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Performance test for Hibernate Validator

The tests are written as JMH benchmarks. They can be developed and executed as usual in your IDE. However, they are not executed during regular build as unit tests when a mvn test is running. Instead, to execute the performance tests, one should build a jar file with one of the profiles mentioned below and run it.


To allow performance testing of different Hibernate Validator versions there are multiple profiles configured. Choosing a profile executes the tests against the specified Hibernate Validator or BVal version, respectively. The defined profiles are:

  • hv-current (Hibernate Validator 6.0.0-SNAPSHOT)
  • hv-6.0 (Hibernate Validator 6.0.5.Final)
  • hv-5.4 (Hibernate Validator 5.4.1.Final)
  • hv-5.3 (Hibernate Validator 5.3.4.Final)
  • hv-5.2 (Hibernate Validator 5.2.4.Final)
  • hv-5.1 (Hibernate Validator 5.1.3.Final)
  • hv-5.0 (Hibernate Validator 5.0.1.Final)
  • hv-4.3 (Hibernate Validator 4.3.0.Final)
  • hv-4.2 (Hibernate Validator 4.2.0.Final)
  • hv-4.1 (Hibernate Validator 4.1.0.Final)
  • bval-1.1 (Apache BVal 1.1.2)

Executing the performance tests

Some tips before you start:

  • These tests are not there to measure absolute execution times! Instead their value lies in the ability to compare against different versions of Hibernate Validator using the same tests. This allows to detect and address performance regressions.
  • You need to specify a profile!

Using the maven build

The following command line will run all performance tests listed in the main method of TestRunner class:

mvn clean package -Dvalidator=hv-current
java -jar target/hibernate-validator-performance-hv-current.jar

It will generate a set of reports from each test execution. Currently, all test results information are inside the following generated file:



List of available profilers:

Profiler Description
org.openjdk.jmh.profile.ClassloaderProfiler Classloader profiling via standard MBeans
org.openjdk.jmh.profile.CompilerProfiler JIT compiler profiling via standard MBeans
org.openjdk.jmh.profile.GCProfiler GC profiling via standard MBeans
org.openjdk.jmh.profile.HotspotClassloadingProfiler HotSpot ™ classloader profiling via implementation-specific MBeans
org.openjdk.jmh.profile.HotspotCompilationProfiler HotSpot ™ JIT compiler profiling via implementation-specific MBeans
org.openjdk.jmh.profile.HotspotMemoryProfiler HotSpot ™ memory manager (GC) profiling via implementation-specific MBeans
org.openjdk.jmh.profile.HotspotRuntimeProfiler HotSpot ™ runtime profiling via implementation-specific MBeans
org.openjdk.jmh.profile.HotspotThreadProfiler HotSpot ™ threading subsystem via implementation-specific MBeans
org.openjdk.jmh.profile.StackProfiler Simple and naive Java stack profiler

If you want to run one of those profilers - pass it as parameter when running a jar file. For example:

java -jar target/hibernate-validator-performance-hv-current.jar -prof org.openjdk.jmh.profile.StackProfiler

To run a specific benchmark:

java -jar target/hibernate-validator-performance.jar CascadedValidation

Creating reports for all major Hibernate Validator versions

mkdir reports
for impl in "bval-1.1.2" "hv-5.4" "hv-current"; do
    mvn -Dvalidator=${impl} package ; java -jar target/hibernate-validator-performance-${impl}.jar -rff reports/${impl}-jmh-results.json

Existing tests

At the moment the following benchmarks are defined:


A simple bean with a random number of failing constraints gets initialized and validated. The test is once executed with a shared ValidatorFactory and once the factory is recreated on each invocation.


Simple bean with cascaded validation which gets executed over and over.


Validation of a bean containing a lot of beans to cascade to.


This test has a few more constraints than the previous one, allowing to test our hypothesis in more realistic situation.


A number of _TestEntity_s is created where each entity contains a property for each built-in constraint type and also a reference to another TestEntity. All constraints are evaluated by a single ConstraintValidator implementation which fails a specified percentage of the validations.