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Contributors
Translation contributors : herpiko, rizkifnst @ Github
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A co-founder of the social news and entertainment website "reddit" has been found dead
co-founder dari situs sosial berita dan hiburan "Reddit" ditemukan tewas.
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He certainly was a prodigy although he never kind of thought of himself like that
Dia sangat berbakat meskipun dia sendiri tidak menyadarinya
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He was totally unexcited about starting businesses and making money
Dia tidak punya ketertarikan sama sekali untuk mempelajari bisnis dan menghasilkan uang
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There's a profound sense of loss tonight in Highland Park, Aaron Swartz's hometown
Ada duka yang mendalam malam ini di Highland Park, kota asal Aaron Swartz
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as loved ones say goodbye to one of the Internet's brightest lights
orang-orang yang mencintainya, mengucapkan selamat tinggal kepada salah satu tokoh internet paling cemerlang
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...Open Access and computer activists are mourning his loss
...Open Access dan aktivis komputer berduka atas kehilangan ini
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...an astonishing intellect. You talk to people who knew him
...seorang intelektual yang menakjubkan. Kamu bicara dengan orang-orang yang mengenalnya
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...he was killed by the government and MIT betrayed all of its basic principles
...ia dibunuh oleh pemerintah dan MIT yang mengkhianati prinsip mereka sendiri.
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...they wanted to make an example out of him, ok?
...mereka ingin membuat contoh dari targedi ini, bukan?
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Governments have an insatiable desire to control
Pemerintah memiliki keinginan yang tak terpuaskan untuk mengontrol
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...he was potentially facing 35 years in prison and a 1 million dollar fine
...ia berpotensi menghadapi penjara 35 tahun dan denda 1 juta dolar
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Raising questions of prosecutorial zeal and I would say even misconduct.
Menimbulkan pertanyaan tentang tuntutannya dan saya akan katakan,
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Have you looked into that particular matter and reached any conclusions?
Sudahkah kamu melihat ke masalah spesifik tersebut dan menyadari sesuatu?
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Growing up, you know, I slowly had this process of realizing
Sambil tumbuh dan berkembang, saya perlahan-lahan melalui proses menyadari
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that all the things around me, that people had told me
semua hal di sekitar saya, yang orang lain katakan kepada saya,
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were just the natural way things were, the way things always would be.
'Semua ini normal, sudah sebagaimana mestinya.'
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They weren't natural at all. They were things that could be changed
Tidak, itu semua bukan hal yang normal sama sekali. Masih bisa diubah.
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and they were thing that more importantly were wrong and should change.
dan semua ini salah dan harus berubah.
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And once I realized that, there was really kind of no going back
Dan kemudian saya menyadari bahwa saya tidak boleh mundur
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Welcome to story reading time
Saatnya membaca buku cerita!
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The name of the book is 'Paddington at the Fair'
Judul bukunya adalah 'Paddington at The Fair'
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Well, he was born in Highland Park and grew up here
Nah, dia lahir di Highland Park dan tumbuh besar di sini
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Aaron came from a family of three brothers, all extraordinarily bright
Aaron datang dari keluarga dengan tiga bersaudara yang luar biasa cerdas
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The box is flipping over!
Kotaknya terbalik!
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So, we were all, you know, not the best behaved children
Jadi kami semua, kamu tahu, bukan anak-anak berperilaku baik
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you know, three boys running around all the time, causing trouble
Tiga anak-anak yang lari kesana kemari setiap waktu, bikin masalah
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Mom: No, no, no... Aaron!? Aaron: What?
Mom: No, no, no... Aaron!? Aaron: Apa?
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But, I've come to the realization: Aaron learned how to learn at a very young age
Tapi saya sadar : Aaron sudah belajar sejak usia yang dini sekali
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One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten!
Satu, dua, tiga, empat, lima, enam, tujuh, delapan, sembilan, sepuluh!
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Knock, knock!
Tok, tok!?
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Who's here?
Siapa itu?
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Aaron!
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Aaron who?
Aaron!
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Aaron funny man!
Aaron yang lucu
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He knew what he wanted, he always wanted to do it.
Dia tahu apa yang ia mau, ia selalu ingin melakukannya.
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He always accomplished what he wanted.
Ia selalu menyelesaikan apa pun yang ia inginkan.
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His curiosity was endless
Rasa penasarannya tak ada habisnya
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Here's the little picture of what the planets are
Ada gambar kecil, planet-planet
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and each planet has a symbol:
dan setiap planet punya simbol:
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Mercury's symbol, Venus' symbol, Earth's symbol, Mars' symbol, Jupiter's symbol.
Simbol Merkurius, Venus, Bumi, Mars, Jupiter
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One day he said to Susan:
Suatu hari ia bertanya kepada Susan:
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"What's this free family entertainment downtown Highland Park?"
"Apa itu 'Kegiatan keluarga bersama di Highland Park'?"
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Free family entertainment downtown Highland Park
Kegiatan keluarga bersama di highland Park
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He was three at the time
Dia ada di sana waktu itu
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She said: "What are you talking about?"
Susan berkata : "Apa maksudmu?"
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He said: "Look it says here on on the refrigerator"
Dia bilang : "Lihat, tertulis di kulkas"
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"Free family entertainment downtown Highland Park"
"Kegiatan keluarga bersama di highland Park"
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She was floored and astonished that he could read
Susan takjub dan heran bahwa Aaron bisa membaca
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It's called: "My Family Seder"
Ini namanya: "Seder Keluarga"
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The Seder night is different from all other nights
Malam Seder berbeda dengan malam lainnya.
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I remember once we were are the University of Chicago library
Saya ingat ketika kami berada di perpustakaan Universitas Chicago
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I pulled a book off the shelf that was from, like, 1900
Saya mengambil sebuah buku dari rak, yang sepertinya berasal dari tahun 1900-an
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and showed to him, I said: "You know this is really just an extraordinary place"
dan menunjukkan kepadanya, saya bilang, "Kamu tahu ini adalah tempat yang luar biasa"
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We all were curious children but Aaron really liked learning and really liked teaching
Kami semua anak-anak yang serba penasaran namun Aaron benar-benar suka belajar dan mengajari
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Today we're going to learn the ABCs backwards z, y, x, w,...
Hari ini kita akan membaca ABC tapi kebalik z, y , x, w
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I remember he came home from his first algebra class
Aku ingat ketika dia pulang dari kelas aljabarnya yang pertama
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he was like: "Noah, let me teach you algebra!"
ia bilang, "Noah, ayo kuajari kau Aljabar!"
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and I'm like: "What is algebra?"
dan saya bilang, "Aljabar apaan?"
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and he was always like that
dan ia selalu seperti itu
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Now I press button, click button
Sekarang aku tekan tombolnya,
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there, now it's got that, now it's a pink
Nah, lihat, sekarang warnanya pink
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When he was at 2 or 3 three years old and Bob introduced him to computers
Ketika dia berusia 2 atau 3 tahun, Bob mengenalkan komputer padanya
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then he just took off like crazy on them
dan dia sangat antusias tak terkendali
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Go press that one, go to ABC
COba tekan yang itu, tekan ABC
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We all had computers, but Aaron really took to them, really took to the Internet
Kami semua memiliki komputer, namun Aaron benar-benar berinteraksi dengan komputernya, dengan internet
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Looking at the computer?
Lagi lihat komputer?
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Nah... How could... Mommy, why is nothing working?
Eh, kok begitu... Mama, kenapa gak bisa?
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He started programming from a really young age.
Dia mulai memrogram komputer dari usia yang dini sekali
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I remember the first program that I wrote with him was in basic
Aku ingat program pertama yang kutulis bersamanya menggunakan bahasa Basic
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and it was a Star Wars trivia game
dan itu adalah program permainan trivia Star Wars
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He sat down with me in the basement where the computer was
Dia duduk bersamaku di basemen, tempat komputer itu berada
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for hours programming this game
berjam-jam memrogram permainan ini
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The problem that I kept having with him is that there was nothing that I wanted done
Satu-satunya masalah yang kumiliki dengannya adalah aku tak selalu ingin menyelesaikannya
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and to him there was always something to do
dan dia selalu punya sesuatu untuk dilakukan
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always something that programming could solve
selalu ada hal yang dapat diselesaikan dengan pemrograman
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The way Aaron always thought is that programming is magic, right,
Aaron memandang pemrograman komputer itu semacam sihir
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you can accomplish these things that normal humans can't
kamu bisa melakukan sesuatu yang orang normal tidak bisa
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Aaron made an ATM using like a Macintosh and like a cardboard box
Aaron membuat mesin ATM menggunakan komputer Macintosh dan rupanya seperti kotak kardus
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One year for Halloween I didn't know what I wanted to be
Pada suatu waktu, untuk persiapan Hallowen, saya tidak tahu ingin mejadi apa
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and he thought it would be really really cool if I dressed up
and he thought would be really really cool if I dressed up
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like his new favorite computer which at the time was the original iMac
seperti komputer favoritnya, saat itu iMac original yang pertama
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I mean, he hated dressing up for Halloween
Padahal dia sendiri benci berdandan untuk Hallowen
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but he loved convincing other people to dress up as other things he wanted to see
tapi suka menyuruh orang lain untuk berdandan seperti yang dia suka
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Guys, come on, look at the camera
Hei, ayo, lihat ke kamera!
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He made this website called "The Info"
Dia membuat situs web yang bernama "The Info"
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where people could just fill in information
di mana orang-orang bisa menulis informasi apa pun
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Like, I'm sure someone out there knows all about gold, gold leafing...
Saya yakin ada seseorang di luar sana yang tahu banyak tentang emas [?]
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Why don't they write about that on this website?
Mengapa mereka tidak menulis tentang emas di situs web ini?
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And then other people could come at a later point and read that information
Dan orang lain akan datang ke sini dan bisa membaca infomasi tersebut
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and edit the information if they thought that it was bad
dan menyunting informasi tersebut jika mereka pikir itu masih kurang tepat
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Not too dissimilar from Wikipedia, all right?
Tidak terlalu jauh dengan Wikipedia, kan?
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This was before Wikipedia had begun
Ini sebelum Wikipedia ada
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and this was developed by a 12 year old
dan ini dikembangkan oleh anak berusia 12 tahun
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in his room, by himself
di kamarnya, oleh ia sendiri
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running on this tiny server using ancient technology
jalan di atas server kecil ini menggunakan teknologi jadul
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One of the teachers responds like:
Salah satu guru sekolahnya memberi tanggapan seperti :
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"This is a terrible idea, you can't just let anyone
"Ini ide yang buruk, kamu tidak bisa membiarkan setiap orang
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author the dictionary, like, author the encyclopedia"
menjadi penulis kamus, penulis encyclopedia"
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"The whole reason we have scholars is to write these books for us"
"Untuk semua alasan, kita punya orang-orang berpendidikan yang mengerjakan hal itu untuk kita"
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"How could you ever have such a terrible idea?"
"Bagaimana kamu bisa mendapatkan ide yang buruk begini?"
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Me and my other brother would be like: "Oh, you know"
Aku dan dan saudara yang lain merespon, "Yeah, tahulah si Aaron"
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"Yeah, Wikipedia is cool but we had that in our house, like 5 years ago"
"Wikipedia keren, tapi kami sudah punya yang seperti itu di rumah kami, 5 tahun sebelumnya"
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Aaron's website "The Info.org" wins a school competition
Situs web Aaron, "The Info.org" memenangkan sebuah kompetisi antar sekolah
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hosted by the Cambridge based web design firm ArsDigita
yang diadakan oleh perusahaan desain web ArsDigita di Cambridge
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We all went to Cambridge when he won the ArsDigita Prize
Kami semua pergi ke Cambridge dan dia memenangkan hadiah dari ArsDigita
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and, you know, we had no clue what Aaron was doing
dan, kamu tahu, kami tidak mengerti apa yang Aaron lakukan saat itu
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it was obvious that the prize was really important
tentu saja hadiah itu hal penting
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Aaron soon became involved with on-line programming communities
Aaron kemudian segera terlibat ke komunitas pemrograman online
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then in the process of shaping a new tool for the Web
yang membuat inovasi baru untuk ekosistem web
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He...comes up to me, it's like: "Ben, there's a really awesome thing that I'm working on"
Dia punya konsep baru, "Ben, aku sedang mengerjakan hal keren"
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"you need to hear about it!"
"Kau harus dengar ini!"
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I'm like: "Yeah, what is it?"
Dan aku, "Yeah, apaan itu?"
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He says: "It's this thing called RSS!"
Dia bilang, "Ini namanya RSS"
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And he explains to me what RSS is
Dan dia menjelaskan ke saya, apa itu RSS
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and I'm like: "Why is that useful, Aaron? Is any site using it? Why would I want to use it?"
Dan kubilang, "Apa gunanya? Aaron, apakah ada situs web yang menggunakannya? Dan kenapa aku harus menggunakannya?"
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There was this mailing list for people who were working on RSS
Ada mailing list bagi orang-orang yang bekerja untuk spesifikasi RSS
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and XML more generally and there was a person on it named Aaron Swartz
dan XML secara umum dan di sana, ada yang bernama, Aaron Swartz
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who was combative but very smart and who had lots of good ideas
yang agresif namun sangat pintar dan punya banyak ide brilian
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and he didn't ever come to the face to face meetings and they said:
dan dia tidak pernah datang untuk kopdar (berjumpa tatap muka), dan mereka bilang
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"You know, when are you gonna come out to one of those face to face meetings?"
"Hei, kapan kamu akan datang untuk kopdar bersama kami?"
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He said: "You know, I don't think my mom would let me, you know I just turned 14"
Ia bilang : "Emm, aku kurang yakin ibuku akan mengizinkanku, aku baru saja berulang tahun ke 14"
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So their first reaction was, well you know,
Jadi reaksi pertama mereka, yah kamu tahu
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"This person, this colleague we've been working with all year
"Orang ini, yang jadi rekan kerja kita selama tahun-tahun ini
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was 13 years old when we were working with him and is only 14 now!"
adalah anak umur 13 tahun saat kami bekerja dengannya, dan sekarang dia berusia 14!"
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and their second reaction was: "Christ, we really want to meet him!"
dan reaksi kedua mereka, : "Kita harus bertemu dengannya!"
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you know, "That's extraordinary!"
Kamu tahu, "Itu luar biasa sekali!"
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He was part of the committee that drafted RSS
Aaron menjadi bagian dari komunitas yang menyusun spesifikasi RSS
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What he was doing was to help build the plumbing for modern hypertext
Yang ia lakukan adalah membantu membangun kerangka untuk speksifikasi hypertext modern
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and the piece that he was working on, RSS
dan bagian yang dia kerjakan, RSS
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was a tool that you can use to get summaries
RSS adalah teknologi yang dapat kamu gunakan untuk mendapatkan sinopsis
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of things that are going on on other web pages
dari konten-konten yang ada di situs web lain
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Most commonly, you would use this for a blog
Umumnya digunakan untuk blog
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You might have 10 or 20 people's blogs you wanna read
Mungkin kamu punya 10 atau 20 daftar blog yang ingin kamu baca
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you use their RSS feeds, these summaries of what's going on on those other pages
dengan menggunakan RSS feeds, sinopsis konten-konten tersebut akan dikumpulkan
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to create a unified list of all the stuff that's going on
dan dijadikan satu daftar semua hal-hal yang ingin kamu baca
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Aaron was really young but he understood the technology
Aaron masih sangat muda namun sudah memahami teknologi ini
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and he saw that it was imperfect and looked for ways to help make it better
dan dia menyadari kekurangannya dan mencari cara untuk membuatnya menjadi lebih baik
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So his mom started bundling him on planes in Chicago, we'd pick him up in San Francisco
Jadi, ibunya mengantarnya ke bandara di Chicago dan kami menjemputnya di San Francisco
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we introduced him to interesting people to argue with
kami mengenalkannya ke orang-orang keren untuk saling berdiskusi
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and we marveled at his horrific eating habits
dan kami kagum dengan kebiasaan makannya yang mengerikan
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he only ate white food, only like, you know, steamed rice
ia hanya makan makanan putih, seperti, nasi tanak
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and not fried rice, because that wasn't sufficiently white,
dan bukan nasi goreng, karena itu tidak benar-benar putih
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and white bread, and so on
dan kemudian roti putih, dan lain-lain
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00:09:53,847 --> 00:09:57,927
and you kind of marvel at the quality of the debate
dan kamu akan kagum dengan kualitas debat
145
00:09:57,949 --> 00:10:01,051
emerging from what appeared to be a small boy's mouth
yang keluar dari mulut anak ini
146
00:10:01,061 --> 00:10:04,710
and you think, you know, this is a kid who is really going to go somewhere if he doesn't die of scurvy
dan kamu berpikir, anak ini, dia akan pergi kemana saja jika saja tidak tewas karena semangatnya [?]
147
00:10:04,720 --> 00:10:05,927
Aaron you're up
Aaron, giliranmu
148
00:10:06,887 --> 00:10:10,130
I think the difference is that now you can't make companies like that per-se
Kupikir perbedannya adalah, sekarang kamu tidak bisa membuat perusahaan yang seperti
149
00:10:10,140 --> 00:10:12,208
you can't have companies that just like
kamu tidak bisa memiliki perusahaan yang
150
00:10:12,218 --> 00:10:15,720
"let's sell dog food over the Internet, dog food over the cellphones"
"Hei ayo jual makanan hewan di Internet, makanan hewan di telepon selular"
151
00:10:15,730 --> 00:10:18,106
but there is still a lot of innovation going on,
namun masih banyak inovasi yang sedang berkembang
152
00:10:18,116 --> 00:10:21,546
I think, if you don't see the innovation maybe your head is in the sand
Saya pikir, jika kamu tidak dapat melihat inovasi, mungkin kepalamu sedang terbenam di pasir
153
00:10:21,556 --> 00:10:25,400
He takes on this "Alpha Nerd" personality where he's sort of like
Dia seperti punya kepribadian alpha-male, mendominasi
154
00:10:25,410 --> 00:10:27,713
"I'm smarter than you, and because I'm smarter than you
"Aku lebih pintar darimu, karena aku lebih pintar darimu"
155
00:10:27,723 --> 00:10:29,997
I'm better than you, and I can tell you what to do"
"Aku lebih baik darimu dan aku bisa menyuruhmu apa yang harus dilakukan"
156
00:10:30,007 --> 00:10:34,500
It's an extension of him being kind of like a twerp. [Chuckles].
Ini kelebihan dari dirinya yang nyebelin.
157
00:10:35,100 --> 00:10:38,615
So you aggregate all these computers together and now they're solving big problems
Jadi kau gabungkan semua komputer itu dan sekarang menyelesaikan masalah-masalah besar
158
00:10:38,625 --> 00:10:42,000
like searching for aliens or trying to cure cancer
seperti mencari keberadaan alien atau mencoba menyembuhkan kanker
159
00:10:45,003 --> 00:10:49,600
First met him on IRC, on Internet Relay Chat, he didn't just write code
Saya pertama kali bertemu dengannya di IRC (Internet Relay Chat) dan dia tak hanya menulis kode program
160
00:10:49,650 --> 00:10:55,600
he also got people excited about solving problems, he was a connector
ia membuat orang lain antusias menyelesaikan masalah-masalah, ia adalah penghubung
161
00:10:55,658 --> 00:10:58,346
the free culture movement, which had lot of his energy
gerakan free culture, yang mana banyak menghabiskan energinya
162
00:10:58,356 --> 00:11:03,600
I think Aaron was trying to make the world work. He was trying to fix it
Kupikir, Aaron sedang mencoba membuat dunia ini bekerja dengan semestinya. Ia berusaha memperbaikinya
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00:11:03,800 --> 00:11:05,990
He had a very kind of strong personality,
Dia punya kepribadian kuat yang baik
164
00:11:06,000 --> 00:11:08,661
that definitely ruffled feathers at times.
yang tentu saja membingungkan [?]
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00:11:08,705 --> 00:11:13,500
It wasn't necessarily the case that he was always comfortable in the world
dan tidak begitu [?], ia selalu nyaman dengan dunia ini
166
00:11:13,556 --> 00:11:16,496
and the world wasn't always comfortable with him.
dan dunia ini juga tidak selalu nyaman dengan keberadaannya
167
00:11:19,287 --> 00:11:23,040
Aaron got into high school, and was really just sick of school
Aaron masuk SMA dan benar-benar tidak menyukainya.
168
00:11:23,100 --> 00:11:25,844
he didn't like it, he didn't like any of the classes he had been taught
dia tidak suka, dia tidak suka apa pun yang diajarkan di kelas
169
00:11:25,854 --> 00:11:27,800
he didn't like the teachers
dia tidak menyukai guru-gurunya
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00:11:28,167 --> 00:11:30,491
Aaron really knew how to get information
Aaron benar-benar tahu bagaimana mendapatkan informasi
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00:11:30,501 --> 00:11:34,310
He was like, I don't need to go to this teacher to learn how to do geometry
Dia bilang, dia tidak perlu menemui guru-gurunya untuk memahami geometry
172
00:11:34,320 --> 00:11:36,640
I can just read the geometry book
"Aku baca saja buku geometry, kelar"
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00:11:36,683 --> 00:11:41,444
and I don't need to go to this teacher to learn their version of American history
"Dan aku tidak akan menemui guru-guruku hanya untuk mempelajari sejarah Amerika versi mereka"
174
00:11:41,454 --> 00:11:45,800
I have like three historical compilations here like I can just read them
"Aku punya tiga kompilasi sejarah di sini yang aku bisa baca."
175
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and I'm not interested in that, I'm interested in the Web
"Dan aku tidak tertarik dengan itu, aku tertarik dengan teknologi Web"
176
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I was very frustrated with school
Aku sangat frustasi dengan sekolah
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00:11:50,640 --> 00:11:53,390
I thought, you know, the teachers didn't know what they were talking about
Kurasa, guru-guru di sekolah tidak tahu apa yang mereka bicarakan
178
00:11:53,400 --> 00:11:56,804
and they were very domineering and controlling, and that homework was kind of a sham.
mereka sangat mendominasi dan mengontrol, PR (pekerjaan rumah) itu sesuatu yang salah
179
00:11:56,814 --> 00:11:59,597
I was just like, you know, all the way it pens them[?] together
Dan aku seperti [?]
180
00:11:59,607 --> 00:12:01,440
and force them to do busy work
dan memaksa mereka untuk mengerjakan ini itu
181
00:12:01,701 --> 00:12:05,590
and, you know, I started reading books about the history of education
dan aku mulai membaca buku tentang sejarah pendidikan
bagaimana sistem pendidikan kita dikembangkan
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00:12:05,600 --> 00:12:08,312
and how this educational system was developed
dan, kamu tahu, ada jalan alternatif, orang-orang mestinya bisa belajar hal baru
183
00:12:08,378 --> 00:12:12,266
and, you know, alternatives to it, and ways that people could actually learn things
dan, kamu tahu, ada jalan alternatif, orang-orang mestinya bisa belajar hal baru
184
00:12:12,276 --> 00:12:14,890
as opposed to just regurgitating facts that the teachers told them
ketimbang menelan fakta-fakta yang diceritakan guru-guru mereka
185
00:12:14,900 --> 00:12:17,640
and that kind of led me down this path of questioning things
dan ini mejadikan aku mempertanyakan hal-hal lain
186
00:12:17,650 --> 00:12:21,553
you know, once I questioned the school I was in, I questioned the society that built the school
kadang aku mempertanyakan sekolahku, aku mempertanyakan masyarakat yang membangun sekolah itu
187
00:12:21,563 --> 00:12:24,782
I questioned the businesses that the schools were training people for
aku mempertanyakan bisnis yang dikekola sekolah itu
188
00:12:24,792 --> 00:12:28,011
I questioned the government that, you know, setup this whole structure
aku mempertanyakan pemerintah yang, kamu tahu, yang mengatur seluruh struktur masyarakat ini
189
00:12:28,021 --> 00:12:30,484
One of the things he was more passionate about was copyright,
Salah satu topik yang membuatnya sangat tertarik adalah tentang hak cipta
190
00:12:30,494 --> 00:12:31,830
especially in those early days
terutama pada masa awal-awal dulu
191
00:12:31,840 --> 00:12:37,236
Copyright has always been something of a burden on the publishing industry and on readers
Hak cipta selalu menjadi sesuatu yang membebani industri penerbitan, dan untuk pembacanya
192
00:12:38,181 --> 00:12:41,069
but it wasn't an excessive burden
tapi itu bukan beban yang besar
193
00:12:41,100 --> 00:12:46,200
it was a reasonable institution to have in place
to make sure that people got paid
masih masuk akal sebuah institusi berada di posisi tersebut untuk memastikan orang-orang dibayar atas hak mereka
194
00:12:46,254 --> 00:12:50,100
What Aaron's generation experienced was the collision
Apa yang dialamai anak muda yang segenerasi dengan Aaron adalah konflik
195
00:12:50,145 --> 00:12:52,800
between this antique copyright system
antara sistem hak cipta kuno ini
196
00:12:52,930 --> 00:12:56,622
and this amazing new thing we were trying to build, the Internet and the Web
dan hal baru yang menakjubkan yang kita coba bangun, adalah Internet dan Web
197
00:12:56,632 --> 00:13:00,000
These things collided and what we got was chaos
Internet, web dan hak cipta saling konflik dan kita dapatkan kekacauan (pembajakan, penyalahgunaan)
198
00:13:02,494 --> 00:13:05,434
He then met Harvard Law professor Lawrence Lessig
Lalu ia bertemu profesor hukum Harvard, Lawrence Lessig
199
00:13:05,476 --> 00:13:08,890
who was then challenging copyright law in the supreme court
yang kemudian menentang hukum hak cipta di pengadilan
200
00:13:08,900 --> 00:13:13,277
A young Aaron Swartz flew to Washington to listen to the supreme court hearings
Aaron Swartz muda terbang ke Washington untuk mendengarkan sesi pengadilan ini
201
00:13:13,287 --> 00:13:18,090
I'm Aaron Swartz and I'm here to listen to the Eldred...to see the Eldred argument
Saya Aaron Swartz, dan saya di sini untuk mendengarkan Eldred, untuk melihat argumen-argumen Eldred
202
00:13:18,100 --> 00:13:23,190
Why did you fly out here from Chicago and come all this way to see the Eldred argument?
Mengapa kamu terbang dari Chicago ke sini hanya untuk mendengar pendapat Eldred?
203
00:13:23,200 --> 00:13:25,120
That's a more difficult question
Itu pertanyaan yang lebih sulit
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Cause, I don't know, it's very exciting to see the supreme court
Saya tidak tahu. Saya sangat gembira menghadiri pengadilan ini
205
00:13:33,800 --> 00:13:36,740
especially in such a prestigious case as this one
terutama untuk kasus istimewa ini
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00:13:42,000 --> 00:13:46,860
Lessig was also moving forward with a new way to define copyright on the Internet
Lessig juga sudah bergerak dengan cara baru untuk mendefinisikan hak cipta di internet
207
00:13:46,900 --> 00:13:48,800
it was called Creative Commons
yaitu, Creative Common
208
00:13:49,200 --> 00:13:52,990
So the simple idea of Creative Commons is to give people, creators
Jadi, ide sederhana dari Creative Commons adalah membantu orang-orang yang berkarya
209
00:13:53,000 --> 00:13:55,800
a simple way to mark their creativity
untuk memberikan cara sederhana dalam menandai karya mereka
210
00:13:56,000 --> 00:13:58,600
with the freedoms they intend it to carry
dengan kebebasan yang mereka bawa
211
00:13:59,000 --> 00:14:01,890
So if copyright is all about "all rights reserved"
Jika hak cipta adalah tentang "Hak yang dilindungi"
212
00:14:01,900 --> 00:14:04,960
then this is a kind of "some rights reserved" model
maka ini semacam "Sebagian hak dilindungi"
213
00:14:05,100 --> 00:14:08,690
It's I want a simple way to say to you "here's what you can do with my work"
Saya ingin cara sederhana untuk mengatakan ke kamu tentang "apa saja yang dapat kamu lakukan terhadap karya saya"
214
00:14:08,700 --> 00:14:13,290
even if there are other things which you need to get my permission before you could do
bahkan jika ada hal lain yang kamu butuhkan, yang memerlukan izin
215
00:14:13,300 --> 00:14:16,400
And Aaron's role was the computer part
Dan peran Aaron adalah di bagian komputer
216
00:14:16,600 --> 00:14:18,790
like how do you architect the licenses
seperti, bagaimana merancang lisensi-lisensi
217
00:14:18,800 --> 00:14:23,590
so they would be simple and understandable and expressed in way that machines could process it
sehingga lebih sederhana dan dapat dipahami dan dapat diekspresikan serta diproses oleh mesin/komputer
218
00:14:23,600 --> 00:14:26,890
And people are like, why do you have this fifteen year old kid
Dan orang-orang bertanya-tanya, mengapa kalian membiarkan anak 15 tahun ini
219
00:14:26,900 --> 00:14:29,390
writing the specifications for the creative commons?
menulis spesifikasi Creative Commons?
220
00:14:29,400 --> 00:14:31,190
like, don't you think that's a huge mistake?
Tidakkah kalian pikir ini kesalahan besar?
221
00:14:31,200 --> 00:14:35,520
and Larry is like: "the biggest mistake we would have is not listening to this kid"
dan Larry bilang, "Kesalahan terbesarnya adalah jika kita tidak mendengarkan anak ini."
222
00:14:35,530 --> 00:14:39,340
And he barely he's not even tall enough to get over the podium
Bahkan dia tidak cukup tinggi untuk berdiri di podium
223
00:14:39,400 --> 00:14:41,490
and it wasn't these movable podiums
dan podiumnya tidak bisa digeser
224
00:14:41,500 --> 00:14:45,890
so there's this embarrassing thing where, once he puts his screen up, nobody could see his face
hal memmalukan lain, setelah layar presentasinya hidup, tak seorang pun bisa melihat wajahnya
225
00:14:45,900 --> 00:14:49,000
When we come to our website here
Saat kita mengunjungi situs web ini
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00:14:49,300 --> 00:14:50,890
and you go to "choose liscense"
dan aAnda bisa "memilih lisensi"
227
00:14:50,900 --> 00:14:54,600
it gives you this list of options, explains what it means
ada daftarnya, masing-masing menjelaskan maksud lisensinya
228
00:14:54,900 --> 00:14:57,240
and you fill out three simple questions
dan Anda menjawab tiga pertanyaan sederhana.
229
00:14:57,500 --> 00:14:59,600
Do you want to require attribution?
Apakah kamu menginginkan atribusi?
230
00:14:59,900 --> 00:15:02,890
Do you want to allow commercial uses of your work?
Apakah kamu mengizinkan penggunaan komersil atas karyamu?
231
00:15:02,900 --> 00:15:05,780
Do you want to allow modifications of your work?
Apakah kamu mengizinkan modifikasi atas karyamu?
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00:15:05,800 --> 00:15:06,900
I was floored
Saya mengalah
233
00:15:07,400 --> 00:15:11,800
just completely flabbergasted that these adults regarded him as an adult
orang-orang dewasa menghormatinya seperti ia sendiri sudah dewasa
234
00:15:12,000 --> 00:15:14,990
and Aaron stood up there in front a whole audience full of people
Aaron berdiri di sana, di depan audien yang ramai
235
00:15:15,000 --> 00:15:20,000
and just started talking about the platform that he'd created for Creative Commons
dan mulai berbicara tentang platform untuk Creative Commons
236
00:15:20,200 --> 00:15:22,800
And they where all listening to him, just
Dan mereka semua mendengarkan dia, pokoknya
237
00:15:23,000 --> 00:15:28,600
I was sitting at the back thinking:
"he's just a kid, why are they listening to him?"
Saya duduk di belakang dan berpikir, "dia cuma anak kecil, mengapa mereka mendengarkannya?"
238
00:15:28,800 --> 00:15:29,700
but they did
tapi mereka benar-benar mendengarkan anak ini
239
00:15:29,900 --> 00:15:32,420
well I don't think I comprehended it fully
Yah, saya tidak benar-benar memahaminya.
240
00:15:32,600 --> 00:15:37,190
Though critics have said that it does little to ensure artists get payed for their work
Meskipun banyak kritik yang mengatakan CC tidak membuat orang-orang dibayar atas kerja/karya mereka,
241
00:15:37,200 --> 00:15:40,140
the success of Creative Commons has been enormous
keberhasilan Creative Commons sangat besar.
242
00:15:40,200 --> 00:15:46,700
Currently on the website Flickr alone over 200 million people use some form of Creative Commons license
Saat ini, di situs web Flickr sendiri, ada lebih dari 200 juta orang yang menggunakan format lisensi Creative Commons
243
00:15:46,800 --> 00:15:51,400
He contributed through his technical abilities
Ia berkontribusi menggunakan kemampuan teknisnya
244
00:15:51,600 --> 00:15:56,600
and yet it was not simply a technical matter to him
dan buatnya, semua ini bukan tentang hal teknis
245
00:15:57,600 --> 00:16:00,600
Aaron often wrote candidly in his personal blog
Aaron kadang-kadang menulis dengan terus terang di blog personalnya
246
00:16:01,300 --> 00:16:05,600
I think deeply about things and I want others to do likewise.
Aku berpikir mendalam tentang beberapa hal dan aku ingin orang lain melakukan hal yang sama
247
00:16:06,500 --> 00:16:10,800
I work for ideas and learn from people. I don't like excluding people.
Aku bekerja dengan ide-ide dan belajar dari orang lain. Aku tidak suka mengecualikan orang-orang.
248
00:16:11,000 --> 00:16:15,190
I'm a perfectionist, but I won't let that get in the way of publication.
Aku seorang perfeksionis namun aku tidak akan membiarkan ini masuk publikasi
249
00:16:15,200 --> 00:16:21,390
Except for education and entertainment, I'm not going to waste my time on things that won't have an impact.
Kecuali untuk pendidikan dan hiburan, aku tidak akan menghabiskan waktuku untuk hal-hal yang tidak menghasilkan dampak besar
250
00:16:21,400 --> 00:16:26,320
I try to be friends with everyone, but I hate it when you don't take me seriously.
Aku berusaha berteman dengan semua orang, tapi aku benci jika kamu tidak menganggapku serius.
251
00:16:26,500 --> 00:16:31,800
I don't hold grudges (it's not productive) but I learn from my experience.
Aku tidak pernah menyimpan dendam (ini tindakan yang tidak produktif) namun aku belajar dari pengalamanku
252
00:16:32,200 --> 00:16:36,000
I want to make the world a better place.
Aku ingin membuat dunia ini jadi tempat yang lebih baik lagi
253
00:16:40,700 --> 00:16:45,700
In 2004 Swartz, leaves Highland Park and enrolls in Stanford University
Pada tahun 2004, Swartz meninggalkan Highland Park dan masuk ke Universitas Stanford
254
00:16:46,000 --> 00:16:49,800
He had had ulcerative colitis, which was very troubling
Dia juga telah -------- yang sangat meresahkan
255
00:16:50,000 --> 00:16:52,990
and we were concerned about him taking his medication.
dan kita terfokus tentang pengobatannya.
256
00:16:53,000 --> 00:16:56,390
He got hospitalized and he would take this cocktail of pills every day
dia masuk rumah sakit dan dia akan mengonsumsi pil-pil setiap hari
257
00:16:56,400 --> 00:17:00,300
and one of those pills was a steroid which stunted his growth and
dan salah satu pil ini adalah steroid yang ----- pertumbuhannya dan
258
00:17:00,700 --> 00:17:03,940
made him feel different from any of the other students
membuatnya merasa berbeda dari mahasiswa manapun
259
00:17:04,000 --> 00:17:06,990
Aaron, I think, shows up at Stanford ready to do scholarship
Aaron, saya pikir, ----- di Stanford untuk beasiswa
260
00:17:07,000 --> 00:17:12,600
and finds himself in, effectively, a baby sitting program for overachieving high schoolers
dan ----- dalam program pengasuhan anak untuk untuk mahasiswa -----
261
00:17:12,800 --> 00:17:21,300
who in four years are meant to become, you know, captains of industry and one percent-ers
yang selama empat tahun berniat untuk menjadi kapten industry dan seorang percenter
262
00:17:21,500 --> 00:17:25,600
and I think it just made him bananas
dan saya pikir itu hanya menjadikannya pisang[?]
263
00:17:25,800 --> 00:17:28,900
In 2005 after only one year of college
pada 2005, hanya setelah satu tahun kuliah
264
00:17:28,923 --> 00:17:32,302
Swartz was offered a spot at a new startup incubation firm
Swartz ditawari tempat di sebuah perusahaan startup inkubasi baru
265
00:17:32,312 --> 00:17:36,130
called Y Combinator, led by Paul Graham
yang disebut Y yang dipimpin oleh Paul Graham
266
00:17:36,283 --> 00:17:39,223
He's like, "Hey, I have this idea for a website!"
Dia bilang, "hey, saya punya ide untuk situs web"
267
00:17:39,272 --> 00:17:41,876
and Paul Graham likes him enough and says
dan Paul Graham cukup menyukainya dan
268
00:17:41,941 --> 00:17:46,174
"Yeah, sure!", so Aaron drops out of school, moves to this apartment
dan, ya, Aaron keluar dari kampus dan pindah ke apartemen ini
269
00:17:46,247 --> 00:17:48,942
So this used to be Aaron's apartment when he lived here
Maka ini dulunya apartemen Aaron ketika dia tinggal di sini
270
00:17:48,952 --> 00:17:55,163
I have big memories of my father telling me how difficult it was to get a lease
memori berkesan saya tentang ayah saya yang menceritakan bagaimana susahnya untuk mengontrak
271
00:17:55,701 --> 00:17:58,491
cause Aaron had no credit and he dropped out of college
karena Aaron tidak punya kredit dan keluar dari kampus
272
00:17:58,501 --> 00:18:00,644
Aaron lived in what's now the living room
Aaron tinggal di tempat yang sekarang adalah ruang tamu
273
00:18:00,654 --> 00:18:04,346
and some of the posters are left over from when Aaron lived here
dan beberapa poster di sini adalah sisa dari ketika Aaron tinggal di sini
274
00:18:04,356 --> 00:18:08,800
and the library, there are more books, but, a lot of them are Aaron's
dan perpustakaan, ada banyak buku, tapi kebanyakan milik Aaron
275
00:18:11,500 --> 00:18:17,400
Aaron's Y Combinator site was called "infogami", a tool to build websites
situs Aaron disebut "infogami", sebuat alat untuk membangun situs web
276
00:18:17,476 --> 00:18:19,774
but infogami struggles to find users
tapi infogami kesulitan menemukan pengguna
277
00:18:19,800 --> 00:18:22,019
and Swartz eventually merges his company
dan Swartz akhirya menggabungkan perusahaannya
278
00:18:22,029 --> 00:18:24,790
with another Y Combinator project in need of help
dengan proyek Y Combinator lain yang membutuhkan bantuan
279
00:18:24,800 --> 00:18:29,700
it was a project headed by Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian called "reddit"
Proyek yang dipimpin oleh Steve Huffman dan Alexis Ohanian itu adalah "reddit"
280
00:18:29,774 --> 00:18:33,735
There we were starting from almost nothing, no users, no money, no code
Kami mulai dari nol, tidak aada pengguna, tidak uang, tidak ada baris kode
281
00:18:33,745 --> 00:18:36,865
and growing day by day into a hugely popular website
dan tumbuh hari demi hari menjadi situs web yang pupoler
282
00:18:37,200 --> 00:18:38,840
and it showed no signs of letting up
itu menunjukan -------
283
00:18:38,850 --> 00:18:44,310
first we had a thousand users, than 10,000, then 20,000 and on and on, it's just incredible
pertama kita punya sekitar seribu pengguna, kemudian, 10.000, kemudian 20.000, dan begitu seterusnya, luar biasa.
284
00:18:49,025 --> 00:18:51,690
reddit becomes huge and it's a real sort of geeky corner of the Internet
reddit menjadi besar, menjadi semacam pojokan internet untuk geeks
285
00:18:51,700 --> 00:18:57,100
There's a lot of humor, there's a lot of art
Banyak lelucon (meme), karya seni
286
00:18:57,300 --> 00:19:01,100
and there's just people who flocked to the site
dan orang-orang berbondong-bondong mengunjungi situs itu
287
00:19:01,300 --> 00:19:07,500
and made that site the main site they go to every morning to get their news.
dan menjadi situs yang mereka kunjungi setiap pagi untuk mendapat kabar/berita baru.
288
00:19:07,600 --> 00:19:15,500
"reddit" kind of just borders on chaos at some level, so on the one hand its a place where people discuss
reddit menjadi semacam tempat benturan, pada satu titik ia menjadi tempat berdiskusi bagi orang-orang
289
00:19:15,600 --> 00:19:21,800
...news of the day, technology, politics and issues and yet there is a lot of kind of not safe for work
...berita hari ini, teknologi, politik dan isu tertentu dan bahkan banyak konten vulgar
290
00:19:21,900 --> 00:19:29,800
...material, offensive material. Some subreddits where "trolls", "find a welcome home"
...konten yang bersifat menyerang/ngetroll. Beberapa subreddit termasuk "trolls"
291
00:19:29,900 --> 00:19:33,800
and so in that sense, reddit has been home to controversy as well
dan dalam konteks ini, reddit menjadi tempat bagi kontroversi juga.
292
00:19:33,900 --> 00:19:36,700
It kind of sits on that edge of chaos.
It's kind of sits on the edge of chaos.
293
00:19:36,900 --> 00:19:40,690
reddit catches the attention of the corporate magazine giant "Condé Nast"
reddit sempat menarik perhatian dari raksasa majalah korporsai, "Condé Nast"
294
00:19:40,700 --> 00:19:40,790
...who makes an offer to buy the company.
...yang menawarkan untuk membeli reddit
295
00:19:40,800 --> 00:19:42,590
...who makes an offer to buy the company.
...yang menawarkan untuk membeli reddit
296
00:19:42,600 --> 00:19:43,890
Some large amount of money,
Jumlah uang yang besar.
297
00:19:43,900 --> 00:19:46,990
large enough that my dad was getting bugged with questions about like
jumlahnya cukup besar sampai membuat ayah saya terganggu dengan pertanyaan semacam,
298
00:19:47,000 --> 00:19:51,300
"How do I... store this money?"
"Bagaimana aku... harus menyimpan uang sebanyak ini?"
299
00:19:51,400 --> 00:19:53,890
Interviewer: Like a lot of money Noah: Like a lot of money
Pewawancara: Sepertinya jumlah uang yang sangat banyak. Noah: Ya, sangat banyak.
300
00:19:53,900 --> 00:20:00,200
Like... probably more than a million dollars. But I don't actually know.
Mungkin... mungkin lebih dari satu juta dollar. Tapi persisnya saya tidak tahu.
301
00:20:00,200 --> 00:20:02,000
And he is how old at the time?
Saat itu Aaron berumur berapa?
302
00:20:02,100 --> 00:20:03,200
Nineteen? Twenty?
Sembilan belas, atau dua puluh?
303
00:20:05,100 --> 00:20:13,500
So he was in this apartment, they are like sat around on what predated these couches, hacking on reddit and...
Jadi dia di apartemen ini, mereka duduk di sofa ini, mengerjakan reddit, dan...
304
00:20:13,600 --> 00:20:18,390
when they sold reddit they threw a giant party and then all flew out to California
ketika mereka menjual reddit, mereka mengadakan pesta besar dan semua terbang ke California
305
00:20:18,400 --> 00:20:20,740
the next day and left the keys with me.
di hari berikutnya, dan meninggalkan kunci apartemen kepadaku
306
00:20:23,700 --> 00:20:28,890
It was funny you know, he just sold a startup so we all kind of presumed he was the richest person around...
Agak lucu, dia baru saja menjual perusahaannya jadi kami beranggapan dia orang terkaya di sini
307
00:20:28,900 --> 00:20:34,120
but he said "Oh, no. I'll take this tiny little shoe box sized room, that's all I need"
tapi dia bilang, "Oh, enggak. Aku akan ambil ruangan kecil ini, hanya itu yang kubutuhkan."
308
00:20:34,200 --> 00:20:36,193
...like it was barely larger than a closet.
...hampir tidak lebih besar dari lemari.
309
00:20:36,203 --> 00:20:42,500
The idea of him spending his money on fancy objects just seems so implausible.
Kalau dia menghabiskan uangnya untuk hal-hal mewah, terlihat tidak masuk akal
310
00:20:42,700 --> 00:20:44,833
He explains, it's like "I like living in apartments,
Dia jelasin, seperti, "AKu suka tinggal di apartemen ini,
311
00:20:44,843 --> 00:20:48,128
so I'm not gonna spend a lot of money on a new place to live, I'm not gonna buy a mansion
jadi aku tidak akan membuang banyak uang untuk tempat baru. Aku tidak akan membeli rumah besar
312
00:20:48,138 --> 00:20:49,830
... and I like wearing jeans and a t-shirt,
... dan aku juga suka pakai jins dan kaos oblong
313
00:20:49,840 --> 00:20:54,590
so I am not gonna spend any more money on clothes. So like, it's really no big deal."
jadi aku tidak akan keluarin uang lagi untuk pakaian lain. Jadi, itu bukan hal besar."
314
00:20:54,600 --> 00:21:00,500
What is a big deal to Swartz is how traffic flows on the Internet and what commands our attention.
Hal besar bagi Swartz adalah bagaimana arus data berputar di internet dan yang menarik perhatian kita
315
00:21:00,600 --> 00:21:04,890
In the old system of broadcasting you're fundamentally limited by the amount of space in the airwaves.
Pada sistem penyiaran lama, secara mendasar kita terbatas pada ruang yang terdapat pada gelombang
316
00:21:04,900 --> 00:21:09,590
You know, you could only send out 10 channels over the airwaves for television,
Kamu hanya bisa mengirim 10 saluran untuk gelombang TV
317
00:21:09,600 --> 00:21:13,290
or even with cables you have 500 channels. On the Internet everybody can have a channel.
atau dengan kabel, hanya 500 saluran. Di internet, semua orang punya saluran.
318
00:21:13,300 --> 00:21:17,890
Everyone can get a blog or a Myspace page. Everyone has a way of expressing themselves.
Setiap orang bisa punya blog sendiri atau halaman Myspace. Semua orang punya cara tersendiri untuk mengekspresikan diri
319
00:21:17,900 --> 00:21:19,890
And so what you see now is not a question of
Jadi apa yang kamu lihat sekarang adalah pertanyaan semacam
320
00:21:19,900 --> 00:21:24,890
"who gets access to the airwaves?". It's the question of "who gets control over the ways you find people?"
"Siapa yang punya akses ke gelombang tadi?". Pertanyaan yang sama dengan, "Siapa yang mengontrol cara kita menemukan orang?"
321
00:21:24,900 --> 00:21:29,490
You know you start seeing power centralizing in sites like Google, these sort of gatekeepers that tell you
Kamu mulai melihat kekuatan mulai terpusat di situs seperti Google, mereka semacam penjaga gerbang internet yang memberi tahumu
322
00:21:29,500 --> 00:21:34,590
where on the Internet you want to go. The people who provide you your sources of news and information.
tempat-tempat yang ingin kamu tuju di internet. Orang-orang yang menyediakan sumber berita dan informasi untukmu.
323
00:21:34,600 --> 00:21:39,490
So it's not, you know, "only certain people have a license to speak", now everyone has a license to speak.
Jadi, bukan seperti, "hanya beberapa orang yang memiliki izin untuk berbicara.", sekarang semua orang memiliki izin untuk berbicara.
324
00:21:39,500 --> 00:21:41,660
It's a question of "who gets heard?"
Ini tentang pertanyaan, "Siapa yang akan didengar?"
325
00:21:44,400 --> 00:21:49,700
After he started working in San Francisco at Condé Nast, he comes into the office
Setelah dia mulai bekerja di San Francisco di Condé Nast, dia datang ke kantor
326
00:21:49,800 --> 00:21:55,500
and they want to give him a computer with all this crap installed on it and say that he can't
dan mereka ingin memberinya komputer dengan pernak-pernik yang sudah terpasang dan dia tidak diizinkan
327
00:21:55,600 --> 00:21:59,490
install any new things on this computer, which to a developer is outrageous, right?
memasang perangkat lunak baru apa pun di komputer ini, yang untuk seorang pengembang perangkat lunak, sangat menghina, bukan?
328
00:21:59,500 --> 00:22:03,040
From the first day he was complaining about all this stuff.
Dari hari pertama dia sudah memprotes hal-hal semacam ini
329
00:22:05,600 --> 00:22:10,890
Gray walls, gray desks, gray noise. The first day I showed up here, I simply couldn't take it.
Tembok abu, meja abu, kebisingan abu. Dari hari pertama saya hadir di sini, saya tidak tahan.
330
00:22:10,900 --> 00:22:14,890
By lunch time I had literally locked myself in a bathroom stall and started crying.
Saat makan siang saya benar-benar mengunci diri saya di kamar mandi dan mulai menangis
331
00:22:14,900 --> 00:22:18,420
I can't imagine staying sane with someone buzzing in my ear all day
Tidak bisa saya bayangkan, bisa tetap warass bersama orang yang berisik di telinga saya sepanjang hari
332
00:22:18,430 --> 00:22:20,770
let alone getting any actual work done.
sambil berusaha menyelesaikan pekerjaan.
333
00:22:21,400 --> 00:22:23,890
Nobody else seems to get work done here either.
Kelihatannya tidak seorangpun dapat menyelesaikan pekerjaan mereka.
334
00:22:23,900 --> 00:22:26,740
Everybody's always coming into our room to hang out and chat
Orang-orang selalu datang dan pergi dan mengobrol
335
00:22:26,750 --> 00:22:30,890
or invite us to play the new video game system that Wired is testing.
atau mengundang kami memainkan video gim yang sedang diujicoba oleh Wired
336
00:22:32,700 --> 00:22:39,600
He really had different aspirations, that were politically oriented. And Silicon Valley
Dia punya aspirasi yang berbeda, dan berorientasi politik. Dan Silicon Valley
337
00:22:39,700 --> 00:22:46,600
just doesn't really quite have that culture that orients technical activity for the purposes
tidak benar-benar punya budaya yang mengutamakan aktivias teknis
338
00:22:46,700 --> 00:22:50,290
of political goals. Aaron hated working for a corporation. They all hate
untuk tujuan politik tertentu. Aaron benci bekerja untuk perusahaan. Mereka semua terliaht
339
00:22:50,300 --> 00:22:53,290
working for Condé Nast but Aaron is like the only one who is not going to take it.
tidka suka bekerja untuk Condé Nast tapi hanya Aaron yang tidak tahan.
340
00:22:53,300 --> 00:22:57,800
And then basically he gets himself fired by not showing up to work, ever.
Dan akhirnya dia dipecat karena tidak pernah ngantor lagi.
341
00:23:01,000 --> 00:23:03,300
It was said to be a messy breakup.
Perpisahaan yang kacau.
342
00:23:03,500 --> 00:23:08,240
Both Alexis Ohanian and Steve Huffman declined to be interviewed for this film.
Baik Alexis Ohanian maupun Steve Huffman menolak diwawancarai untuk film ini.
343
00:23:09,400 --> 00:23:11,600
He rejected the business world.
Dia menolak dunia bisnis.
344
00:23:12,200 --> 00:23:16,100
One of the really important things to remember about
Salah satu hal penting yang perlu diingat mengenai
345
00:23:16,300 --> 00:23:19,890
that choice when Aaron decided to kind of leave startup culture,
pilihan Aaron untuk meninggalkan dunia startup,
346
00:23:19,900 --> 00:23:26,100
is that he was also leaving behind the things that had made him famous
adalah dia meninggalkan hal-hal yang membuat dia populer
347
00:23:26,300 --> 00:23:31,400
and well loved and, you know, he was at risk of letting down fans.
dan disukai dan, dia beresiko mengecewakan fansnya.
348
00:23:31,600 --> 00:23:34,090
He got to where he was supposed to be going,
Dia pergi ke tempat yang seharusnya
349
00:23:34,100 --> 00:23:39,500
and had the self-awareness and orneriness to realize
dan memiliki kesadaran penuh bahwa
350
00:23:39,700 --> 00:23:43,600
that he had climbed the mountain of shit to pluck the single rose
dia telah mendaki gunung penuh kotoran hanya untuk memetik sebuah mawar
351
00:23:43,700 --> 00:23:45,690
and discovered that he'd lost his sense of smell.
dan mendapati bahwa dia telah kehilangan indra penciumannya.
352
00:23:45,700 --> 00:23:50,100
And rather than sit there and insist that it wasn't as bad as it seemed
Dan alih-alih duduk di sana dan berkesimpulan bahwa ini tidak terlalu buruk
353
00:23:50,500 --> 00:23:57,200
and he did get the rose in any event, he climbed back down again, which is pretty cool!
dan dia mengambil mawar itu, dia turun kembali, yang kupikir, sangat keren.
354
00:23:57,500 --> 00:24:01,600
The way Aaron always thought is that programming is magic.
Pikiran Aaron yang belum berubah adalah, pemrograman komputer itu seperti sihir.
355
00:24:01,800 --> 00:24:06,690
You can accomplish these things that normal humans can't, by being able to program.
Kamu bisa melakukan sesuatu yang manusia normal tidak bisa, dengan memrogram komputer.
356
00:24:06,700 --> 00:24:13,800
So, if you had magical powers, would you use them for good, or to make you mountains of cash?
Jadi, jika kamu punya kekuatan sihir seperti itu, apakah digunakan untuk hal baik, atau untuk menciptakan gunung uang?
357
00:24:15,200 --> 00:24:18,690
Swartz was inspired by one of the visionaries he had met as a child,
Swartz terinspirasi oleh salah satu orang visioner yang dia temui saat masih kecil
358
00:24:18,700 --> 00:24:22,360
the man who had invented the World Wide Web: Tim Berners-Lee.
orang yang menciptakan Word Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee
359
00:24:22,600 --> 00:24:29,000
In the 1990s Berners-Lee was arguably sitting on one of the most lucrative inventions of the 20th century
360
00:24:29,200 --> 00:24:32,790
but instead of profiting from the invention of the World Wide Web,
361
00:24:32,800 --> 00:24:35,300
he gave it away for free.
362
00:24:35,800 --> 00:24:39,400
It is the only reason the World Wide Web exists today.
363
00:24:41,000 --> 00:24:44,600
Aaron is certainly deeply influenced by Tim.
364
00:24:44,700 --> 00:24:51,400
Tim is certainly a very prominent early Internet genius who doesn't, in any sense, cash out.
365
00:24:51,600 --> 00:24:55,890
He's not at all interested in how he's going figure out how to make a billion dollars.
366
00:24:55,900 --> 00:24:57,790
People would have seen "Oh, there's money to be made there!"
367
00:24:57,800 --> 00:25:01,190
so there would have been lots of little webs, instead of one big one.
368
00:25:01,200 --> 00:25:04,400
And one little web and also which doesn't work.
369
00:25:04,600 --> 00:25:07,780
Because you can't follow links from one to the other.
370
00:25:09,900 --> 00:25:13,690
Now you had to have the critical masses, this thing was in the entire planet
371
00:25:13,700 --> 00:25:17,600
so is not gonna work unless the whole planet can get on-board.
372
00:25:22,200 --> 00:25:28,500
I mean I, you know, feel very strongly that it's not enough to just live in the world as it is
373
00:25:28,700 --> 00:25:33,590
to just, kind of, take what you're given and, you know, follow the things that adults told you to do
374
00:25:33,600 --> 00:25:37,490
and, you know, your parents told you to do and that society tells you to do.
375
00:25:37,500 --> 00:25:41,290
I think you should always be questioning, you know, I take this very scientific attitude
376
00:25:41,300 --> 00:25:42,890
that everything you've learned is just provisional
377
00:25:42,900 --> 00:25:46,890
that, you know, is always open to recantation or refutation or questioning.
378
00:25:46,900 --> 00:25:49,400
And I think the same applies to society
379
00:25:49,600 --> 00:25:52,390
Once I realized that there where real serious problems,
380
00:25:52,400 --> 00:25:55,090
fundamental problems that I could do something to address
381
00:25:55,100 --> 00:25:58,760
I didn't see a way to forget that, I didn't see a way not to.
382
00:26:02,200 --> 00:26:06,400
We just started spending a lot of time, just kind of as friends,
383
00:26:08,800 --> 00:26:11,380
We would just talk for hours into the night
384
00:26:14,300 --> 00:26:17,390
I definitely should have understood that he was flirting with me.
385
00:26:17,400 --> 00:26:19,380
I think to some degree I was like
386
00:26:19,400 --> 00:26:24,800
"This is a terrible idea and impossible and therefore I will pretend it is not happening".
387
00:26:25,200 --> 00:26:29,390
As my marriage was breaking down and I was really stuck without anywhere to go
388
00:26:29,400 --> 00:26:32,500
we became roommates and I brought my daughter over.
389
00:26:34,200 --> 00:26:39,290
We moved in and furnished the house, and it was really peaceful, like, my life had not been peaceful for a while
390
00:26:39,300 --> 00:26:41,040
and, really, neither had his.
391
00:26:46,000 --> 00:26:53,600
We were extremely close, from the beginning of our romantic relationship.
392
00:26:53,700 --> 00:26:57,000
We just, we were in constant contact.
393
00:26:57,500 --> 00:27:02,000
But we're both really difficult people to deal with.
394
00:27:04,720 --> 00:27:07,100
In a very Ally McBeal discussion,
395
00:27:07,200 --> 00:27:10,980
he confessed he had a theme song and I made him play it for me.
396
00:27:12,200 --> 00:27:14,960
It was "Extraordinary Machine" by Fiona Apple.
397
00:27:16,600 --> 00:27:21,900
I think it was just that sense of, kind of, being a little bit embattled
398
00:27:22,000 --> 00:27:28,400
that the song has. And it also had like this hopefulness, too.
399
00:27:36,590 --> 00:27:41,900
In many ways, Aaron was tremendously optimistic about life.
400
00:27:41,970 --> 00:27:44,390
Even when he didn't feel it.
401
00:27:44,500 --> 00:27:47,320
He could be tremendously optimistic about life.
402
00:27:53,400 --> 00:27:57,700
Aaron: What are you doing?
Quinn: Flickr has video now
403
00:27:59,000 --> 00:28:04,800
Swartz threw his energy into a string of new projects involving access to public information
404
00:28:04,900 --> 00:28:08,600
including an accountability website called "Watchdog.net"
405
00:28:08,650 --> 00:28:10,790
and a project called the "Open Library".
406
00:28:10,800 --> 00:28:13,400
So the Open Library project is a website,
407
00:28:13,450 --> 00:28:17,340
that you can visit at openlibrary.org and the idea is to be huge wiki,
408
00:28:17,350 --> 00:28:19,930
an editable website with one page per book.
409
00:28:20,062 --> 00:28:23,590
So for every book ever published you wanna have a web page about it
410
00:28:23,600 --> 00:28:25,856
that combines all the information from publishers,
411
00:28:25,866 --> 00:28:29,084
from book sellers, from libraries, from readers
412
00:28:29,310 --> 00:28:31,181
under one site and then gives you links
413
00:28:31,191 --> 00:28:34,630
where you can buy it, you can borrow it, or you can browse it.
414
00:28:34,640 --> 00:28:37,190
I love libraries, you know, I'm the kind of person who goes
415
00:28:37,200 --> 00:28:39,690
to a new city and immediately seeks out the library.
416
00:28:39,700 --> 00:28:42,638
That's the dream of Open library, is building this website
417
00:28:42,648 --> 00:28:46,010
where both you can leap from book to book, from person to author
418
00:28:46,020 --> 00:28:50,142
from subject to idea. You go through this vast tree of knowledge
419
00:28:50,195 --> 00:28:52,690
that has been embedded and lost in big physical libraries,
420
00:28:52,700 --> 00:28:55,670
that's hard to find, that's not very well accessible on-line,
421
00:28:55,680 --> 00:28:58,976
it's really important because books are our cultural legacy,
422
00:28:58,986 --> 00:29:02,290
you know, books are the place people go to write things down,
423
00:29:02,300 --> 00:29:04,683
and to have that all swallowed up by one corporation,
424
00:29:04,693 --> 00:29:06,222
is kind of scary.
425
00:29:06,871 --> 00:29:10,737
How can you bring public access to the public domain?
426
00:29:10,780 --> 00:29:14,816
It may sound obvious, that you'd have public access to public domain,
427
00:29:14,826 --> 00:29:19,410
but in fact it's not true. So the public domain should be free to all,
428
00:29:19,670 --> 00:29:21,170
but it's often locked up.
429
00:29:21,395 --> 00:29:25,500
There's often guard gates, it is just like having national park
430
00:29:25,600 --> 00:29:29,093
but with a moat around it and gun turrets pointed out
431
00:29:29,120 --> 00:29:33,012
in case somebody might want to actually come and enjoy the public domain.
432
00:29:33,022 --> 00:29:36,562
One of the things Aaron was particularly interested in, was
433
00:29:36,600 --> 00:29:39,306
bringing public access to the public domain.
434
00:29:39,368 --> 00:29:42,968
This is one of the things that got him into so much trouble.
435
00:29:46,106 --> 00:29:52,240
I had been trying to get access to federal court records in the United States.
436
00:29:54,400 --> 00:29:58,906
What I discovered was a puzzling system called "PACER",
437
00:29:59,040 --> 00:30:02,888
which stands for "Public Access to Court Electronic Records"
438
00:30:03,048 --> 00:30:07,500
I started googling and that's when I ran across Carl Malamud.
439
00:30:08,835 --> 00:30:14,897
Access to legal materials in the United States is a 10 billion dollar per year business.
440
00:30:15,004 --> 00:30:20,097
PACER is just this incredible abomination of government service.
441
00:30:20,100 --> 00:30:25,333
It's 10 cents a page, it's this most brain dead code you've ever seen.
442
00:30:25,377 --> 00:30:29,590
You can't search it, you can't bookmark anything, you got to have a credit card.
443
00:30:29,600 --> 00:30:34,640
and these are public records, it's, you know, US district courts are very important,
444
00:30:35,600 --> 00:30:38,425
it's where a lot of our seminal litigations starts, civil right cases,
445
00:30:38,435 --> 00:30:42,500
patent cases, all sorts of stuff, and journalists, and students,
446
00:30:42,600 --> 00:30:48,500
and citizens and lawyers all need access to PACER and it fights them every step of the way.
447
00:30:48,551 --> 00:30:51,857
People without means can't see the law
448
00:30:51,893 --> 00:30:55,083
as readily as people that have that gold American express card.
449
00:30:55,093 --> 00:30:57,800
It's a poll tax on access to justice.
450
00:30:57,800 --> 00:31:04,800
You know the law is the operating system of our democracy and you have to pay to see it?
451
00:31:04,900 --> 00:31:07,180
You know, that's not a much of democracy.
452
00:31:07,190 --> 00:31:11,964
They make about a 120 million dollars a year on the PACER system,
453
00:31:11,982 --> 00:31:16,700
and it doesn't cost anything near that according to their own records.
454
00:31:16,730 --> 00:31:18,364
In fact, it's illegal
455
00:31:18,906 --> 00:31:23,964
the "e-Government Act" of 2002 states that the courts may charge
456
00:31:24,008 --> 00:31:30,700
only to the extent necessary in order to reimburse the cost of running PACER.
457
00:31:34,620 --> 00:31:37,386
As the founder of public.resource.org,
458
00:31:37,466 --> 00:31:40,408
Malamud wanted to protest the PACER charges.
459
00:31:40,530 --> 00:31:44,016
He started a programme called "The PACER recycling Project",
460
00:31:44,026 --> 00:31:47,625
where people could upload PACER documents they had already paid for
461
00:31:47,635 --> 00:31:50,043
to a free database so others can use them.
462
00:31:50,053 --> 00:31:53,150
The PACER people were getting a lot of flak from congress
463
00:31:53,160 --> 00:31:56,701
and others about public access and so they put together this system
464
00:31:56,711 --> 00:32:01,700
in 17 libraries across the country that was free PACER access.
465
00:32:01,800 --> 00:32:05,875
You know, that's 1 library every 22,000 square miles I believe.
466
00:32:05,902 --> 00:32:07,882
So wasn't like really convenient.
467
00:32:08,035 --> 00:32:11,755
I encouraged volunteers to join the so called ThumbDrive corp.
468
00:32:12,080 --> 00:32:17,030
and download docs from the public access libraries and upload them to the PACER recycling site.
469
00:32:17,040 --> 00:32:19,270
People take a ThumbDrive into one of these libraries
470
00:32:19,280 --> 00:32:23,012
and they download a bunch of documents and they send them to me.
471
00:32:23,022 --> 00:32:24,853
I mean, it was just a joke
472
00:32:24,888 --> 00:32:28,594
In fact when you click on ThumbDrive corps there was a "Wizard of Oz"
473
00:32:28,604 --> 00:32:31,700
you know the Munchkin singing video clip came up.
474
00:32:35,288 --> 00:32:38,630
But of course I get this phone call from Steve Schultze and Aaron
475
00:32:38,640 --> 00:32:42,700
saying "Gee! We would like to join the Thumbdrive corp!"
476
00:32:43,440 --> 00:32:47,466
Around that time, I ran into Aaron at a conference.
477
00:32:47,490 --> 00:32:51,590
This is something that really has to be a collaboration between a lot of different people.
478
00:32:51,600 --> 00:32:53,786
So I approached him and said
479
00:32:53,840 --> 00:32:58,110
"Hey, I am thinking about an intervention on the PACER problem."
480
00:33:00,000 --> 00:33:02,114
Schultze had already developed a program
481
00:33:02,124 --> 00:33:06,490
that could automatically download PACER documents from the trial libraries.
482
00:33:06,500 --> 00:33:08,462
Swartz wanted to take a look.
483
00:33:08,657 --> 00:33:13,653
So I showed him the code and I didn't know what would come next,
484
00:33:13,733 --> 00:33:18,942
but as it turns out, over the course of the next few hours at that conference,
485
00:33:18,977 --> 00:33:22,071
he was off sitting in a corner, improving my code,
486
00:33:22,097 --> 00:33:26,515
recruiting a friend of his that lived near one of these libraries,
487
00:33:26,560 --> 00:33:31,653
to go into the library and to begin to test his improved code,
488
00:33:32,080 --> 00:33:38,293
at which point the folks at the courts realized something's not going quite according to plan.
489
00:33:38,337 --> 00:33:42,311
And data started to come in... and come in... and come in...
490
00:33:42,355 --> 00:33:47,500
and soon there were 760 GigaBytes of PACER docs, about 20 million pages.
491
00:33:48,740 --> 00:33:51,955
Using information retrieved from the trial libraries,
492
00:33:51,982 --> 00:33:57,130
Swartz was conducting massive automated parallel downloading of the PACER system.
493
00:33:57,288 --> 00:34:01,500
He was able to acquire nearly 2.7 million federal court documents,
494
00:34:01,600 --> 00:34:04,275
almost 20 million pages of text.
495
00:34:04,320 --> 00:34:07,500
Now, I'll grant you that 20 million pages had perhaps
496
00:34:07,530 --> 00:34:11,850
exceeded the expectations of the people running the pilot access project
497
00:34:11,884 --> 00:34:14,500
but surprising a bureaucrat isn't illegal.
498
00:34:14,862 --> 00:34:19,500
Aaron and Carl decided to go talk to the New York Times about what happened.
499
00:34:20,070 --> 00:34:22,737
They also caught the attention of the FBI.
500
00:34:22,950 --> 00:34:26,490
who began to stake-out Swartz's parent's house in Illinois.
501
00:34:26,570 --> 00:34:31,004
I get a tweet from his mother saying: "Call me!!"
502
00:34:31,102 --> 00:34:33,560
I thought "What the hell is going on here?"
503
00:34:33,570 --> 00:34:36,570
and so I finally got a hold of Aaron and, you know
504
00:34:36,640 --> 00:34:39,700
Aaron's mother was like "Oh my god, FBI! FBI! FBI!"
505
00:34:40,151 --> 00:34:46,133
An FBI agent drives down our home's driveway trying to see if Aaron is in his room.
506
00:34:47,500 --> 00:34:50,283
and I remember being home that day and wondering why
507
00:34:50,293 --> 00:34:53,714
this car was driving down our driveway and just driving back out,
508
00:34:53,724 --> 00:34:55,500
That's weird!
509
00:34:56,500 --> 00:34:59,581
Like 5 years later, I read this FBI file and I'm like
510
00:34:59,591 --> 00:35:00,830
Oh my goodness!
511
00:35:01,503 --> 00:35:03,153
that was the FBI agent
512
00:35:04,208 --> 00:35:05,192
in my driveway.
513
00:35:05,418 --> 00:35:08,075
He was terrified, he was totally terrified.
514
00:35:09,717 --> 00:35:13,623
He was way more terrified after the FBI actually
515
00:35:13,896 --> 00:35:16,630
called him up on the phone, tried to sucker him into
516
00:35:16,640 --> 00:35:19,030
coming down to a coffee shop without a lawyer.
517
00:35:19,040 --> 00:35:21,792
He said he went home and laid down on the bed
518
00:35:21,792 --> 00:35:23,790
and, you know, was shaking.
519
00:35:25,620 --> 00:35:27,782
The downloading also uncovered massive
520
00:35:27,792 --> 00:35:30,312
privacy violations in the court documents.
521
00:35:30,390 --> 00:35:34,650
Ultimately, the courts were forced to change their policies as a result
522
00:35:35,152 --> 00:35:38,992
and the FBI closed their investigation without bringing charges.
523
00:35:39,628 --> 00:35:43,068
To this day I find it remarkable that anybody,
524
00:35:43,260 --> 00:35:47,007
even at the most remote Podunk field office of the FBI,
525
00:35:47,317 --> 00:35:49,792
thought that a fitting use for taxpayer dollars
526
00:35:49,802 --> 00:35:53,049
was investigating people for criminal theft
527
00:35:53,124 --> 00:35:55,731
on the grounds that they had made the law public.
528
00:35:55,741 --> 00:35:57,952
How can you call yourself a lawman,
529
00:35:58,291 --> 00:36:01,872
and think that there can possibly be anything wrong in this whole world
530
00:36:01,882 --> 00:36:03,502
with making the law public?
531
00:36:03,736 --> 00:36:06,263
Aaron was willing to put himself at risk
532
00:36:06,447 --> 00:36:08,800
for the causes that he believed in.
533
00:36:09,576 --> 00:36:11,336
Bothered by wealth disparity,
534
00:36:11,557 --> 00:36:13,440
Swartz moves beyond technology
535
00:36:13,468 --> 00:36:15,985
into a broader range of political causes.
536
00:36:16,225 --> 00:36:18,745
I went into congress, and I invited him to
537
00:36:18,823 --> 00:36:21,583
come and hangout and intern for us for a while
538
00:36:21,712 --> 00:36:25,072
so that he could learn, you know, the political process.
539
00:36:25,303 --> 00:36:27,815
He was sort of learning about a new community
540
00:36:27,825 --> 00:36:29,190
and a new set of skills
541
00:36:29,200 --> 00:36:31,480
and kind of learning to hack politics.
542
00:36:31,505 --> 00:36:34,305
It seems ridiculous that miners should have to hammer away
543
00:36:34,315 --> 00:36:36,691
until they whole bodies are dripping with sweat,
544
00:36:36,701 --> 00:36:38,893
faced with the knowledge that if they dare to stop
545
00:36:38,903 --> 00:36:41,359
they won't be able to put food on the table that night,
546
00:36:41,369 --> 00:36:43,919
while I get to make larger and larger amounts of money each day
547
00:36:43,929 --> 00:36:45,849
just by sitting and watching TV.
548
00:36:46,592 --> 00:36:48,932
But apparently the world is ridiculous.
549
00:36:49,520 --> 00:36:51,251
So, I co-founded a group called
550
00:36:51,261 --> 00:36:53,119
the "Progressive Change Campaign Committee"
551
00:36:53,129 --> 00:36:56,135
and what we try and do is we try and organize people over the Internet
552
00:36:56,145 --> 00:36:58,126
who care about progressive politics
553
00:36:58,136 --> 00:37:00,286
and moving the country in a more progressive direction,
554
00:37:00,296 --> 00:37:01,736
to kind of come together
555
00:37:01,800 --> 00:37:03,360
join our e-mail list, join our campaigns,
556
00:37:03,370 --> 00:37:06,262
help get progressive candidates elected all across the country.
557
00:37:06,272 --> 00:37:09,260
The group is responsible for igniting the grassroots efforts
558
00:37:09,270 --> 00:37:12,870
behind the campaign to elect Elizabeth Warren to the Senate.
559
00:37:13,032 --> 00:37:15,342
He might have thought it was a dumb system, but
560
00:37:15,352 --> 00:37:17,678
he came in and he said I need to learn this system,
561
00:37:17,688 --> 00:37:21,478
cause it can be manipulated, like any, you know, like any social system.
562
00:37:21,488 --> 00:37:23,894
But his passion for knowledge and libraries
563
00:37:23,904 --> 00:37:25,344
didn't take a back seat.
564
00:37:25,744 --> 00:37:27,286
Aaron began to take a closer look
565
00:37:27,296 --> 00:37:30,596
at institutions that publish academic journal articles.
566
00:37:31,248 --> 00:37:33,942
By virtue of being students at a major US university
567
00:37:33,952 --> 00:37:38,152
I assume that you have access to a wide variety of scholarly journals.
568
00:37:38,384 --> 00:37:41,190
Pretty much every major university in the United States
569
00:37:41,200 --> 00:37:42,822
pays these sort of licensing fees
570
00:37:42,832 --> 00:37:46,072
to organizations like JSTOR and Thompson ISI
571
00:37:46,496 --> 00:37:49,056
to get access to scholarly journals that
572
00:37:49,096 --> 00:37:50,950
the rest of the world can't read.
573
00:37:50,960 --> 00:37:53,180
These scholarly journals and articles
574
00:37:53,248 --> 00:37:57,240
are essentially the entire wealth of human knowledge on-line
575
00:37:57,288 --> 00:38:00,168
and many have been payed for with taxpayer money
576
00:38:00,296 --> 00:38:02,040
or with government grants.
577
00:38:02,480 --> 00:38:05,120
But to read them you often have to pay again
578
00:38:05,130 --> 00:38:08,550
handing over steep fees to publishers like Reed Elsevier.
579
00:38:08,830 --> 00:38:11,142
These licensing fees are so substantial that
580
00:38:11,152 --> 00:38:12,985
people who are studying in India,
581
00:38:12,995 --> 00:38:15,094
instead of studying in the United States,
582
00:38:15,104 --> 00:38:16,870
don't have this kind of access.
583
00:38:16,880 --> 00:38:19,462
They're locked out from all of these journals.
584
00:38:19,472 --> 00:38:22,704
They're locked out from our entire scientific legacy.
585
00:38:22,992 --> 00:38:26,790
I mean, a lot of those journal articles, they go back to the enlightenment.
586
00:38:26,800 --> 00:38:29,600
Every time someone has written down a scientific paper,
587
00:38:29,610 --> 00:38:32,838
it has been scanned, digitized and put in these collections.
588
00:38:32,848 --> 00:38:35,568
That is a legacy that has been brought to us
589
00:38:35,768 --> 00:38:38,454
by the history of people doing interesting work,
590
00:38:38,464 --> 00:38:39,758
the history of scientists,
591
00:38:39,768 --> 00:38:43,382
it's a legacy that should belong to us as a commons, as a people
592
00:38:43,392 --> 00:38:45,900
but instead it's been locked down and put on-line
593
00:38:45,910 --> 00:38:48,448
by handful of for-profit corporations,
594
00:38:48,616 --> 00:38:52,156
who then try and get the maximum profit they can out of it.
595
00:38:53,376 --> 00:38:57,288
So, a researcher paid by the University, or the people
596
00:38:57,688 --> 00:39:01,030
publishes a paper and in the very, very last step of that process,
597
00:39:01,040 --> 00:39:03,480
after all the work is done, after all the original research is done,
598
00:39:03,490 --> 00:39:05,854
the thinking, the lab work, the analysis,
599
00:39:05,864 --> 00:39:08,478
after everything is done, at that last stage,
600
00:39:08,488 --> 00:39:11,750
then the researcher has to hand over his or her copyright
601
00:39:11,760 --> 00:39:13,980
to this multi-billion dollar company.
602
00:39:14,384 --> 00:39:15,280
And it's sick.
603
00:39:15,400 --> 00:39:18,206
It's an entire economy built on volunteer labour,
604
00:39:18,216 --> 00:39:21,734
and then the publishers sit at the very top and scrape off the cream.
605
00:39:21,744 --> 00:39:23,704
Talk about a scam!
606
00:39:23,976 --> 00:39:28,936
One publisher in Britain made a profit of 3 billion dollars last year.
607
00:39:28,976 --> 00:39:30,296
I mean, what a racket!
608
00:39:30,472 --> 00:39:33,944
JSTOR is just a very, very small player in that story,
609
00:39:33,976 --> 00:39:38,544
but for some reason JSTOR is the player that Aaron decided to confront.
610
00:39:41,616 --> 00:39:44,374
He'd gone to some conference around Open Access and Open Publishing,
611
00:39:44,384 --> 00:39:46,366
and I don't know who the person from JSTOR was,
612
00:39:46,376 --> 00:39:49,916
but I think they... at some point Aaron asked the question:
613
00:39:50,096 --> 00:39:53,456
"How much would it cost to open up JSTOR in perpetuity?"
614
00:39:54,368 --> 00:39:58,064
and they gave some... I think is 200 billion dollars
615
00:39:58,070 --> 00:40:00,958
something that Aaron thought was totally ridiculous.
616
00:40:00,968 --> 00:40:02,950
Working on a fellowship at Harvard
617
00:40:02,960 --> 00:40:07,392
he knew users on MIT's famously open and fast network next door
618
00:40:07,552 --> 00:40:10,328
had authorized access to the riches of JSTOR.
619
00:40:10,392 --> 00:40:12,320
Swartz saw an opportunity.
620
00:40:12,424 --> 00:40:14,320
You have a key to those gates,
621
00:40:14,400 --> 00:40:17,328
and, with a little bit of shell script magic
622
00:40:17,888 --> 00:40:19,988
you can get those journal articles.
623
00:40:21,024 --> 00:40:23,576
On September 24th 2010
624
00:40:23,752 --> 00:40:27,112
Swartz registered a newly purchased Acer laptop
625
00:40:27,136 --> 00:40:30,544
on the MIT network, under the name Gary Host.
626
00:40:31,088 --> 00:40:34,248
The client name was registered as "GHost_laptop"
627
00:40:35,544 --> 00:40:38,710
He doesn't hack JSTOR in the traditional sense of hacking.
628
00:40:38,720 --> 00:40:40,454
the JSTOR database was organized, so
629
00:40:40,464 --> 00:40:42,080
it was completely trivial to figure out
630
00:40:42,090 --> 00:40:44,454
how you could download all the articles in JSTOR
631
00:40:44,464 --> 00:40:45,580
because it was basically numbered
632
00:40:45,590 --> 00:40:48,398
it was basically "/" "/" "/" number article...
633
00:40:48,408 --> 00:40:52,630
...444024, and ...25 ...26
634
00:40:52,640 --> 00:40:55,406
He wrote a python script called “keepgrabbing.py”
635
00:40:55,416 --> 00:40:58,416
which, was keep grabbing one article after another
636
00:40:58,725 --> 00:41:01,825
The next day ghost laptop begins grabbing articles
637
00:41:02,020 --> 00:41:05,400
but soon, the computers IP address is blocked.
638
00:41:05,720 --> 00:41:08,400
For Swartz it's barely a bump in the road
639
00:41:08,420 --> 00:41:11,425
he quickly reassigns his computer IP address
640
00:41:11,425 --> 00:41:13,420
and keeps downloading.
641
00:41:13,420 --> 00:41:17,625
Well, JSTOR and MIT take a number of steps to try interfere with this
642
00:41:17,630 --> 00:41:19,520
when they noticed that this is happening.
643
00:41:19,530 --> 00:41:22,920
And when the more modest steps don't work, at a certain stage they,
644
00:41:22,930 --> 00:41:26,925
JSTOR, just cuts off MIT from having access to the JSTOR database.
645
00:41:26,930 --> 00:41:33,475
So this is a kind of a cat and mouse game, around getting access to the JSTOR database.
646
00:41:33,480 --> 00:41:35,825
Aaron ultimately, obviously is the cat
647
00:41:35,830 --> 00:41:42,075
because he has more technical capabilities than the JSTOR database people do defending them
648
00:41:42,675 --> 00:41:46,760
Eventually, there was an unlocked supply closet in the basement of one of the buildings.
649
00:41:46,770 --> 00:41:48,510
He went, instead of going through WiFi,
650
00:41:48,520 --> 00:41:51,010
he went down there and he just plugged his computer directly into the network.
651
00:41:51,020 --> 00:41:56,615
And just left it there with an external hard drive downloading these articles to the computer
652
00:41:56,625 --> 00:42:01,900
Unknown to Swartz, his laptop and hard drive had been found by authorities.
653
00:42:03,150 --> 00:42:08,325
They didn't stop the downloads. Instead, they installed a surveillance camera.
654
00:42:10,200 --> 00:42:14,670
They found the computer in this room in the basement of an MIT building.
655
00:42:14,675 --> 00:42:18,740
They could have unplugged it, they could have waited for the guy to come back
656
00:42:18,750 --> 00:42:23,640
and said "Dude, what are you doing? You know, cut it out. Who are you?"
657
00:42:23,650 --> 00:42:25,640
and they could have done all that kind of stuff, but they didn't.
658
00:42:25,650 --> 00:42:29,905
What they wanted to do was film it to gather evidences to make a case
659
00:42:29,920 --> 00:42:33,040
That's the only reason you film something like that.
660
00:42:38,100 --> 00:42:41,640
At first, the only person caught on the glitchy surveillance camera
661
00:42:41,650 --> 00:42:45,275
was using the closet as a place to store bottles and cans.
662
00:42:53,100 --> 00:42:56,025
But days later, it caught Swartz.
663
00:43:05,550 --> 00:43:11,215
Swartz is replacing a hard drive. He takes it out of his backpack,
664
00:43:11,220 --> 00:43:15,750
leans out of frame for about 5 minutes, and then leaves.
665
00:43:37,025 --> 00:43:42,150
And then they, like, organize like a stake-out where as he was biking home from MIT
666
00:43:42,325 --> 00:43:48,805
these cops came out from, like, either side of the road, or something like that, and started going after him
667
00:43:49,375 --> 00:43:55,000
He describes that he was pressed down and assaulted by the police
668
00:43:55,000 --> 00:43:57,800
he tells me that they... it's unclear that they were police
669
00:43:57,810 --> 00:44:02,100
that were after him, he thought that someone was trying to attack him.
670
00:44:02,150 --> 00:44:04,350
He does tell me they beat him up.
671
00:44:08,150 --> 00:44:09,500
I was just devastated.
672
00:44:09,525 --> 00:44:14,800
The notion of any kind of criminal prosecution for anyone in our family
673
00:44:14,800 --> 00:44:18,240
was so foreign and uncomprehensible, I didn't know what to do.
674
00:44:18,250 --> 00:44:21,310
Well, they execute search warrants at Aaron's house,
675
00:44:21,320 --> 00:44:24,775
his apartment in Cambridge and his office at Harvard.
676
00:44:27,670 --> 00:44:33,625
Two days before the arrest, the investigation had gone beyond JSTOR and the local Cambridge police,
677
00:44:33,775 --> 00:44:37,435
they had been taken over by the United States secret service.
678
00:44:37,550 --> 00:44:42,400
The secret service began investigating computer and credit card fraud in 1984,
679
00:44:42,600 --> 00:44:46,600
but 6 weeks after the attack on 9/11, their role expanded.
680
00:44:48,875 --> 00:44:51,065
President Bush used the "Patriot Act"
681
00:44:51,075 --> 00:44:55,575
to establish a network of what they called "Electronic Crimes Task Forces".
682
00:44:56,575 --> 00:45:01,590
The bill before me takes account of the new realities and dangers posed by modern terrorists.
683
00:45:01,600 --> 00:45:06,860
According to the secret service, they are primarily engaged in activity with economic impact,
684
00:45:06,870 --> 00:45:11,400
organized criminal groups or use of schemes involving new technology.
685
00:45:11,700 --> 00:45:16,190
The secret service turns Swartz's case over to the Boston US attorney's office.
686
00:45:16,200 --> 00:45:17,910
There was a guy in the US attorney's office
687
00:45:17,920 --> 00:45:22,240
who had the title "Head of the computer crimes division" or "task force"
688
00:45:22,300 --> 00:45:24,515
I don't know what else he had going
689
00:45:24,520 --> 00:45:27,390
but you're certainly not much of a computer crimes prosecutor
690
00:45:27,400 --> 00:45:31,365
without a computer crime to prosecute, so he jumped on it
691
00:45:31,370 --> 00:45:35,140
kept it for himself, didn't assign it to someone else within the office or the unit
692
00:45:35,150 --> 00:45:37,015
and that's Steve Heymann.
693
00:45:37,020 --> 00:45:41,990
Prosecutor Stephen Heymann has been largely out of public view since the arrest of Aaron Swartz,
694
00:45:42,000 --> 00:45:46,560
but he can be seen here in an episode of the television show "American Greed"
695
00:45:46,570 --> 00:45:48,640
filmed around the time of Aaron's arrest.
696
00:45:48,650 --> 00:45:53,510
He is describing his previous case against the notorious hacker Alberto Gonzalez,
697
00:45:53,525 --> 00:45:57,040
a case that garnered Heymann enormous press attention and accolades.
698
00:45:57,050 --> 00:46:02,065
Gonzalez masterminded the theft of over a hundred million credit card and ATM numbers
699
00:46:02,075 --> 00:46:04,325
the largest such fraud in history.
700
00:46:04,475 --> 00:46:09,675
Here Heymann, describing Gonzalez, gives his view on the hacker mindset.
701
00:46:10,200 --> 00:46:16,125
These guys are driven by a lot of the same things that we're driven by.
702
00:46:16,275 --> 00:46:22,240
They have an ego, they like challenge and of course they like money
703
00:46:22,250 --> 00:46:24,875
and everything you can get from money.
704
00:46:25,075 --> 00:46:27,660
One of the suspects implicated in the Gonzalez case
705
00:46:27,670 --> 00:46:30,000
was a young hacker named Jonathan James.
706
00:46:30,010 --> 00:46:33,115
Believing Gonzalez's crimes would be pinned on him
707
00:46:33,120 --> 00:46:36,060
James committed suicide during the investigation.
708
00:46:36,725 --> 00:46:41,240
In an early press release describing the government's position in the case of Aaron Swartz,
709
00:46:41,250 --> 00:46:46,365
Heymann's boss, US attorney for the district of Massachusetts, Carmen Ortiz said this:
710
00:46:46,375 --> 00:46:50,160
"Stealing is stealing, whether you use a computer command or a crowbar,
711
00:46:50,170 --> 00:46:53,090
and whether you take documents, data, or dollars."
712
00:46:53,100 --> 00:46:56,100
It's not true. It's obviously not true.
713
00:46:56,400 --> 00:46:58,790
I'm not saying it's harmless
714
00:46:58,800 --> 00:47:05,475
and I'm not saying that we shouldn't criminalize stealing of information,
715
00:47:06,100 --> 00:47:09,565
but you've gotta be much more subtle in trying to figure out
716
00:47:09,575 --> 00:47:13,675
exactly which kind of harms are harmful here.
717
00:47:14,950 --> 00:47:16,538
So the thing about a crowbar is,
718
00:47:16,548 --> 00:47:19,368
every time I break into a place with a crowbar,
719
00:47:19,497 --> 00:47:21,837
I do damage. There's no doubt about it.
720
00:47:21,988 --> 00:47:23,370
But when Aaron writes a script
721
00:47:23,380 --> 00:47:27,640
that says: "download, download, download", a hundred times in a second,
722
00:47:28,160 --> 00:47:30,440
there's no obvious damage, to anybody.
723
00:47:30,948 --> 00:47:33,567
If he does that for the purpose of gathering
724
00:47:33,577 --> 00:47:35,960
an archive to do academic research on it
725
00:47:35,970 --> 00:47:38,130
there's never any damage to anybody.
726
00:47:38,434 --> 00:47:42,685
He wasn't stealing, he wasn't selling what he got or giving it away
727
00:47:43,074 --> 00:47:45,654
he was making a point as far as I can tell.
728
00:47:45,782 --> 00:47:47,965
The arrest took its toll on Swartz.
729
00:47:48,308 --> 00:47:51,310
He just wouldn't talk about it, and he's like very stressed
730
00:47:51,320 --> 00:47:55,270
if you thought like the FBI was like, going to come to your doorstep
731
00:47:55,280 --> 00:47:59,030
any day, any time you went down the hall, even to do your laundry
732
00:47:59,040 --> 00:48:02,675
and they would break in to your apartment, because you left the door unlocked
733
00:48:02,685 --> 00:48:07,177
I'd be pretty stressed. And it was clear,
734
00:48:07,291 --> 00:48:11,074
And so Aaron was always sort of, in a dour mood.
735
00:48:18,420 --> 00:48:22,102
He wouldn't give off any sensitive information
736
00:48:22,110 --> 00:48:23,870
about his whereabouts during this time,
737
00:48:23,880 --> 00:48:27,660
because he was so afraid that the FBI would be waiting for him.
738
00:48:30,948 --> 00:48:34,777
It was a time of unprecedented social and political activism.
739
00:48:35,737 --> 00:48:39,988
Time magazine would later name as their 2011 person of the year
740
00:48:39,990 --> 00:48:41,337
"the protester"
741
00:48:42,651 --> 00:48:46,068
There was a kind of hotbed of hacker activity going on.
742
00:48:48,948 --> 00:48:53,817
WikiLeaks had released a trove of diplomatic cables
743
00:48:53,977 --> 00:48:57,040
Manning had been under arrest at the time,
744
00:48:57,074 --> 00:48:59,898
it was unknown whether she was the source of the leak.
745
00:48:59,908 --> 00:49:04,697
Anonymous which is a kind of protest ensemble
746
00:49:04,720 --> 00:49:07,474
that has lots of hackers in its ranks,
747
00:49:07,520 --> 00:49:11,440
were going on various sprees of sorts.
748
00:49:11,611 --> 00:49:14,205
If you compare that to what he did
749
00:49:14,342 --> 00:49:18,218
his stuff should have been left behind for MIT and JSTOR to deal with,
750
00:49:18,228 --> 00:49:22,057
in a kind of private, professional manner.
751
00:49:22,060 --> 00:49:28,262
It should have never gotten the attention of the criminal system,
752
00:49:28,720 --> 00:49:30,731
It just didn't belong there.
753
00:49:36,628 --> 00:49:39,910
Before he was indicted, Swartz was offered a plea deal,
754
00:49:39,920 --> 00:49:43,440
that involved three months in prison, time in a halfway house,
755
00:49:43,450 --> 00:49:45,257
and a year of home detention,
756
00:49:45,348 --> 00:49:47,508
all without the use of a computer.
757
00:49:47,908 --> 00:49:52,011
It was on the condition that Swartz plead guilty to a felony.
758
00:49:52,217 --> 00:49:56,480
Here we are, we have no discovery, no evidence whatsoever
759
00:49:56,560 --> 00:49:58,240
about what the government's case is,
760
00:49:58,250 --> 00:50:01,634
and we have to make this immense decision,
761
00:50:01,805 --> 00:50:05,794
where the lawyer is pushing you do this,
762
00:50:05,965 --> 00:50:09,714
the government is giving you a non-negotiable demand,
763
00:50:09,817 --> 00:50:13,098
and you're told that your likelihood of prevailing is small.
764
00:50:13,108 --> 00:50:17,485
So whether you're guilty or not you're better off taking the deal.
765
00:50:18,468 --> 00:50:21,108
Boston has its own computer crimes division.
766
00:50:21,588 --> 00:50:25,222
Lots of lawyers. Probably more lawyers than they need.
767
00:50:25,420 --> 00:50:28,662
So, you know, you can imagine all sorts of cases
768
00:50:28,674 --> 00:50:30,172
where it would be really hard to prosecute
769
00:50:30,182 --> 00:50:33,177
cause you've got some criminals in Russia,
770
00:50:33,188 --> 00:50:38,260
or you've got some people inside a corporation that are gonna have $500 lawyers
771
00:50:38,270 --> 00:50:41,234
or $700 a hour lawyers sitting down against you
772
00:50:41,290 --> 00:50:43,750
and then you got this case with this kid,
773
00:50:43,874 --> 00:50:47,565
which is pretty easy to prove that he did something,
774
00:50:47,570 --> 00:50:52,525
and he has already marked himself as a troublemaker with the FBI,
775
00:50:52,530 --> 00:50:56,502
so why not go as tough as you can in here[?] against that guy?
776
00:50:56,510 --> 00:50:57,818
It's good for you the prosecutor,
777
00:50:57,828 --> 00:51:02,190
it's good for the republic 'cause you're fighting all those terrorist types
778
00:51:02,200 --> 00:51:03,531
I was so scared,
779
00:51:03,577 --> 00:51:05,390
I was so scared of having my computer seized,
780
00:51:05,400 --> 00:51:07,327
I was so scared of going to jail,
781
00:51:07,337 --> 00:51:10,068
because of my computer being seized.
782
00:51:10,137 --> 00:51:13,268
I had confidential material from sources
783
00:51:13,302 --> 00:51:15,402
from my previous work on my laptop.
784
00:51:15,634 --> 00:51:18,760
And that is above all my priority,
785
00:51:18,770 --> 00:51:20,411
is to keep my sources safe.
786
00:51:20,502 --> 00:51:24,697
I was so scared of what was gonna happen to Ada
787
00:51:25,508 --> 00:51:28,208
Aaron told me that they'd offered him a deal,
788
00:51:28,331 --> 00:51:32,240
and he finally just said, that he would take it if I told him to
789
00:51:32,891 --> 00:51:35,862
and I came real close to saying "take it".
790
00:51:37,862 --> 00:51:42,800
He had these... he had developed, like, serious political aspirations
791
00:51:42,868 --> 00:51:46,408
in the intervening time between when, you know, that moment
792
00:51:46,605 --> 00:51:51,360
when he ended that entrepreneurial startup life
793
00:51:51,360 --> 00:51:56,171
and begun this new life that had come to this political activism,
794
00:51:57,165 --> 00:52:02,765
and he just didn't believe that he could continue in his life
795
00:52:02,982 --> 00:52:05,742
with a felony, you know, he said to me one day
796
00:52:05,805 --> 00:52:07,910
we were walking by the white house and he said to me
797
00:52:07,920 --> 00:52:09,960
"they don't let felons work there"
798
00:52:17,752 --> 00:52:21,052
I mean, you know, he really wanted that to be his life.
799
00:52:22,112 --> 00:52:25,216
He hadn't killed anybody, he hadn't hurt anybody,
800
00:52:25,256 --> 00:52:27,768
he hadn't like stolen money,
801
00:52:28,208 --> 00:52:31,628
he hadn't done anything that seemed felony worthy, right?
802
00:52:31,808 --> 00:52:36,800
And, there is this idea that, like,
803
00:52:36,960 --> 00:52:38,990
there's no reason that he should be labeled a felon
804
00:52:39,000 --> 00:52:42,800
and taken away his right to vote in many states
805
00:52:43,320 --> 00:52:44,798
for doing what he did, like,
806
00:52:44,808 --> 00:52:46,890
that's just outrageous, like, it makes sense for him to be
807
00:52:46,900 --> 00:52:50,208
you know, maybe fined a bunch of money or
808
00:52:50,560 --> 00:52:53,872
you know, asked not to come back to MIT again
809
00:52:54,200 --> 00:52:57,904
but like, to be a felon? To face jail time?
810
00:53:01,120 --> 00:53:03,440
Swartz turned down the plea deal.
811
00:53:03,910 --> 00:53:06,824
Heymann redoubled his efforts,
812
00:53:06,968 --> 00:53:12,512
Heymann continued to press us, at all levels.
813
00:53:12,710 --> 00:53:14,510
Even with the physical evidence
814
00:53:14,520 --> 00:53:18,180
seized from Aaron's Acer computer, hard drive, and usb drive,
815
00:53:18,448 --> 00:53:21,268
the prosecutors needed evidence of his motives.
816
00:53:21,376 --> 00:53:24,696
Why was Aaron Swartz downloading articles from JSTOR?
817
00:53:24,824 --> 00:53:27,344
and just what did he plan to do with them?
818
00:53:29,160 --> 00:53:32,454
The government claim is that he was planning to publish these.
819
00:53:32,464 --> 00:53:36,008
We don't really know whether that was his real intention,
820
00:53:36,016 --> 00:53:38,116
because Aaron also had a history of
821
00:53:39,136 --> 00:53:42,768
doing projects where he'd analyze giant datasets of articles
822
00:53:42,920 --> 00:53:45,238
in order to learn interesting things about them.
823
00:53:45,248 --> 00:53:48,640
The best evidence for that was that when he was at Stanford
824
00:53:48,650 --> 00:53:53,192
he also downloaded the whole Westlaw legal database.
825
00:53:53,616 --> 00:53:55,854
In a project with Stanford law students,
826
00:53:55,864 --> 00:53:58,702
Swartz had downloaded the Westlaw legal database.
827
00:53:58,712 --> 00:54:00,910
He uncovered troubling connections between
828
00:54:00,920 --> 00:54:04,208
funders of legal research and favorable results.
829
00:54:04,488 --> 00:54:07,696
He did this amazing analysis of for-profit companies
830
00:54:07,700 --> 00:54:11,054
giving money to law professors who wrote law review articles,
831
00:54:11,064 --> 00:54:15,072
which were then beneficial to, like, Exxon, during an oil spill.
832
00:54:15,080 --> 00:54:19,528
So it was a very corrupt system of funding, you know, vanity research.
833
00:54:19,768 --> 00:54:22,680
Swartz had never released the Westlaw documents.
834
00:54:22,808 --> 00:54:25,646
In theory he could have been doing the same thing about the JSTOR database.
835
00:54:25,656 --> 00:54:27,558
That would have been completely OK.
836
00:54:27,568 --> 00:54:29,982
If he were on the other hand intending to
837
00:54:29,992 --> 00:54:33,040
create a competitive service to JSTOR,
838
00:54:33,184 --> 00:54:37,054
like we're gonna set up our own, you know, access to the Harvard Law Review,
839
00:54:37,064 --> 00:54:39,060
and charge money for it,
840
00:54:39,104 --> 00:54:42,030
then, you know, OK, now it seems like a criminal violation
841
00:54:42,040 --> 00:54:44,810
because you're commercially trying to exploit this material
842
00:54:44,820 --> 00:54:48,254
but that's kind of crazy to imagine that's what he was doing.
843
00:54:48,264 --> 00:54:49,638
So, but than there's a middle case
844
00:54:49,648 --> 00:54:53,726
what if he was just trying to liberate it for all of the developing world?
845
00:54:53,736 --> 00:54:55,350
But depending on what he was doing,
846
00:54:55,360 --> 00:54:59,174
it creates a very different character to how the law should be thinking about it.
847
00:54:59,184 --> 00:55:00,740
The government was prosecuting him
848
00:55:00,750 --> 00:55:03,550
as if this was like a commercial criminal violation
849
00:55:03,560 --> 00:55:05,590
like stealing a whole bunch of credit card records
850
00:55:05,600 --> 00:55:07,000
like it was that kind of crime.
851
00:55:07,010 --> 00:55:10,424
I don't know what he was gonna do with that database
852
00:55:10,430 --> 00:55:12,350
but I heard from a friend of his
853
00:55:12,360 --> 00:55:14,940
that Aaron had told him he was going to analyze the data
854
00:55:14,950 --> 00:55:18,390
for evidence of corporate funding of climate change research
855
00:55:18,400 --> 00:55:20,024
that led to biased results.
856
00:55:20,432 --> 00:55:22,752
And I totally believe that.
857
00:55:25,216 --> 00:55:28,096
I was just told that Steve wanted to talk to me.
858
00:55:29,152 --> 00:55:32,896
and I thought maybe this is a way I could get out of this.
859
00:55:33,136 --> 00:55:35,016
just exit the situation.
860
00:55:35,224 --> 00:55:38,662
And I didn't want to leave in fear of having my computer seized
861
00:55:38,672 --> 00:55:41,038
I didn't want to leave in fear of having to go to jail
862
00:55:41,048 --> 00:55:43,030
on a contempt of court charge if
863
00:55:43,080 --> 00:55:46,296
they tried to compel me to decrypt my computer
864
00:55:46,616 --> 00:55:50,156
when they came to me and said: "Steve wants to talk to you"
865
00:55:50,560 --> 00:55:52,208
that seemed reasonable.
866
00:55:52,864 --> 00:55:54,760
They offered Norton what is known as
867
00:55:54,770 --> 00:55:57,296
a "Queen for a day" letter or a proffer
868
00:55:57,576 --> 00:56:00,734
it allowed prosecutors to ask questions about Aaron's case.
869
00:56:00,744 --> 00:56:03,870
Norton would be given immunity from prosecution herself,
870
00:56:03,880 --> 00:56:06,342
for any information she revealed during the meeting.
871
00:56:06,352 --> 00:56:07,432
I didn't like it
872
00:56:07,630 --> 00:56:10,608
I told my lawyers repeatedly that I didn't,
873
00:56:10,920 --> 00:56:12,718
this seemed fishy, I didn't like this
874
00:56:12,728 --> 00:56:14,622
I didn't want immunity, I didn't need immunity
875
00:56:14,632 --> 00:56:16,112
I hadn't done anything.
876
00:56:16,248 --> 00:56:18,022
But they were really, really stringent
877
00:56:18,032 --> 00:56:21,696
they did not want me meeting the prosecutor without immunity.
878
00:56:21,800 --> 00:56:24,950
Interviewer: just to be clear, this is a "Queen For A Day" deal proffer
879
00:56:24,960 --> 00:56:25,910
Right, a proffer letter
880
00:56:25,920 --> 00:56:28,230
Interviewer: In which you basically handed information over
881
00:56:28,240 --> 00:56:30,350
in exchange for protection from prosecution.
882
00:56:30,360 --> 00:56:33,592
So, it wasn't handing information over,
883
00:56:33,624 --> 00:56:36,334
it was, at least that's not how I saw it, it was just
884
00:56:36,344 --> 00:56:38,246
having a discussion, having an interview with them
885
00:56:38,256 --> 00:56:41,062
Interviewer: Well, they're asking you questions
Quinn: They're asking me questions
886
00:56:41,072 --> 00:56:42,400
Interviewer: And they can ask about whatever they want
Quinn: Right
887
00:56:42,410 --> 00:56:44,334
Interviewer: and whatever they learn they can go and prosecute for that
888
00:56:44,344 --> 00:56:49,352
Right, I really... right, and I repeatedly tried to go in naked.
889
00:56:50,120 --> 00:56:53,536
I repeatedly tried to turn down the proffer letter.
890
00:56:53,800 --> 00:56:56,550
I was ill, I was being pressured by my lawyers,
891
00:56:56,560 --> 00:56:57,712
I was confused.
892
00:56:57,896 --> 00:57:01,208
I was not doing well by this point.
893
00:57:01,216 --> 00:57:03,006
I was depressed, and I was scared,
894
00:57:03,016 --> 00:57:05,710
and I didn't understand the situation I was in.
895
00:57:05,720 --> 00:57:08,888
I had no idea why I was in this situation.
896
00:57:09,000 --> 00:57:13,312
I hadn't done anything interesting, much less wrong.
897
00:57:13,584 --> 00:57:15,084
We were out of our minds.
898
00:57:15,096 --> 00:57:17,220
Aaron was clearly very destroyed about it,
899
00:57:17,230 --> 00:57:19,014
we were very destroyed about it.
900
00:57:19,024 --> 00:57:21,166
Aaron's attorneys were very destroyed about it.
901
00:57:21,176 --> 00:57:23,696
We tried to get Quinn to change attorneys.
902
00:57:23,768 --> 00:57:28,112
I was very unused to being in a room with large men, well armed,
903
00:57:28,672 --> 00:57:30,814
that are continually telling me I'm lying
904
00:57:30,824 --> 00:57:32,984
and that I must have done something.
905
00:57:33,736 --> 00:57:36,976
I told them that this thing that they were prosecuting
906
00:57:37,184 --> 00:57:39,936
wasn't a crime,
907
00:57:40,960 --> 00:57:43,222
I told them that they were on the wrong side of history
908
00:57:43,232 --> 00:57:44,518
I used that phrase, I said:
909
00:57:44,528 --> 00:57:46,748
"you're on the wrong side of history"
910
00:57:48,648 --> 00:57:49,702
And they looked bored,
911
00:57:49,712 --> 00:57:52,606
they didn't even look angry, they just looked bored
912
00:57:52,616 --> 00:57:55,220
and it began to occur to me that
913
00:57:55,230 --> 00:57:57,334
we weren't having the same conversation.
914
00:57:57,344 --> 00:57:59,380
I mean, I told them plenty of things about, you know
915
00:57:59,390 --> 00:58:02,870
why people would download journal articles, and eventually
916
00:58:03,120 --> 00:58:05,220
I don't remember what was around it
917
00:58:06,144 --> 00:58:08,390
I mentioned he had done this blog post
918
00:58:08,400 --> 00:58:10,560
the "Guerilla Open Access Manifesto"
919
00:58:12,736 --> 00:58:15,608
This is the guerilla open access manifesto
920
00:58:16,080 --> 00:58:19,704
supposedly written in July 2008, in Italy
921
00:58:20,296 --> 00:58:21,560
Information is power.
922
00:58:21,736 --> 00:58:22,810
But like all power,
923
00:58:22,820 --> 00:58:25,150
there are those who want to keep it for themselves.
924
00:58:25,160 --> 00:58:27,318
The world's entire scientific and cultural heritage,
925
00:58:27,328 --> 00:58:29,774
published over centuries in books and journals,
926
00:58:29,784 --> 00:58:32,070
is increasingly being digitized and locked up
927
00:58:32,080 --> 00:58:34,300
by a handful of private corporations.
928
00:58:34,320 --> 00:58:38,270
Meanwhile, those who have been locked out are not standing idly by.
929
00:58:38,280 --> 00:58:40,494
You have been sneaking through holes and climbing over fences,
930
00:58:40,504 --> 00:58:42,610
liberating the information locked up by the publishers
931
00:58:42,620 --> 00:58:44,598
and sharing them with your friends.
932
00:58:44,608 --> 00:58:47,574
But all of this action goes on in the dark, hidden underground.
933
00:58:47,584 --> 00:58:49,334
It's called stealing or piracy,
934
00:58:49,344 --> 00:58:52,140
as if sharing a wealth of knowledge were the moral equivalent of
935
00:58:52,150 --> 00:58:54,610
plundering a ship and murdering its crew.
936
00:58:54,728 --> 00:58:57,670
But sharing isn't immoral - it's a moral imperative.
937
00:58:57,680 --> 00:58:59,102
Only those blinded by greed
938
00:58:59,112 --> 00:59:01,572
would refuse to let a friend make a copy.
939
00:59:02,168 --> 00:59:04,440
There is no justice in following unjust laws.
940
00:59:04,450 --> 00:59:06,278
It's time to come into the light and,
941
00:59:06,288 --> 00:59:08,318
in the grand tradition of civil disobedience,
942
00:59:08,328 --> 00:59:12,108
declare our opposition to this private theft of public culture.
943
00:59:12,344 --> 00:59:16,392
The manifesto itself was allegedly written by four different people
944
00:59:16,728 --> 00:59:18,390
and also edited by Norton
945
00:59:18,696 --> 00:59:21,576
but it was Swartz who had signed his name to it.
946
00:59:21,624 --> 00:59:25,248
When it's over, I go immediately to Aaron
947
00:59:25,250 --> 00:59:28,070
and tell him everything I can remember about it
948
00:59:28,896 --> 00:59:30,384
And he gets very angry.
949
00:59:34,696 --> 00:59:38,176
The things that I'd done shouldn't have added up that way.
950
00:59:40,416 --> 00:59:42,808
I hadn't done anything wrong
951
00:59:43,272 --> 00:59:45,224
and everything had gone wrong
952
00:59:47,024 --> 00:59:48,216
but I was never...
953
00:59:56,904 --> 00:59:58,664
I'm still angry
Saya masih marah
954
01:00:00,176 --> 01:00:02,036
I'm still angry that you can...
Saya masih marah, kamu bisa
955
01:00:03,110 --> 01:00:06,350
...try your best with these people to do the right thing
...kamu mencoba memberikan yang terbaik buat orang-orang, untuk melakukan hal yang benar
956
01:00:06,360 --> 01:00:08,576
and they turn everything against you
dan mereka membuat semuanya balik melawanmu
957
01:00:08,600 --> 01:00:11,888
and they will hurt you with anything they can.
dan mereka akan menyakitimu dengan cara apapun
958
01:00:14,840 --> 01:00:18,816
And, in that moment, I regret that I said what I did
pada saat itu, saya menyesal mengatakan kepada mereka, apa yang saya lakukan
959
01:00:19,744 --> 01:00:23,216
but my much larger regret is that we've settled for this
tapi penyesalan yang lebih besar saat kami tetap bertahan untuk ini
960
01:00:23,608 --> 01:00:25,432
that we're OK with this
bahwa kami merasa baik-baik saja dengan semua ini
961
01:00:25,840 --> 01:00:28,960
that we're OK with a justice system which tries to game people
bahwa kita baik-baik saja dengan keadilan yang mencoba untuk mempermainkan orang-orang
962
01:00:28,970 --> 01:00:32,090
into little traps so that they can ruin their lives.
menjebak mereka, mengancurkan hidup mereka sendiri
963
01:00:32,784 --> 01:00:35,032
So, yeah, I wish I hadn't said that
Jadi, ya, saya harap saya tidak harus mengatakannya
964
01:00:35,272 --> 01:00:41,104
but I'm much, much angrier that this is where I am
tapi saya sangat sangat marah karena ini terjadi pada saya
965
01:00:42,552 --> 01:00:46,880
That this is what we as a people think is OK.
karena kita pikir semua ini baik-baik saja
966
01:00:48,296 --> 01:00:52,232
They used every method that I think they could think of
Mereka menggunakan cara apapun yang terpikirkan oleh mereka
967
01:00:52,256 --> 01:00:55,168
to get her to provide information which would be
untuk memaksanya untuk memberikan informasi yang mungkin
968
01:00:55,180 --> 01:00:59,200
unhelpful to Aaron, and helpful to the prosecution of Aaron
tidak membantu Aaron, tapi malah membantu penuntutan Aaron
969
01:01:00,394 --> 01:01:06,581
But, you know, I don't think she had information that was helpful to the government.
Tapi saya tidak berpikir dia mempunyai informasi yang bisa membantu pemerintah.
970
01:01:08,032 --> 01:01:12,292
Months go by as Swartz's friends and family await a looming indictment.
Beberapa bulan berlalu selagi teman-teman Swartz dan keluarganya menunggu dakwaan
971
01:01:12,426 --> 01:01:17,376
In the meantime, Swartz was becoming a goto expert on a series of Internet issues.
Sementara itu, Swartz telah menjadi ahli untuk beberapa masalah terkait Internet.
972
01:01:17,930 --> 01:01:22,062
Do you think that the Internet is something that should be considered a human right
Apakah kamu berpikir bahwa internet adalah salah satu hak asasi manusia
973
01:01:22,072 --> 01:01:25,130
something that the government can not take away from you?
sesuatu yang tidak bisa direnggut oleh pemerintah darimu.
974
01:01:25,140 --> 01:01:26,967
Yes. Definitely.
Ya. Tentu saja.
975
01:01:27,127 --> 01:01:30,614
I mean, this notion that national security is an excuse to shut down the Internet,
Ada pendapat bahwa keamanan nasional adalah alasan untuk menutup Internet.
976
01:01:30,624 --> 01:01:34,280
that's exactly what we heard in Egypt, in Syria and all these other countries.
Itu yang saya dengar di Mesir, Syiria, dan negara-negara lain.
977
01:01:34,290 --> 01:01:37,168
and so its true, sites like WikiLeaks are going to be putting up
dan itu memang benar, situs-situs seperti Wikileaks akan merilis
978
01:01:37,178 --> 01:01:40,022
some embarrassing material about what what the US government does
aib tentang apa dilakukan oleh pemerintah AS.
979
01:01:40,032 --> 01:01:42,506
and people are going to be organizing to protest about it
dan orang-orang akan bersatu untuk memprotesnya
980
01:01:42,516 --> 01:01:44,019
and try and change their government.
dan mencoba mengubah kebijakan pemerintah.
981
01:01:44,029 --> 01:01:46,160
You know, and that's a good thing.
Kamu tahu, itu bagus.
982
01:01:46,210 --> 01:01:48,251
Thats what all these First Amendment rights of free expression,
Itu semua hak "Amandemen Pertama" tentang kebebasan berekspresi,
983
01:01:48,261 --> 01:01:49,940
of freedom of association are all about.
ini semua tentang kebebasan berasosiasi.
984
01:01:49,950 --> 01:01:52,360
and so the notion that we should try and shut those down
Jadi, gagasan bahwa kita harus mencoba menutup internet,
985
01:01:52,370 --> 01:01:55,110
I think, just goes against very basic American principles.
saya pikir, itu hanya akan bertentangan dengan prinsip dasar Amerika.
986
01:01:55,120 --> 01:01:58,128
a principle, I think, is one that our founding fathers would have understood.
Sebuah perinsip, yang saya pikir dipahami salah satu pendiri negara kita.
987
01:01:58,138 --> 01:01:59,779
If the Internet had been around back then
Jika internet kemudian meluas
988
01:01:59,789 --> 01:02:04,469
instead of putting Post Offices in the Constitution, they would have put ISPs.
alih-alih menggunakan jasa pos, mereka akan menggunakan ISP (Internet Service Provider).
989
01:02:05,504 --> 01:02:10,261
Swartz meets activist Taren Steinbrickner-Kauffman and the two begin to date.
Swartz bertemu seorang aktivis, Taren Steinbrickner-Kauffman, dan mereka berpacaran.
990
01:02:10,794 --> 01:02:12,427
...we need a massive public outcry.
...kami butuh kegelisahan publik yang masif.
991
01:02:12,437 --> 01:02:15,648
If there is no massive global public outcry. It won't create any change.
Tidak ada kegelisahan publik yang masif. Itu tidak akan menciptakan perubahan apapun.
992
01:02:15,658 --> 01:02:19,008
You know, 4 people in this city should cause a massive global public outcry.
Ya, empat orang di kota ini akan membuat kemarahan publik yang masif.
993
01:02:19,018 --> 01:02:22,140
You know, we need a petition signer.
Yeah, kita butuh penandatangan petisi.
994
01:02:22,390 --> 01:02:24,215
Without telling her specifics, he warned her
Tanpa menjelaskan detailnya, dia sudah memperingatkan bahwa
995
01:02:24,225 --> 01:02:27,790
he was involved in something he called simply "the bad thing".
dia sudah terlibat dengan "sesuatu yang buruk"
996
01:02:27,800 --> 01:02:29,917
And I had, sort of, crazy theories, like
Dan saya, hanya terpikirkan tentang teori-teori gila
997
01:02:29,927 --> 01:02:33,270
that he was having an affair with Elizabeth Warren or something
mungkin dia punya hubungan dengan Elizabeth Warrent atau
998
01:02:33,280 --> 01:02:36,580
I speculated both Hillary Clinton and Elizabeth Warren.
Saya berspekulasi, Hillary Clinton dan Elizabeth Warent.
999
01:02:38,000 --> 01:02:41,767
So sometime in probably late July, Aaron called me
Lalu, mungkin waktu itu akhir Juli, Aaron menelepon saya
1000
01:02:42,356 --> 01:02:44,636
and I happened to pick up and he said:
dan saya mengangkatnya dan dia bilang :
1001
01:02:45,265 --> 01:02:47,524
"The bad thing might be in the news tomorrow"
"Hal buruk mungkin akan muncul di berita, besok"
1002
01:02:47,534 --> 01:02:49,662
"Do you want me to tell you or do you want to read about it in the news".
"Apakah kamu mau aku ceritakan langsung atau kamu ingin membacanya di berita besok?"
1003
01:02:49,672 --> 01:02:51,832
and I said: "I want you to tell me."
kubilang, "Ceritakan padaku"
1004
01:02:53,469 --> 01:02:58,654
and he said: "Well, I've been arrested"
dan dia bilang, "Well, aku ditangkap polisi"
1005
01:02:58,690 --> 01:03:00,830
"for downloading too many academic journal articles"
"karena mengunduh terlalu banyak artikel/jurnal akademik (paper)"
1006
01:03:00,840 --> 01:03:03,540
"and they want to make an example out of me."
"dan mereka ingin menjadikan aku sebagai contoh."
1007
01:03:04,240 --> 01:03:08,906
and I was like: "That's it? That's the big fuss? Really?"
dan saya, "Kacau. Beneran?"
1008
01:03:09,288 --> 01:03:11,307
"it just doesn't sound like a very big deal."
"kedengarannya bukan sesuatu yang serius."
1009
01:03:11,317 --> 01:03:17,632
On July 14th, 2011, Federal prosecutors indict Swartz on 4 felony counts.
Pada 14 Juli 2011, penuntut umum mendakwa Swartz atas 4 kejahatan.
1010
01:03:17,630 --> 01:03:18,613
He gets indicted
Dia didakwa
1011
01:03:18,871 --> 01:03:24,110
on the same day that two people in England who are part of LulzSec get arrested
Di hari yang sama di Inggris, 2 orang dari LulzSec ditangkap
1012
01:03:24,410 --> 01:03:26,995
and few other real hackers
dan beberapa hacker lain
1013
01:03:27,288 --> 01:03:29,910
and Aaron is just someone who kind of looks like a hacker
dan Aaron hanya seseorang yang kelihatan seperti hacker
1014
01:03:29,920 --> 01:03:35,082
enough that, they can like, put his head on the stick and put it on the gates.
mereka menekan kepalanya ke pagar dan mendorongnya ke pintu.
1015
01:03:35,317 --> 01:03:38,794
Aaron went to surrender and they arrested him.
Aaron menyerah dan mereka menangkapnya
1016
01:03:39,178 --> 01:03:42,336
they then strip searched him.
kemudian mereka menggeledahnya
1017
01:03:42,417 --> 01:03:45,137
took away his shoelaces, took away his belt
melepas tali sepatunya, sabuknya
1018
01:03:45,324 --> 01:03:47,544
and left him in solitary confinement.
dan membawanya ke ruang penjara terisolasi
1019
01:03:50,290 --> 01:03:52,941
The District of Massachusetts, United States Attorney's Office
Distrik Massachusetts, kantor pengacara AS
1020
01:03:52,951 --> 01:03:54,862
released a statement saying:
merilis statemen:
1021
01:03:54,897 --> 01:03:57,795
"Swartz faces up to 35 years in prison
"Swartz menghadapi tuntutan 35 tahun di penjara
1022
01:03:57,875 --> 01:04:00,656
to be followed by 3 years of supervised release
dan 3 tahun bebas bersyarat
1023
01:04:00,666 --> 01:04:05,350
restitution, forfeiture and a fine of up to $1 million dollars."
denda dan ganti rugi yang mencapai 1 juta dollar AS
1024
01:04:06,248 --> 01:04:09,130
He is released on a $100,000 bail.
Dia dibebaskan atas jaminan sebesar $100.000
1025
01:04:09,380 --> 01:04:12,417
The same day, the primary victim in the case JSTOR
Pada hari yang sama, korban utama dari kasus JSTOR
1026
01:04:12,560 --> 01:04:17,217
formally drops all charges against Swartz and declines to pursue the case.
membatalkan tuntutan biaya terhadap Swartz dan menolak melanjutkan kasus tersebut.
1027
01:04:17,822 --> 01:04:21,661
JSTOR, they weren't our friends. They weren't helpful or friendly to us
JSTOR, mereka bukan kawan kami. Mereka tidak membantu sama sekali, tidak ramah terhadap kami.
1028
01:04:21,671 --> 01:04:25,270
but they also were just kind of like "We are not part of this".
mereka tidak ingin terlibat
1029
01:04:25,280 --> 01:04:27,560
JSTOR, and their parent company Ithica
JSTOR, dan induk perusahaannya, Ithica
1030
01:04:27,662 --> 01:04:30,780
also sidestepped requests to talk with this film.
juga menolak untuk berpendapat di film dokumenter ini.
1031
01:04:30,970 --> 01:04:33,341
But at the time they released a statement saying
Saat itu mereka mengatakan bahwa
1032
01:04:33,351 --> 01:04:37,371
it was the government's decision whether to prosecute, not JSTOR's.
ada keterlibatan pemerintah di tuntutan ini, bukan dari JSTOR
1033
01:04:38,208 --> 01:04:42,304
And so it was our belief that with that the case would be over
dan dengan demikian, kami percaya kasus ini bisa selesai
1034
01:04:42,675 --> 01:04:45,385
that we should be able to get Stephen Heymann to drop the case
dan kami seharusnya bisa menyakinkan Stephen Heymann untuk membatalkan kasus ini
1035
01:04:45,395 --> 01:04:48,170
or settle in some rational way.
atau menyelesaikannya dengan lebih rasional
1036
01:04:48,789 --> 01:04:50,409
And the government refused.
namun pemerintah menolak
1037
01:04:51,137 --> 01:04:52,157
Interviewer: Why?
Pewawancara : Mengapa?
1038
01:04:55,315 --> 01:04:58,140
Well, because I think, they wanted to make an example out of Aaron
Em, karena kupikir, mereka ingin menjadikan Aaron contoh untuk isu ini
1039
01:04:58,150 --> 01:05:03,200
and they said the reason why they wouldn't move on
dan mereka bilang alasan mereka tetap bersikeras,
1040
01:05:03,235 --> 01:05:05,474
requiring a felony conviction and jail time
mereka perlu kepastian tuntutan dan masa hukuman
1041
01:05:05,484 --> 01:05:12,190
was that they wanted to use this case as a case for deterrence.
mereka ingin menggunakan kasus ini sebagai pencegahan / kasus pendukung (di masa depan)
1042
01:05:12,192 --> 01:05:13,301
They told us that.
Mereka bilang begitu pada kami
1043
01:05:13,395 --> 01:05:14,212
Interviewer: They told you that?
Pewawancara: Mereka bilang seperti itu?
1044
01:05:14,222 --> 01:05:15,000
Yes.
Iya.
1045
01:05:15,315 --> 01:05:17,376
Interviewer: This was gonna be an example? Aaron's Father: Yes.
Pewawancara: Kasus ini akan jadi contoh? Ayah Aaron : Ya.
1046
01:05:17,386 --> 01:05:21,945
Interviewer: He was gonna be an example? Aaron's Father: Yes. Steve Heymann said that.
Pewawancara: Dia akan jadi contoh? Ayah Aaron : Ya. Stephen Heymann bilang begitu.
1047
01:05:21,955 --> 01:05:23,413
Deterring who?
Pencegahan terhadap siapa?
1048
01:05:23,466 --> 01:05:26,505
There's no other people running around logging onto JSTOR
Banyak orang yang menggunakan JSTOR
1049
01:05:26,515 --> 01:05:29,710
and downloading the articles to make a political statement, I mean, who are they deterring?
dan mengunduh artikel. Maksudku, siapa yang ingin mereka cegah?
1050
01:05:29,720 --> 01:05:35,502
It would be easier to understand the Obama Administration's posture
Akan lebih mudah untuk memahami sikap Obama
1051
01:05:35,520 --> 01:05:40,853
of supposedly being for deterrence if this was an Administration that, for instance
[?]
1052
01:05:40,880 --> 01:05:45,883
prosecuted arguably the biggest economic crime that this country has seen in the last 100 years
bisa dibilang adalah tindakan kriminal ekonomi terbesar dari 100 tahun terakhir
1053
01:05:45,893 --> 01:05:50,114
the crimes that were committed that led to the financial crisis on Wall Street.
tindakan kriminal yang membawa krisis ke Wall Street
1054
01:05:50,124 --> 01:05:58,310
When you start deploying the non-controversial idea of deterrence only selectively
Ketika kamu mencoba memulai pencegahan ide-ide yang kurang kontroversial
1055
01:05:58,360 --> 01:06:01,964
you stop making a dispassionate analysis of law breaking
kamu berhenti berpihak ke sisi analisis pelanggaran hukumnya
1056
01:06:02,000 --> 01:06:06,417
and you start deciding to deploy law enforcement resources
dan kamu mulai memutuskan untuk mencari-cari alasan untuk penegakan hukum
1057
01:06:06,520 --> 01:06:10,151
specifically on the basis of political ideology
terutama di ideologi politik dasar
1058
01:06:10,275 --> 01:06:15,570
and thats not just un-democratic it is supposed to be un-American.
dan itu sangat tidak demokratis, sangat tidak Amerika
1059
01:06:19,850 --> 01:06:24,050
Prosecutor Stephen Heymann later reportedly told MIT's outside counsel
Penuntut Umum Stephen Heymann kemudian dilaporkan menceritakan ke pihak MIT di luar pengadilan
1060
01:06:24,150 --> 01:06:27,456
that the straw that broke the camel's back was a press release
bahwa yang merusak semuanya adalah rilis pres
1061
01:06:27,466 --> 01:06:31,323
sent out by an organization Swartz founded called "Demand Progress".
yang dikeluarkan oleh organisasi yang didirikan Swartz, "Demand Progress".
1062
01:06:31,333 --> 01:06:33,120
According to the MIT account
Merujuk ke situs MIT
1063
01:06:33,191 --> 01:06:35,981
Heymann reacted to the short statement of support
Heymann bereaksi terhadap dukungan untuk Demand Progress
1064
01:06:35,991 --> 01:06:38,186
calling it a wild Internet campaign
ia menyebutnya, kampanye internet liar
1065
01:06:38,302 --> 01:06:44,160
and a foolish move that moved the case from human one-on-one level to an institutional level.
dan keputusan bodoh yang membawa kasus ini lebih berat ke level institusi
1066
01:06:44,231 --> 01:06:46,622
That was a poisonous combination.
Kombinasi yang berbahaya
1067
01:06:46,684 --> 01:06:51,234
A prosecutor who didn't want to lose face, who had a political career in the offing maybe
Seorang penuntut umum yang tidak ingin citranya rusak, yang mungkin sedang ditawari karir politik
1068
01:06:51,244 --> 01:06:53,492
and didn't want to have this come back and haunt them.
dan tidak ingin hal ini kembali dan terus menghantuinya