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#!/usr/bin/env python
# portions copyright 2001, Autonomous Zones Industries, Inc., all rights...
# err... reserved and offered to the public under the terms of the
# Python 2.2 license.
# Author: Zooko O'Whielacronx
# Copyright 2000, Mojam Media, Inc., all rights reserved.
# Author: Skip Montanaro
# Copyright 1999, Bioreason, Inc., all rights reserved.
# Author: Andrew Dalke
# Copyright 1995-1997, Automatrix, Inc., all rights reserved.
# Author: Skip Montanaro
# Copyright 1991-1995, Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, all rights reserved.
# Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this Python software and
# its associated documentation for any purpose without fee is hereby
# granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies,
# and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
# supporting documentation, and that the name of neither Automatrix,
# Bioreason or Mojam Media be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to
# distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission.
"""program/module to trace Python program or function execution
Sample use, command line: -c -f counts --ignore-dir '$prefix' eggs -t --ignore-dir '$prefix' eggs --trackcalls eggs
Sample use, programmatically
import sys
# create a Trace object, telling it what to ignore, and whether to
# do tracing or line-counting or both.
tracer = trace.Trace(ignoredirs=[sys.prefix, sys.exec_prefix,], trace=0,
# run the new command using the given tracer'main()')
# make a report, placing output in /tmp
r = tracer.results()
r.write_results(show_missing=True, coverdir="/tmp")
import linecache
import os
import re
import sys
import threading
import time
import token
import tokenize
import types
import gc
import cPickle
pickle = cPickle
except ImportError:
import pickle
def usage(outfile):
outfile.write("""Usage: %s [OPTIONS] <file> [ARGS]
--help Display this help then exit.
--version Output version information then exit.
Otherwise, exactly one of the following three options must be given:
-t, --trace Print each line to sys.stdout before it is executed.
-c, --count Count the number of times each line is executed
and write the counts to <module>.cover for each
module executed, in the module's directory.
See also `--coverdir', `--file', `--no-report' below.
-l, --listfuncs Keep track of which functions are executed at least
once and write the results to sys.stdout after the
program exits.
-T, --trackcalls Keep track of caller/called pairs and write the
results to sys.stdout after the program exits.
-r, --report Generate a report from a counts file; do not execute
any code. `--file' must specify the results file to
read, which must have been created in a previous run
with `--count --file=FILE'.
-f, --file=<file> File to accumulate counts over several runs.
-R, --no-report Do not generate the coverage report files.
Useful if you want to accumulate over several runs.
-C, --coverdir=<dir> Directory where the report files. The coverage
report for <package>.<module> is written to file
-m, --missing Annotate executable lines that were not executed
with '>>>>>> '.
-s, --summary Write a brief summary on stdout for each file.
(Can only be used with --count or --report.)
-g, --timing Prefix each line with the time since the program started.
Only used while tracing.
Filters, may be repeated multiple times:
--ignore-module=<mod> Ignore the given module(s) and its submodules
(if it is a package). Accepts comma separated
list of module names
--ignore-dir=<dir> Ignore files in the given directory (multiple
directories can be joined by os.pathsep).
""" % sys.argv[0])
# Simple rx to find lines with no code.
rx_blank = re.compile(r'^\s*(#.*)?$')
class Ignore:
def __init__(self, modules = None, dirs = None):
self._mods = modules or []
self._dirs = dirs or []
self._dirs = map(os.path.normpath, self._dirs)
self._ignore = { '<string>': 1 }
def names(self, filename, modulename):
if modulename in self._ignore:
return self._ignore[modulename]
# haven't seen this one before, so see if the module name is
# on the ignore list. Need to take some care since ignoring
# "cmp" musn't mean ignoring "cmpcache" but ignoring
# "Spam" must also mean ignoring "Spam.Eggs".
for mod in self._mods:
if mod == modulename: # Identical names, so ignore
self._ignore[modulename] = 1
return 1
# check if the module is a proper submodule of something on
# the ignore list
n = len(mod)
# (will not overflow since if the first n characters are the
# same and the name has not already occurred, then the size
# of "name" is greater than that of "mod")
if mod == modulename[:n] and modulename[n] == '.':
self._ignore[modulename] = 1
return 1
# Now check that __file__ isn't in one of the directories
if filename is None:
# must be a built-in, so we must ignore
self._ignore[modulename] = 1
return 1
# Ignore a file when it contains one of the ignorable paths
for d in self._dirs:
# The '+ os.sep' is to ensure that d is a parent directory,
# as compared to cases like:
# d = "/usr/local"
# filename = "/usr/"
# or
# d = "/usr/"
# filename = "/usr/"
if filename.startswith(d + os.sep):
self._ignore[modulename] = 1
return 1
# Tried the different ways, so we don't ignore this module
self._ignore[modulename] = 0
return 0
def modname(path):
"""Return a plausible module name for the patch."""
base = os.path.basename(path)
filename, ext = os.path.splitext(base)
return filename
def fullmodname(path):
"""Return a plausible module name for the path."""
# If the file 'path' is part of a package, then the filename isn't
# enough to uniquely identify it. Try to do the right thing by
# looking in sys.path for the longest matching prefix. We'll
# assume that the rest is the package name.
comparepath = os.path.normcase(path)
longest = ""
for dir in sys.path:
dir = os.path.normcase(dir)
if comparepath.startswith(dir) and comparepath[len(dir)] == os.sep:
if len(dir) > len(longest):
longest = dir
if longest:
base = path[len(longest) + 1:]
base = path
base = base.replace(os.sep, ".")
if os.altsep:
base = base.replace(os.altsep, ".")
filename, ext = os.path.splitext(base)
return filename
class CoverageResults:
def __init__(self, counts=None, calledfuncs=None, infile=None,
callers=None, outfile=None):
self.counts = counts
if self.counts is None:
self.counts = {}
self.counter = self.counts.copy() # map (filename, lineno) to count
self.calledfuncs = calledfuncs
if self.calledfuncs is None:
self.calledfuncs = {}
self.calledfuncs = self.calledfuncs.copy()
self.callers = callers
if self.callers is None:
self.callers = {}
self.callers = self.callers.copy()
self.infile = infile
self.outfile = outfile
if self.infile:
# Try to merge existing counts file.
counts, calledfuncs, callers = \
pickle.load(open(self.infile, 'rb'))
self.update(self.__class__(counts, calledfuncs, callers))
except (IOError, EOFError, ValueError), err:
print >> sys.stderr, ("Skipping counts file %r: %s"
% (self.infile, err))
def update(self, other):
"""Merge in the data from another CoverageResults"""
counts = self.counts
calledfuncs = self.calledfuncs
callers = self.callers
other_counts = other.counts
other_calledfuncs = other.calledfuncs
other_callers = other.callers
for key in other_counts.keys():
counts[key] = counts.get(key, 0) + other_counts[key]
for key in other_calledfuncs.keys():
calledfuncs[key] = 1
for key in other_callers.keys():
callers[key] = 1
def write_results(self, show_missing=True, summary=False, coverdir=None):
@param coverdir
if self.calledfuncs:
print "functions called:"
calls = self.calledfuncs.keys()
for filename, modulename, funcname in calls:
print ("filename: %s, modulename: %s, funcname: %s"
% (filename, modulename, funcname))
if self.callers:
print "calling relationships:"
calls = self.callers.keys()
lastfile = lastcfile = ""
for ((pfile, pmod, pfunc), (cfile, cmod, cfunc)) in calls:
if pfile != lastfile:
print "***", pfile, "***"
lastfile = pfile
lastcfile = ""
if cfile != pfile and lastcfile != cfile:
print " -->", cfile
lastcfile = cfile
print " %s.%s -> %s.%s" % (pmod, pfunc, cmod, cfunc)
# turn the counts data ("(filename, lineno) = count") into something
# accessible on a per-file basis
per_file = {}
for filename, lineno in self.counts.keys():
lines_hit = per_file[filename] = per_file.get(filename, {})
lines_hit[lineno] = self.counts[(filename, lineno)]
# accumulate summary info, if needed
sums = {}
for filename, count in per_file.iteritems():
# skip some "files" we don't care about...
if filename == "<string>":
if filename.startswith("<doctest "):
if filename.endswith((".pyc", ".pyo")):
filename = filename[:-1]
if coverdir is None:
dir = os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(filename))
modulename = modname(filename)
dir = coverdir
if not os.path.exists(dir):
modulename = fullmodname(filename)
# If desired, get a list of the line numbers which represent
# executable content (returned as a dict for better lookup speed)
if show_missing:
lnotab = find_executable_linenos(filename)
lnotab = {}
source = linecache.getlines(filename)
coverpath = os.path.join(dir, modulename + ".cover")
n_hits, n_lines = self.write_results_file(coverpath, source,
lnotab, count)
if summary and n_lines:
percent = int(100 * n_hits / n_lines)
sums[modulename] = n_lines, percent, modulename, filename
if summary and sums:
mods = sums.keys()
print "lines cov% module (path)"
for m in mods:
n_lines, percent, modulename, filename = sums[m]
print "%5d %3d%% %s (%s)" % sums[m]
if self.outfile:
# try and store counts and module info into self.outfile
pickle.dump((self.counts, self.calledfuncs, self.callers),
open(self.outfile, 'wb'), 1)
except IOError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, "Can't save counts files because %s" % err
def write_results_file(self, path, lines, lnotab, lines_hit):
"""Return a coverage results file in path."""
outfile = open(path, "w")
except IOError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, ("trace: Could not open %r for writing: %s"
"- skipping" % (path, err))
return 0, 0
n_lines = 0
n_hits = 0
for i, line in enumerate(lines):
lineno = i + 1
# do the blank/comment match to try to mark more lines
# (help the reader find stuff that hasn't been covered)
if lineno in lines_hit:
outfile.write("%5d: " % lines_hit[lineno])
n_hits += 1
n_lines += 1
elif rx_blank.match(line):
outfile.write(" ")
# lines preceded by no marks weren't hit
# Highlight them if so indicated, unless the line contains
# #pragma: NO COVER
if lineno in lnotab and not PRAGMA_NOCOVER in lines[i]:
outfile.write(">>>>>> ")
n_lines += 1
outfile.write(" ")
return n_hits, n_lines
def find_lines_from_code(code, strs):
"""Return dict where keys are lines in the line number table."""
linenos = {}
line_increments = [ord(c) for c in code.co_lnotab[1::2]]
table_length = len(line_increments)
docstring = False
lineno = code.co_firstlineno
for li in line_increments:
lineno += li
if lineno not in strs:
linenos[lineno] = 1
return linenos
def find_lines(code, strs):
"""Return lineno dict for all code objects reachable from code."""
# get all of the lineno information from the code of this scope level
linenos = find_lines_from_code(code, strs)
# and check the constants for references to other code objects
for c in code.co_consts:
if isinstance(c, types.CodeType):
# find another code object, so recurse into it
linenos.update(find_lines(c, strs))
return linenos
def find_strings(filename):
"""Return a dict of possible docstring positions.
The dict maps line numbers to strings. There is an entry for
line that contains only a string or a part of a triple-quoted
d = {}
# If the first token is a string, then it's the module docstring.
# Add this special case so that the test in the loop passes.
prev_ttype = token.INDENT
f = open(filename)
for ttype, tstr, start, end, line in tokenize.generate_tokens(f.readline):
if ttype == token.STRING:
if prev_ttype == token.INDENT:
sline, scol = start
eline, ecol = end
for i in range(sline, eline + 1):
d[i] = 1
prev_ttype = ttype
return d
def find_executable_linenos(filename):
"""Return dict where keys are line numbers in the line number table."""
prog = open(filename, "rU").read()
except IOError, err:
print >> sys.stderr, ("Not printing coverage data for %r: %s"
% (filename, err))
return {}
code = compile(prog, filename, "exec")
strs = find_strings(filename)
return find_lines(code, strs)
class Trace:
def __init__(self, count=1, trace=1, countfuncs=0, countcallers=0,
ignoremods=(), ignoredirs=(), infile=None, outfile=None,
@param count true iff it should count number of times each
line is executed
@param trace true iff it should print out each line that is
being counted
@param countfuncs true iff it should just output a list of
(filename, modulename, funcname,) for functions
that were called at least once; This overrides
`count' and `trace'
@param ignoremods a list of the names of modules to ignore
@param ignoredirs a list of the names of directories to ignore
all of the (recursive) contents of
@param infile file from which to read stored counts to be
added into the results
@param outfile file in which to write the results
@param timing true iff timing information be displayed
self.infile = infile
self.outfile = outfile
self.ignore = Ignore(ignoremods, ignoredirs)
self.counts = {} # keys are (filename, linenumber)
self.blabbed = {} # for debugging
self.pathtobasename = {} # for memoizing os.path.basename
self.donothing = 0
self.trace = trace
self._calledfuncs = {}
self._callers = {}
self._caller_cache = {}
self.start_time = None
if timing:
self.start_time = time.time()
if countcallers:
self.globaltrace = self.globaltrace_trackcallers
elif countfuncs:
self.globaltrace = self.globaltrace_countfuncs
elif trace and count:
self.globaltrace = self.globaltrace_lt
self.localtrace = self.localtrace_trace_and_count
elif trace:
self.globaltrace = self.globaltrace_lt
self.localtrace = self.localtrace_trace
elif count:
self.globaltrace = self.globaltrace_lt
self.localtrace = self.localtrace_count
# Ahem -- do nothing? Okay.
self.donothing = 1
def run(self, cmd):
import __main__
dict = __main__.__dict__
if not self.donothing:
exec cmd in dict, dict
if not self.donothing:
def runctx(self, cmd, globals=None, locals=None):
if globals is None: globals = {}
if locals is None: locals = {}
if not self.donothing:
exec cmd in globals, locals
if not self.donothing:
def runfunc(self, func, *args, **kw):
result = None
if not self.donothing:
result = func(*args, **kw)
if not self.donothing:
return result
def file_module_function_of(self, frame):
code = frame.f_code
filename = code.co_filename
if filename:
modulename = modname(filename)
modulename = None
funcname = code.co_name
clsname = None
if code in self._caller_cache:
if self._caller_cache[code] is not None:
clsname = self._caller_cache[code]
self._caller_cache[code] = None
## use of gc.get_referrers() was suggested by Michael Hudson
# all functions which refer to this code object
funcs = [f for f in gc.get_referrers(code)
if hasattr(f, "func_doc")]
# require len(func) == 1 to avoid ambiguity caused by calls to
# new.function(): "In the face of ambiguity, refuse the
# temptation to guess."
if len(funcs) == 1:
dicts = [d for d in gc.get_referrers(funcs[0])
if isinstance(d, dict)]
if len(dicts) == 1:
classes = [c for c in gc.get_referrers(dicts[0])
if hasattr(c, "__bases__")]
if len(classes) == 1:
# ditto for new.classobj()
clsname = str(classes[0])
# cache the result - assumption is that new.* is
# not called later to disturb this relationship
# _caller_cache could be flushed if functions in
# the new module get called.
self._caller_cache[code] = clsname
if clsname is not None:
# final hack - module name shows up in str(cls), but we've already
# computed module name, so remove it
clsname = clsname.split(".")[1:]
clsname = ".".join(clsname)
funcname = "%s.%s" % (clsname, funcname)
return filename, modulename, funcname
def globaltrace_trackcallers(self, frame, why, arg):
"""Handler for call events.
Adds information about who called who to the self._callers dict.
if why == 'call':
# XXX Should do a better job of identifying methods
this_func = self.file_module_function_of(frame)
parent_func = self.file_module_function_of(frame.f_back)
self._callers[(parent_func, this_func)] = 1
def globaltrace_countfuncs(self, frame, why, arg):
"""Handler for call events.
Adds (filename, modulename, funcname) to the self._calledfuncs dict.
if why == 'call':
this_func = self.file_module_function_of(frame)
self._calledfuncs[this_func] = 1
def globaltrace_lt(self, frame, why, arg):
"""Handler for call events.
If the code block being entered is to be ignored, returns `None',
else returns self.localtrace.
if why == 'call':
code = frame.f_code
filename = frame.f_globals.get('__file__', None)
if filename:
# XXX modname() doesn't work right for packages, so
# the ignore support won't work right for packages
modulename = modname(filename)
if modulename is not None:
ignore_it = self.ignore.names(filename, modulename)
if not ignore_it:
if self.trace:
print (" --- modulename: %s, funcname: %s"
% (modulename, code.co_name))
return self.localtrace
return None
def localtrace_trace_and_count(self, frame, why, arg):
if why == "line":
# record the file name and line number of every trace
filename = frame.f_code.co_filename
lineno = frame.f_lineno
key = filename, lineno
self.counts[key] = self.counts.get(key, 0) + 1
if self.start_time:
print '%.2f' % (time.time() - self.start_time),
bname = os.path.basename(filename)
print "%s(%d): %s" % (bname, lineno,
linecache.getline(filename, lineno)),
return self.localtrace
def localtrace_trace(self, frame, why, arg):
if why == "line":
# record the file name and line number of every trace
filename = frame.f_code.co_filename
lineno = frame.f_lineno
if self.start_time:
print '%.2f' % (time.time() - self.start_time),
bname = os.path.basename(filename)
print "%s(%d): %s" % (bname, lineno,
linecache.getline(filename, lineno)),
return self.localtrace
def localtrace_count(self, frame, why, arg):
if why == "line":
filename = frame.f_code.co_filename
lineno = frame.f_lineno
key = filename, lineno
self.counts[key] = self.counts.get(key, 0) + 1
return self.localtrace
def results(self):
return CoverageResults(self.counts, infile=self.infile,
def _err_exit(msg):
sys.stderr.write("%s: %s\n" % (sys.argv[0], msg))
def main(argv=None):
import getopt
if argv is None:
argv = sys.argv
opts, prog_argv = getopt.getopt(argv[1:], "tcrRf:d:msC:lTg",
["help", "version", "trace", "count",
"report", "no-report", "summary",
"file=", "missing",
"ignore-module=", "ignore-dir=",
"coverdir=", "listfuncs",
"trackcalls", "timing"])
except getopt.error, msg:
sys.stderr.write("%s: %s\n" % (sys.argv[0], msg))
sys.stderr.write("Try `%s --help' for more information\n"
% sys.argv[0])
trace = 0
count = 0
report = 0
no_report = 0
counts_file = None
missing = 0
ignore_modules = []
ignore_dirs = []
coverdir = None
summary = 0
listfuncs = False
countcallers = False
timing = False
for opt, val in opts:
if opt == "--help":
if opt == "--version":
sys.stdout.write("trace 2.0\n")
if opt == "-T" or opt == "--trackcalls":
countcallers = True
if opt == "-l" or opt == "--listfuncs":
listfuncs = True
if opt == "-g" or opt == "--timing":
timing = True
if opt == "-t" or opt == "--trace":
trace = 1
if opt == "-c" or opt == "--count":
count = 1
if opt == "-r" or opt == "--report":
report = 1
if opt == "-R" or opt == "--no-report":
no_report = 1
if opt == "-f" or opt == "--file":
counts_file = val
if opt == "-m" or opt == "--missing":
missing = 1
if opt == "-C" or opt == "--coverdir":
coverdir = val
if opt == "-s" or opt == "--summary":
summary = 1
if opt == "--ignore-module":
for mod in val.split(","):
if opt == "--ignore-dir":
for s in val.split(os.pathsep):
s = os.path.expandvars(s)
# should I also call expanduser? (after all, could use $HOME)
s = s.replace("$prefix",
os.path.join(sys.prefix, "lib",
"python" + sys.version[:3]))
s = s.replace("$exec_prefix",
os.path.join(sys.exec_prefix, "lib",
"python" + sys.version[:3]))
s = os.path.normpath(s)
assert 0, "Should never get here"
if listfuncs and (count or trace):
_err_exit("cannot specify both --listfuncs and (--trace or --count)")
if not (count or trace or report or listfuncs or countcallers):
_err_exit("must specify one of --trace, --count, --report, "
"--listfuncs, or --trackcalls")
if report and no_report:
_err_exit("cannot specify both --report and --no-report")
if report and not counts_file:
_err_exit("--report requires a --file")
if no_report and len(prog_argv) == 0:
_err_exit("missing name of file to run")
# everything is ready
if report:
results = CoverageResults(infile=counts_file, outfile=counts_file)
results.write_results(missing, summary=summary, coverdir=coverdir)
sys.argv = prog_argv
progname = prog_argv[0]
sys.path[0] = os.path.split(progname)[0]
t = Trace(count, trace, countfuncs=listfuncs,
countcallers=countcallers, ignoremods=ignore_modules,
ignoredirs=ignore_dirs, infile=counts_file,
outfile=counts_file, timing=timing)
try:'execfile(%r)' % (progname,))
except IOError, err:
_err_exit("Cannot run file %r because: %s" % (sys.argv[0], err))
except SystemExit:
results = t.results()
if not no_report:
results.write_results(missing, summary=summary, coverdir=coverdir)
if __name__=='__main__':
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