Skip to content
This repository

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
branch: master
README.md

This quickstart will get you going with Java and the Jetty embedded web server, deployed to Heroku.

{.note} Sample code for the Java demo application is available on GitHub. Edits and enhancements are welcome.

Prerequisites

  • Basic Java knowledge, including an installed version of the JVM and Maven 3.
  • Your application must run on the OpenJDK version 6, or 7 (8 is also available in beta).
  • A Heroku user account. Signup is free and instant.

Local workstation setup

Install the Heroku Toolbelt on your local workstation. This ensures that you have access to the Heroku command-line client, Foreman, and the Git revision control system.

Once installed, you can use the heroku command from your command shell. Log in using the email address and password you used when creating your Heroku account:

:::term
$ heroku login
Enter your Heroku credentials.
Email: adam@example.com
Password: 
Could not find an existing public key.
Would you like to generate one? [Yn] 
Generating new SSH public key.
Uploading ssh public key /Users/adam/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

Press enter at the prompt to upload your existing ssh key or create a new one, used for pushing code later on.

Write your app

You can run any Java application on Heroku that uses Maven as build tool. As an example, we will write a web app using Jetty. Here is a basic servlet class that also contains a main method to start up the application:

src/main/java/HelloWorld.java

:::java
import java.io.IOException;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.*;
import org.eclipse.jetty.server.Server;
import org.eclipse.jetty.servlet.*;

public class HelloWorld extends HttpServlet {

    @Override
    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp)
            throws ServletException, IOException {
        resp.getWriter().print("Hello from Java!\n");
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception{
        Server server = new Server(Integer.valueOf(System.getenv("PORT")));
        ServletContextHandler context = new ServletContextHandler(ServletContextHandler.SESSIONS);
        context.setContextPath("/");
        server.setHandler(context);
        context.addServlet(new ServletHolder(new HelloWorld()),"/*");
        server.start();
        server.join();   
    }
}

Declare dependencies in pom.xml

Cedar recognizes Java apps by the existence of a pom.xml file. Here's an example pom.xml for the Java/Jetty app we created above.

pom.xml

:::xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" 
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>com.example</groupId>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <artifactId>helloworld</artifactId>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.eclipse.jetty</groupId>
            <artifactId>jetty-servlet</artifactId>
            <version>7.6.0.v20120127</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
            <artifactId>servlet-api</artifactId>
            <version>2.5</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-dependency-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>2.4</version>
                <executions>
                    <execution>
                        <id>copy-dependencies</id>
                        <phase>package</phase>
                        <goals><goal>copy-dependencies</goal></goals>
                    </execution>
                </executions>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
</project>

Prevent build artifacts from going into revision control by creating this file:

.gitignore

:::term
target

Build and run your app locally

Build your app locally:

:::term
$ mvn package

As part of the build, Maven gathers dependencies and copies them into the directory target/dependency. Start you app locally by setting the PORT environment variable and running Java with all dependencies on the classpath:

On Mac & Linux:

:::term
$ export PORT=5000
$ java -cp target/classes:"target/dependency/*" HelloWorld

(double quotes needed to prevent expansion of *)

On Windows:

:::term
$ set PORT=5000
$ java -cp target\classes;"target\dependency\*" HelloWorld

You should now see something similar to:

:::term
2012-01-31 15:51:21.811:INFO:oejs.Server:jetty-7.6.0.v20120127
2012-01-31 15:51:21.931:INFO:oejsh.ContextHandler:started o.e.j.s.ServletContextHandler{/,null}
2012-01-31 15:51:21.971:INFO:oejs.AbstractConnector:Started SelectChannelConnector@0.0.0.0:5000

Open the app in your browser:
http://localhost:5000

Declare process types with a Procfile

To run your web process on Heroku, you need to declare what command to use. We'll use Procfile to declare how our web process type is run.

Here's what the Procfile looks like:

:::term
web:    java -cp target/classes:target/dependency/* HelloWorld

(note: no double quotes needed in Procfile)

Optionally Choose a JDK

By default, OpenJDK 1.6 is installed with your app. However, you can choose to use a newer JDK by specifying java.runtime.version=1.7 in the system.properties file.

Here's what a system.properties file looks like:

:::term
java.runtime.version=1.7

You can specify 1.6, 1.7, or 1.8 (1.8 is in beta) for Java 6, 7, or 8 (with lambdas), respectively.

Store your app in Git

We now have the three major components of our app: build configuration and dependencies in pom.xml, process types in Procfile, and our application source in src/main/java/HelloWorld.java. Let's put it into Git:

:::term
$ git init
$ git add .
$ git commit -m "init"

Deploy to Heroku

Create the app:

:::term
$ heroku create
Creating stark-sword-398... done, stack is cedar
http://stark-sword-398.herokuapp.com/ | git@heroku.com:stark-sword-398.git
Git remote heroku added

Deploy your code:

:::term
$ git push heroku master
Counting objects: 47, done.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads.
Compressing objects: 100% (25/25), done.
Writing objects: 100% (47/47), 10.25 KiB, done.
Total 47 (delta 19), reused 42 (delta 17)

-----> Heroku receiving push
-----> Java app detected
-----> Installing OpenJDK 1.6... done
-----> Installing Maven 3.0.3... done
-----> Installing settings.xml... done
-----> executing /app/tmp/repo.git/.cache/.maven/bin/mvn -B -Duser.home=/tmp/build_3k0p14ghrmdzs -Dmaven.repo.local=/app/tmp/repo.git/.cache/.m2/repository -s /app/tmp/repo.git/.cache/.m2/settings.xml -DskipTests=true clean install
       [INFO] Scanning for projects...
       [INFO]                                                                         
       [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
       [INFO] Building helloworld 1.0-SNAPSHOT
       [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
       ...
       [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
       [INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
       [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
       [INFO] Total time: 10.062s
       [INFO] Finished at: Tue Jan 31 23:27:20 UTC 2012
       [INFO] Final Memory: 12M/490M
       [INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----> Discovering process types
       Procfile declares types -> web
-----> Compiled slug size is 948K
-----> Launching... done, v3
       http://empty-fire-6534.herokuapp.com deployed to Heroku

Now, let's check the state of the app's processes:

:::term
$ heroku ps
Process  State       Command                               
-------  ----------  ------------------------------------  
web.1    up for 10s  java -cp target/classes:target/dep..  

The web process is up. Review the logs for more information:

:::term
$ heroku logs
...
2012-01-31T23:27:27+00:00 heroku[web.1]: Starting process with command `java -cp target/classes:target/dependency/* HelloWorld`
2012-01-31T23:27:28+00:00 app[web.1]: 2012-01-31 23:27:28.280:INFO:oejs.Server:jetty-7.6.0.v20120127
2012-01-31T23:27:28+00:00 app[web.1]: 2012-01-31 23:27:28.334:INFO:oejsh.ContextHandler:started o.e.j.s.ServletContextHandler{/,null}
2012-01-31T23:27:28+00:00 app[web.1]: 2012-01-31 23:27:28.373:INFO:oejs.AbstractConnector:Started SelectChannelConnector@0.0.0.0:8236
2012-01-31T23:27:29+00:00 heroku[web.1]: State changed from starting to up
2012-01-31T23:27:32+00:00 heroku[router]: GET empty-fire-6534.herokuapp.com/ dyno=web.1 queue=0 wait=0ms service=27ms status=200 bytes=17

Looks good. We can now visit the app with heroku open.

Next steps: database-driven apps

The Spring MVC Hibernate tutorial will guide you through setting up a database-driven application on Heroku.

Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.