set image.tag=10.6 \
             --set postgresqlDataDir=/data/pgdata \
             --set persistence.mountPath=/data/ \
             stable/postgresql

Differences between Bitnami PostgreSQL image and Docker Official image

  • The Docker Official PostgreSQL image does not support replication. If you pass any replication environment variable, this would be ignored. The only environment variables supported by the Docker Official image are POSTGRES_USER, POSTGRES_DB, POSTGRES_PASSWORD, POSTGRES_INITDB_ARGS, POSTGRES_INITDB_WALDIR and PGDATA. All the remaining environment variables are specific to the Bitnami PostgreSQL image.
  • The Bitnami PostgreSQL image is non-root by default. This requires that you run the pod with securityContext and updates the permissions of the volume with an initContainer. A key benefit of this configuration is that the pod follows security best practices and is prepared to run on Kubernetes distributions with hard security constraints like OpenShift.

Use of global variables

In more complex scenarios, we may have the following tree of dependencies

                     +--------------+
                     |              |
        +------------+   Chart 1    +-----------+
        |            |              |           |
        |            --------+------+           |
        |                    |                  |
        |                    |                  |
        |                    |                  |
        |                    |                  |
        v                    v                  v
+-------+------+    +--------+------+  +--------+------+
|              |    |               |  |               |
|  PostgreSQL  |    |  Sub-chart 1  |  |  Sub-chart 2  |
|              |    |               |  |               |
+--------------+    +---------------+  +---------------+

The three charts below depend on the parent chart Chart 1. However, subcharts 1 and 2 may need to connect to PostgreSQL as well. In order to do so, subcharts 1 and 2 need to know the PostgreSQL credentials, so one option for deploying could be:

helm install chart1 --set postgresql.postgresqlPassword=testtest --set subchart1.postgresql.postgresqlPassword=testtest --set subchart2.postgresql.postgresqlPassword=testtest --set postgresql.postgresqlDatabase=db1 --set subchart1.postgresql.postgresqlDatabase=db1 --set subchart1.postgresql.postgresqlDatabase=db1

If the number of dependent sub-charts increases, executing helm install can become increasingly difficult. An alternative would be to set the credentials using global variables as follows:

helm install chart1 --set global.postgresql.postgresqlPassword=testtest --set global.postgresql.postgresqlDatabase=db1

This way, the credentials will be available in all of the subcharts.

Upgrade

5.0.0

In this version, the chart is using PostgreSQL 11 instead of PostgreSQL 10. You can find the main difference and notable changes in the following links: https://www.postgresql.org/about/news/1894/ and https://www.postgresql.org/about/featurematrix/.

For major releases of PostgreSQL, the internal data storage format is subject to change, thus complicating upgrades, you can see some errors like the following one in the logs:

Welcome to the Bitnami postgresql container
Subscribe to project updates by watching https://github.com/bitnami/bitnami-docker-postgresql
Submit issues and feature requests at https://github.com/bitnami/bitnami-docker-postgresql/issues
Send us your feedback at containers@bitnami.com

INFO  ==> ** Starting PostgreSQL setup **
NFO  ==> Validating settings in POSTGRESQL_* env vars..
INFO  ==> Initializing PostgreSQL database...
INFO  ==> postgresql.conf file not detected. Generating it...
INFO  ==> pg_hba.conf file not detected. Generating it...
INFO  ==> Deploying PostgreSQL with persisted data...
INFO  ==> Configuring replication parameters
INFO  ==> Loading custom scripts...
INFO  ==> Enabling remote connections
INFO  ==> Stopping PostgreSQL...
INFO  ==> ** PostgreSQL setup finished! **

INFO  ==> ** Starting PostgreSQL **
  [1] FATAL:  database files are incompatible with server
  [1] DETAIL:  The data directory was initialized by PostgreSQL version 10, which is not compatible with this version 11.3.

In this case, you should migrate the data from the old chart to the new one following an approach similar to that described in this section from the official documentation. Basically, create a database dump in the old chart, move and restore it in the new one.

4.0.0

This chart will use by default the Bitnami PostgreSQL container starting from version 10.7.0-r68. This version moves the initialization logic from node.js to bash. This new version of the chart requires setting the POSTGRES_PASSWORD in the slaves as well, in order to properly configure the pg_hba.conf file. Users from previous versions of the chart are advised to upgrade immediately.

IMPORTANT: If you do not want to upgrade the chart version then make sure you use the 10.7.0-r68 version of the container. Otherwise, you will get this error

The POSTGRESQL_PASSWORD environment variable is empty or not set. Set the environment variable ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes to allow the container to be started with blank passwords. This is recommended only for development

3.0.0

This releases make it possible to specify different nodeSelector, affinity and tolerations for master and slave pods. It also fixes an issue with postgresql.master.fullname helper template not obeying fullnameOverride.

Breaking changes

  • affinty has been renamed to master.affinity and slave.affinity.
  • tolerations has been renamed to master.tolerations and slave.tolerations.
  • nodeSelector has been renamed to master.nodeSelector and slave.nodeSelector.

2.0.0

In order to upgrade from the 0.X.X branch to 1.X.X, you should follow the below steps:

  • Obtain the service name (SERVICE_NAME) and password (OLD_PASSWORD) of the existing postgresql chart. You can find the instructions to obtain the password in the NOTES.txt, the service name can be obtained by running
$ kubectl get svc
  • Install (not upgrade) the new version
$ helm repo update
$ helm install --name my-release stable/postgresql
  • Connect to the new pod (you can obtain the name by running kubectl get pods):
$ kubectl exec -it NAME bash
  • Once logged in, create a dump file from the previous database using pg_dump, for that we should connect to the previous postgresql chart:
$ pg_dump -h SERVICE_NAME -U postgres DATABASE_NAME > /tmp/backup.sql

After run above command you should be prompted for a password, this password is the previous chart password (OLD_PASSWORD). This operation could take some time depending on the database size.

  • Once you have the backup file, you can restore it with a command like the one below:
$ psql -U postgres DATABASE_NAME < /tmp/backup.sql

In this case, you are accessing to the local postgresql, so the password should be the new one (you can find it in NOTES.txt).

If you want to restore the database and the database schema does not exist, it is necessary to first follow the steps described below.

$ psql -U postgres
postgres=# drop database DATABASE_NAME;
postgres=# create database DATABASE_NAME;
postgres=# create user USER_NAME;
postgres=# alter role USER_NAME with password 'BITNAMI_USER_PASSWORD';
postgres=# grant all privileges on database DATABASE_NAME to USER_NAME;
postgres=# alter database DATABASE_NAME owner to USER_NAME;
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