Some years ago I reverse engineered the Seagate Blackarmor NAS 220 and found a convenient way on how to enable SSH on the device. Later, the same mechanism was used to install an alternative Linux firmware (Debian 5 Lenny). Obviously, Debian 5 Lenny has reached end of life and should not be used in production anymore.
Debian 10 Buster
Evgeni Dobrev created a kernel patch to include hardware support for the Blackarmor 220 in the mainline linux kernel and Moritz Rosenthal has released detailed docs on how to update the system with an up-to-date linux kernel and Debian distribution. I used their work to create some (hopefully) helpful scripts which streamline the process a little further.
With the following instructions you'll manage to install a fully updateable Debian 10 Buster system to the NAS (kernel and initrd stored in NAND flash, updated via flash-kernel package).
(It's still possible to install Debian 9 Stretch by changing
This completely removes the Seagate firmware and bootloader -- and there is no easy way of going back. There is a risk of bricking your device, especially if the u-boot bootloader does not start. You have been warned.
Quick specs: 800 Mhz CPU, 128MB RAM, 2 USB ports, 1 network interface, max 2 drives.
This script has been developed and tested on the Blackarmor NAS 220. There haven't been any error reports for a long time, so I consider the system as stable.
Quick specs: 800 Mhz CPU, 128MB RAM, 1 USB port, 1 network interface, max 1 drive.
NAS 400 / 420 /440
Quick specs: 1.2 Ghz CPU, 256MB RAM, 3 USB ports, 2 network interfaces, max 4 drives.
All the NAS 4XX series products have the same 4-bay enclosure. The second digit in this number scheme refers to the number of drives that ship with the device: no drives (NAS 400), 2 drives RAID 1 (NAS 420) and 4 drives RAID 5 (NAS 440).
Drives 3 and 4 are connected to the 88F6281 SoC, drives 1 and 2 are connected to a 88SE6121, which is connected via PCIe.
The NAS 4XX is NOT compatible with Evgenis Kernel patch and therefore this script does not work, do NOT try to install on a NAS 440, this will brick your device! Thankfully, Andreas Fischer did very some promising work on providing an U-Boot and kernel patch. Make sure to check his pages and help to finalize the patches. As I do not have access to NAS 4XX hardware, I can not help and test this device.
Setup a serial terminal (
115200 baud 8N1 e.g. by using
sudo screen /dev/ttyUSB0 115200) by connecting a 3.3V serial cable to connector
CN5 pins 1=TX, 4=RX and 6=GND like this:
Preparing kernel and initrd images
Use your favourite Linux workstation to execute
blackarmor-nas220-debian-prep.sh to download and prepare Das U-Boot bootloader and kernel image:
$ ./blackarmor-nas220-debian-prep.sh Using kernel 4.9.0-8 for installation. mkdir: created directory 'blackarmor-nas220-debian' URL:https://raw.githubusercontent.com/hn/seagate-blackarmor-nas/master/u-boot.kwb [553356/553356] -> "u-boot.kwb"  URL:https://raw.githubusercontent.com/hn/seagate-blackarmor-nas/master/u-boot-env.bin [65536/65536] -> "u-boot-env.bin"  URL:https://cdn-fastly.deb.debian.org/debian/dists/stretch/main/installer-armel/current/images/kirkwood/netboot/initrd.gz [11703715/11703715] -> "initrd.gz"  URL:https://cdn-fastly.deb.debian.org/debian/dists/stretch/main/installer-armel/current/images/kirkwood/netboot/vmlinuz-4.9.0-8-marvell [2056160/2056160] -> "vmlinuz-4.9.0-8-marvell"  URL:https://cdn-fastly.deb.debian.org/debian/dists/stretch/main/installer-armel/current/images/kirkwood/device-tree/kirkwood-blackarmor-nas220.dtb [10756/10756] -> "kirkwood-blackarmor-nas220.dtb"  Image Name: Linux-4.9.0-8 + nas220.dtb Image Type: ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed) Data Size: 2066916 Bytes = 2018.47 kB = 1.97 MB Load Address: 00040000 Entry Point: 00040000 Image Name: Debian stretch netboot initrd Image Type: ARM Linux RAMDisk Image (uncompressed) Data Size: 11703715 Bytes = 11429.41 kB = 11.16 MB Load Address: 00000000 Entry Point: 00000000 u-boot.kwb file size (512-byte aligned): 0x87200 u-boot-env.bin file size (512-byte aligned): 0x10000 Execute the following commands on the Blackarmor NAS: usb start fatload usb 0:1 0x800000 u-boot.kwb nand erase 0x0 0x87200 nand write 0x800000 0x0 0x87200 fatload usb 0:1 0x800000 u-boot-env.bin nand erase 0xA0000 0x10000 nand write 0x800000 0xA0000 0x10000
Copy the files
uInitrd from directory
blackarmor-nas220-debian to a FAT formatted USB stick. Carefully examine the flash commands shown at the end of the script output.
Flashing Das U-Boot bootloader
This step is only necessary for the very first installation or if you're upgrading from Debian 9 Stretch to Debian 10 Buster. If you're updating within the same Debian release or re-installing, directly skip to Starting Debian installation.
Use the serial terminal to stop the Seagate boot process and to show the ethernet MAC address:
__ __ _ _ | \/ | __ _ _ ____ _____| | | | |\/| |/ _` | '__\ \ / / _ \ | | | | | | (_| | | \ V / __/ | | |_| |_|\__,_|_| \_/ \___|_|_| _ _ ____ _ | | | | | __ ) ___ ___ | |_ | | | |___| _ \ / _ \ / _ \| __| | |_| |___| |_) | (_) | (_) | |_ \___/ |____/ \___/ \___/ \__| ** uboot_ver:v0.1.7 ** ** MARVELL BOARD: LASSEN LE U-Boot 1.1.4 (Aug 17 2009 - 10:16:51) Marvell version: 3.4.14 U-Boot code: 00600000 -> 0067FFF0 BSS: -> 006CDE60 Soc: 88F6192 A0 (DDR2) CPU running @ 800Mhz L2 running @ 400Mhz SysClock = 200Mhz , TClock = 166Mhz DRAM CAS Latency = 3 tRP = 3 tRAS = 8 tRCD=3 DRAM CS base 0x00000000 size 128MB DRAM Total size 128MB 16bit width Found ADT7473, program PWM1 ... OK Addresses 8M - 0M are saved for the U-Boot usage. Mem malloc Initialization (8M - 7M): Done NAND:32 MB Marvell Serial ATA Adapter Integrated Sata device found CPU : Marvell Feroceon (Rev 1) Scanning partition header: Found sign PrEr at c0000 Found sign KrNl at 2c0000 Found sign RoOt at 540000 Streaming disabled Write allocate disabled USB 0: host mode PEX 0: interface detected no Link. Net: egiga0 [PRIME] Hit any key to stop autoboot: 0 Marvell>> Marvell>> printenv ethaddr ethaddr=00:10:75:42:42:42
Write down the MAC adress, you'll need it later. Connect the USB stick to port 1 of the NAS and flash the new bootloader (enter
usb start ... nand write commands exactly as shown during preparation phase):
Marvell>> usb start (Re)start USB... USB: scanning bus for devices... 3 USB Device(s) found scanning bus for storage devices... 1 Storage Device(s) found Marvell>> Marvell>> fatload usb 0:1 0x800000 u-boot.kwb reading u-boot.kwb ............................................................. 553356 bytes read Marvell>> nand erase 0x0 0x87200 NAND erase: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x87200 Erasing at 0x84000 -- 100% complete. OK Marvell>> nand write 0x800000 0x0 0x87200 NAND write: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x87200 553472 bytes written: OK Marvell>> Marvell>> fatload usb 0:1 0x800000 u-boot-env.bin reading u-boot-env.bin ............. 65532 bytes read Marvell>> nand erase 0xA0000 0x10000 NAND erase: device 0 offset 0xA0000, size 0x10000 Erasing at 0x84000 -- 100% complete. OK Marvell>> nand write 0x800000 0xA0000 0x10000 NAND write: device 0 offset 0xA0000, size 0x10000 65532 bytes written: OK Marvell>> Marvell>> reset
Make sure to restart the NAS via
reset command after flashing the bootloader!
If your nas just restarts with the error message
cpu reset after the
fatload usb 0:1 0x800000 u-boot.kwb command try to format the usb stick to
ext2 and use
ext2load usb 0:1 ... instead.
Starting Debian installation
After resetting the NAS, connect a network cable to the NAS and execute
run bootcmd_usb to start the Debian netboot installation:
U-Boot 2017.11 (Dec 18 2018 - 09:52:13 +0100) NAS 220 SoC: Kirkwood 88F6281_A0 DRAM: 128 MiB WARNING: Caches not enabled NAND: 32 MiB In: serial Out: serial Err: serial Net: egiga0 88E1116 Initialized on egiga0 IDE: Bus 0: not available Bus 1: not available nas220> nas220> run bootcmd_usb starting USB... USB0: USB EHCI 1.00 scanning bus 0 for devices... 3 USB Device(s) found scanning usb for storage devices... 1 Storage Device(s) found reading uImage-dtb 2066980 bytes read in 148 ms (13.3 MiB/s) reading uInitrd 11703779 bytes read in 672 ms (16.6 MiB/s) ## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at 00040000 ... Image Name: Linux-4.9.0-8+nas220-dtb Created: 2018-12-18 19:16:01 UTC Image Type: ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed) Data Size: 2066916 Bytes = 2 MiB Load Address: 00040000 Entry Point: 00040000 Verifying Checksum ... OK ## Loading init Ramdisk from Legacy Image at 00800000 ... Image Name: netboot-initrd Created: 2018-12-19 9:26:51 UTC Image Type: ARM Linux RAMDisk Image (uncompressed) Data Size: 11703715 Bytes = 11.2 MiB Load Address: 00000000 Entry Point: 00000000 Verifying Checksum ... OK Loading Kernel Image ... OK Loading Ramdisk to 07009000, end 07b325a3 ... OK Starting kernel ... Uncompressing Linux... done, booting the kernel. [ 0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0x0 [ 0.000000] Linux version 4.9.0-8-marvell (email@example.com) (gcc version 6.3.0 20170516 (Debian 6.3.0-18+deb9u1) ) #1 Debian 4.9.1 [ 0.000000] CPU: Feroceon 88FR131  revision 1 (ARMv5TE), cr=0005397f [ 0.000000] CPU: VIVT data cache, VIVT instruction cache [ 0.000000] OF: fdt:Machine model: Seagate Blackarmor NAS220 ...
Proceed with Debian installation as usual (configure RAID, select packages, ...). Ignore the
No installable kernel was found and
No boot loader installed warnings (
Continue without installing a kernel?=
Continue), but do not reboot yet!
Finishing Debian installation
Before rebooting the installation system (the
Installation complete screen appears) select the
Go Back button. Select
Execute a shell (second last option in main menu) and chroot to the target system:
# mount -o bind /proc /target/proc # mount -o bind /sys /target/sys # chroot /target # cd /tmp
Download and execute
blackarmor-nas220-debian-postinstall.sh like this:
# wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/hn/seagate-blackarmor-nas/master/blackarmor-nas220-debian-postinstall.sh # chmod +x blackarmor-nas220-debian-postinstall.sh # ./blackarmor-nas220-debian-postinstall.sh Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following additional packages will be installed: busybox device-tree-compiler devio initramfs-tools initramfs-tools-core klibc-utils libklibc liblzo2-2 linux-base mtd-utils Suggested packages: sharutils-doc bsd-mailx | mailx The following NEW packages will be installed: busybox device-tree-compiler devio flash-kernel initramfs-tools initramfs-tools-core klibc-utils libklibc liblzo2-2 linux-base mtd-utils sharutils u-boot-tools 0 upgraded, 13 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. Need to get 1737 kB of archives. After this operation, 5340 kB of additional disk space will be used. ... The following additional packages will be installed: firmware-linux-free linux-image-4.9.0-8-marvell Suggested packages: linux-doc-4.9 debian-kernel-handbook The following NEW packages will be installed: firmware-linux-free linux-image-4.9.0-8-marvell linux-image-marvell 0 upgraded, 3 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. Need to get 22.0 MB of archives. After this operation, 91.3 MB of additional disk space will be used. ... Preparing to unpack .../firmware-linux-free_3.4_all.deb ... Unpacking firmware-linux-free (3.4) ... Selecting previously unselected package linux-image-4.9.0-8-marvell. Preparing to unpack .../linux-image-4.9.0-8-marvell_4.9.130-2_armel.deb ... Unpacking linux-image-4.9.0-8-marvell (4.9.130-2) ... ... Using DTB: kirkwood-blackarmor-nas220.dtb Installing /usr/lib/linux-image-4.9.0-8-marvell/kirkwood-blackarmor-nas220.dtb into /boot/dtbs/4.9.0-8-marvell/kirkwood-blackarmor-nas220.dtb Taking backup of kirkwood-blackarmor-nas220.dtb. Installing new kirkwood-blackarmor-nas220.dtb. flash-kernel: installing version 4.9.0-8-marvell flash-kernel: appending /usr/lib/linux-image-4.9.0-8-marvell/kirkwood-blackarmor-nas220.dtb to kernel Generating kernel u-boot image... done. Erasing 16 Kibl (using 2066980/5242880 bytes)... ... Writing data to block 124 at offset 0x1f0000 Writing data to block 125 at offset 0x1f4000 Writing data to block 126 at offset 0x1f8000 done.
Set ethernet MAC address and enable autoboot (only needed after flashing Das U-Boot bootloader):
# fw_setenv ethaddr 00:10:75:42:42:42 # fw_setenv bootdelay 3 # exit # exit
Exit the shell, remove USB stick and reboot the system via the Debian installer main menu. Don't forget the
Finish installation item last or you won't be able to login later!
As Moritz suggests it is advisable to install the
He also notes that you can adjust the fan speed by echo-ing the desired speed to sysfs:
echo 128 > /sys/class/i2c-dev/i2c-0/device/0-002e/pwm1.