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Trust Token API Explainer

This document is an explainer for a potential future web platform API that allows propagating trust across sites, using the Privacy Pass protocol as an underlying primitive.

Table of Contents


The web ecosystem relies heavily on building trust signals to detect fraudulent or spammy actors. One common way this is done is via tracking an individual browser’s activity across the web, usually via associating stable identifiers across sites.

Preventing fraud is a legitimate use case that the web should support, but it shouldn’t require an API as powerful as a stable, global, per-user identifier. In third party contexts, merely segmenting users into trusted and untrusted sets seems like a useful primitive that also preserves privacy. This kind of fraud protection is important both for CDNs, as well as for the ad industry which receives a large amount of invalid, fraudulent traffic.

Segmenting users into very coarse sets satisfies other use-cases as well. For instance, sites could use this as a set inclusion primitive in order to ask questions like, “do I have identity at all for this user?” or even do non-personalized cross-site authentication ("Is this user a subscriber?").


This API proposes a new per-origin storage area for “Privacy Pass” style cryptographic tokens, which are accessible in third party contexts. These tokens are non-personalized and cannot be used to track users, but are cryptographically signed so they cannot be forged.

When an origin is in a context where they trust the user, they can issue the browser a batch of tokens, which can be “spent” at a later time in a context where the user would otherwise be unknown or less trusted. Crucially, the tokens are indistinguishable from one another, preventing websites from tracking users through them.

We further propose an extension mechanism for the browser to sign outgoing requests with keys bound to a particular token redemption.

Potential API

Trust Token Issuance

When an context wants to provide tokens to a user (i.e. when the user is trusted), they can use a new Fetch API with the trust-token parameter:

fetch('<issuer>/.well-known/trust-token', {
  trust-token: {
    type: 'token-request',
    issuer: <issuer>

This API will invoke the Privacy Pass Issuance protocol:

  • Generate a set of nonces.
  • Blind them and attach them (in a Sec-Trust-Token header) to the HTTP request
  • Send a POST to the provided endpoint

When a response comes back with blind signatures in a Sec-Trust-Token response header, they will be unblinded, stored, and associated with the unblinded nonces internally in the browser. The pairs of nonces and signatures are trust tokens that can be redeemed later. Raw tokens are never accessible to Javascript. The issuer can store a limited amount of metadata in the signature of a nonce by choosing one of a set of keys to use to sign the nonce and providing a zero-knowledge proof that it signed the nonce using a particular key or set of keys. The browser will verify the proof and may choose to keep or drop the token based on other metadata constraints and limits from the UA.

Trust Token Redemption

When the user is browsing another site (, that site (or embedded on that site) can optionally redeem tokens to learn something about the trust of a user. One way to do this would be via new APIs:


This returns whether there are any valid trust tokens for a particular issuer, so that the publisher can decide whether to attempt a token redemption.

fetch('<url>', {
  trust-token: {
    type: 'raw-token-redemption',
    issuer: <issuer>

If there are no tokens available for the given issuer or the issuer doesn't support raw token redemptions, the returned promise rejects with an error. Otherwise, the token is attached in the Sec-Trust-Token request header.

If that sites needs a redemption attestation to forward to other parties, it can redeem an token and receive a Signed Redemption Record that can be used as a redemption attestation using the Fetch API:

fetch('<issuer>/.well-known/trust-token', {
  trust-token: {
    type: 'srr-token-redemption',
    issuer: <issuer>,
    refresh-policy: {none, refresh}

If there are no tokens available for the given issuer, the returned promise rejects with an error. Otherwise, it invokes the PrivacyPass redemption protocol against the issuer, with the token (potentially, if specified by an extension, along with associated redemption metadata) attached in the Sec-Trust-Token request header and the resulting Signed Redemption Record (SRR) being expected in the Sec-Trust-Token response header.

The structure of the Signed Redemption Record (SRR) is:

  Redemption timestamp,
  ClientData: {
    Publisher Origin
  Metadata: {
    Trust Token Key ID
  Signature of the above verifiable by well-known public key of the issuer,
  optional expiry timestamp

The redemption timestamp is included to ensure the freshness of the SRR. The ClientData comes from the client as part of the redemption request and includes the publisher the redemption occurred on. The Metadata includes the key ID, so that consumers of the SRR can compare against the currently active key commitment.

The SRR is HTTP-only and Javascript is only able to access/send the SRR via Trust Token Fetch APIs. It is also cached in new first-party storage accessible only by these APIs for subsequent visits to that first-party. The expiry is a recommendation to the UA, telling it when to perform a refresh of the SRR. The UA is allowed to choose an expiry beyond that specified with the SRR.

To mitigate token exhaustion, a site can only redeem tokens for a particular issuer if they have no cached non-expired SRRs from that issuer or if they are the same origin as the issuer and have set the refresh parameter.

Forwarding Redemption Attestation

Signed Redemption Records are only accessible via a new option to the Fetch API:

fetch(<resource-url>, {
  trust-token: {
    type: 'send-srr',
    issuer: <issuer>

The SRR will be added as a new request header Sec-Signed-Redemption-Record. This option to Fetch is only usable in the top-level document. If there are no SRRs available, the request header will be omitted.

Extension: Trust-Bound Keypair and Request Signing

An additional extension to the Trust Attestation allows us to ensure the integrity of the SRR, fetch data, and other headers by associating the SRR with a public/private keypair on the browser. This integrity allows the SRR and signed data to be passed around via third parties while preventing manipulation of the data. This is particularly useful in cases like ads and CDNs where the intermediary parties may not be fully trusted. This keypair is bound to the SRR (and the original token redemption) so that the browser can sign arbitrary request data with the private key and transfer trust to the request from the token.

In order to achieve this, the browser generates the public/private keypair at redemption time, and includes the hash of the public key in the redemption request to the token issuer, which is also included in the ClientData portion of the SRR. The keypair is then stored in new first-party storage only accessible via these APIs.

An additional parameter to the Fetch API then allows the browser to include a signature over the SRR, request data, and additional request headers (specified using a new opt-in header), using the browser's private key associated with the SRR:

fetch(<resource-url>, {
  trust-token: {
    type: 'send-srr',
    issuer: <issuer>,
    refresh: {none, refresh}
    signRequestData: include | omit | headers-only,
    includeTimestampHeader: false | true,
    additionalSignedHeaders: <headers>
  headers: new Headers('Signed-Headers', '"sec-signed-redemption-record", "referer"')

If signRequestData is include, then the browser will sign over the request data with the private key associated with the Signed Redemption Record. It will sign over the entire URL, POST body, public key, and any headers included in the Signed-Headers request header. If signRequestData is headers-only, we will only sign over those in Signed-Headers. If includeTimestampHeader is set, we will add a new header to the request Sec-Time with the current client time (which can optionally be added to Signed-Headers). Any headers included in additionalSignedHeaders will also be appended to Signed-Headers. Additionally we will limit the size of POST bodies that can be sent via this API when signed, to prevent having to buffer the entire body in memory. To do this, we can (aligning as close as possible to the model in the Signed Exchanges spec) create a canonical CBOR representation of the resource URL, public key, and headers:

  'url': 'https://example.test/subresource',
  'sec-signed-redemption-record': <SRR>,
  'referer': 'https://example.test/',
  'sec-time': <high-resolution client timestamp>
  'public-key': <pk>,

The browser will add a new request header with the resulting signature over a context string and CBOR data ("Trust-Token-v1"||CBOR data), along with the public key. Something like:

  sign-request-data=<include, headers-only>

The canonical CBOR data (verifiable by the signature) should be computable from a request, and so does not need to be sent over the wire from the browser. The Signed-Headers header, and the value of sign-request-data should be enough to re-construct it server side, robust to things like header re-ordering, etc.

Extension: Metadata

In addition to attesting trust in a user, an issuer may want to provide a limited amount of metadata in the token (and forward it as part of the SRR) to provide limited additional information about the token.

This small change opens up a new application for Privacy Passes: embedding small amounts of information along with the token and SRR. This increases the rate of cross-site information transfer somewhat, but introduces some new use-cases for trust tokens.

Extension: Public Metadata

Some information about the token can be publicly visible by the client. Issuers could use this limited information to run A/B experiments or other comparisons against different trust metrics, so they can iterate on and improve their token issuing logic.

This can be managed by assigning different keys in the key commitment to have different labels, indicating a different value of the public metadata. The client and issuer would be able to determine what the value of the public metadata is based on which key is used to sign at issuance time. Downstream partners would be able to check the key ID contained in the SRR to read the value of the public metadata.

Extension: Private Metadata

Other information about the token may need to be shared with themselves (on redemption) and other partners (via the SRR) without revealing the metadata to the client. This could be used as a negative indicator of trust or other limited information that the client shouldn't know about. Private metadata makes it possible to mask a decision about whether traffic is fraudulent, and increase the time it takes to reverse-engineer detection algorithms. This is because distrusted clients would still be issued tokens, but with the private distrusted bit set.

This can be managed by having pairs of keys that sign the token at issuance, with one key being used to indicate the bit of metadata is true, while a different key is used to indicate the bit of metadata is false. The zero-knowledge proof returned during the token issuance then proves that one of two keys was used to sign the token, without revealing which key was actually used. At redemption time, the issuer can then check which of the two keys was used to retrieve the value of the private metadata.

Then by adding additional data in the SRR as part of the Metadata as a signature and another zero-knowledge proof of signing by one of a small set of keys, the client is able to verify exactly how many bits of private information are contained in the SRR without being able to read the value.

Extension: iframe Activation

Some resources requests are performed via iframes or other non-Fetch-based methods. One extension to support such use cases would be the addition of a trust-token attribute to iframes that includes the parameters specified in the Fetch API. This would allow an SRR to be sent with an iframe by setting an attribute of trust-token="{type:'send-srr',issuer:<issuer>,refresh:refresh}".

Privacy Considerations

Cryptographic Property: Unlinkability

In Privacy Pass, tokens have an unlinkability property: token issuance cannot be linked to token redemption.

The privacy of this API relies on that fact: the issuer is unable to correlate its issuances on one site with redemptions on another site. If the issuer gives out N tokens each to M users, and later receives up to N*M requests for redemption on various sites, the issuer can't correlate those redemption requests to any user identity (unless M = 1). It learns only aggregate information about which sites users visit.

However, there are a couple of finer points that need to be considered to ensure the underlying protocol remains private.

Key Consistency

If the server uses different values for their private keys for different clients, they can de-anonymize clients at redemption time and break the unlinkability property. To mitigate this, the Privacy Pass protocol should ensure that issuers publish a public key commitment list, verifies it is small (e.g. max 3 keys), and verifies consistency between issuance and redemption.

Potential Attack: Side Channel Fingerprinting

If the issuer is able to use network-level fingerprinting or other side-channels to associate a browser at redemption time with the same browser at token issuance time, privacy is lost. Importantly, the API itself has not revealed any new information, since sites could use the same technique by issuing GET requests to the issuer in the two separate contexts anyway.

Cross-site Information Transfer

Trust tokens transfer information about one first-party cookie to another, and we have cryptographic guarantees that each token only contains a small amount of information. Still, if we allow many token redemptions on a single page, the first-party cookie for user U on domain A can be encoded in the trust token information channel and decoded on domain B, allowing domain B to learn the user's domain A cookie until either 1p cookie is cleared. Separate from the concern of channels allowing arbitrary communication between domains, some identification attacks---for instance, a malicious redeemer attempting to learn the exact set of issuers that have granted tokens to a particular user, which could be identifying---have similar mitigations.

Mitigation: Dynamic Issuance / Redemption Limits

To mitigate this attack, we place limits on both issuance and redemption. At issuance, we require user activation with the issuing site. At redemption, we can slow down the rate of redemption by returning cached Signed Redemption Records when an issuer attempts too many refreshes (see also the token exhaustion problem). These mitigations should make the attack take a longer time and require many user visits to recover a full user ID.

Mitigation: Allowed/Blocked Issuer Lists

To prevent abuse of the API, browsers could maintain a list of allowed or disallowed issuers. Inclusion in the list should be easy, but should mean agreeing to certain policies about what an issuer is allowed to do. An analog to this is the baseline requirements in the CA ecosystem.

Mitigation: Per-Site Issuer Limits

The rate of identity leakage from one site to another increases with the number of tokens redeemed on a page. To avoid abuse, there should be strict limits on the number of token issuers contacted per top-level origin (e.g. 2); this limit should apply for both issuance and redemption; and the issuers used on an origin should be persisted in browser storage to avoid excessively rotating issuers on subsequent visits. This should also apply for document.hasTrustToken, as the presence of tokens can be used as a tracking vector.

First Party Tracking Potential

Cached SRRs and their associated browser public keys have a similar tracking potential to first party cookies. Therefore these should be clearable by browser’s existing Clear Site Data functionality.

The SRR and its public key are untamperable first-party tracking vectors. They allow sites to share their first-party user identity with third parties on the page in a verifiable way. To mitigate this potentially undesirable situation, user agents can request multiple SRRs in a single token redemption, each bound to different keypairs, and use different SRRs and keypairs when performing requests based on the third-party or over time.

In order to prevent the issuer from binding together multiple simultaneous redemptions, the UA can blind the keypairs before sending them to the issuer. Additionally, the client may need to produce signed timestamps to prevent the issuer from using the timestamp as another matching method.

Security Considerations

Trust Token Exhaustion

The goal of a token exhaustion attack is to deplete a legitimate user's supply of tokens for a given issuer, so that user is less valuable to sites who depend on the issuer’s trust tokens.

We have a number of mitigations against this attack:

  • Issuers issue many tokens at once, so users have a large supply of tokens.
  • Browsers will only ever redeem one token per top-level page view, so it will take many page views to deplete the full supply.
  • The browser will cache SRRs per-origin and only refresh them when an issuer iframe opts-in, so malicious origins won't deplete many tokens. The “freshness” of the SRR becomes an additional trust signal.
  • Browsers may choose to limit redemptions on a time-based schedule, and either return cached SRRs if available, or require consumers to cache the SRR.
  • Issuers will be able to see the Referer, subject to the page's referrer policy, for any token redemption, so they'll be able to detect if any one site is redeeming suspiciously many tokens.

When the issuer detects a site is attacking its trust token supply, it can fail redemption (before the token is revealed) based on the referring origin, and prevent browsers from spending tokens there.

Double-Spend Prevention

Issuers can verify that each token is seen only once, because every redemption is sent to the same token issuer. This means that even if a malicious piece of malware exfiltrates all of a users' trust tokens, the tokens will run out over time. Issuers can sign fewer tokens at a time to mitigate the risk.

Future Extensions

Publicly Verifiable Tokens

The tokens used in the above design require private key verification, necessitating a roundtrip to the issuer at redemption time for token verification and SRR generation. Here, the unlinkability of a client’s tokens relies on the assumption that the client and issuer can communicate anonymously (i.e. the issuer cannot link issuance and redemption requests from the same user via a side channel like network fingerprint).

An alternative design that avoids this assumption is to instead use publicly verifiable tokens (i.e. tokens that can be verified by any party). It is possible to instantiate these tokens using blind signatures as well, achieving the same unlinkability properties of the existing design. These tokens can be spent without a round trip to the issuer, but it requires either decentralized double spend protection, or round trips to a centralized double-spend aggregator.

Request mechanism not based on fetch()

A possible enhancement would be to allow for sending Signed Redemption Records (and signing requests using the trust keypair) for requests sent outside of fetch(), e.g. on top-level and iframe navigation requests. This would allow for the use of the API by entities that aren't running Javascript directly on the page, or that want some level of trust before returning a main response.

Optimizing redemption RTT

If the publisher can configure issuers in response headers (or otherwise early in the page load), then they could invoke a redemption in parallel with the page loading, before the relevant fetch() calls.


Sample API Usage - Trust Token Issuer - Publisher Top-Level Site - Site requiring a Trust Token to prove the user is trusted.

  1. User visits
  2. verifies the user is a human, and calls fetch('''/.well-known/trust-token', {trust-token: {type: 'token-request', issuer: ''}}).
    1. The browser stores the trust tokens associated with
  3. Sometime later, the user visits
  4. wants to know if the user is a human, by asking that question, by calling fetch('''/.well-known/trust-token', {trust-token: {type: 'srr-token-redemption', issuer: ''}}).
    1. The browser requests a redemption.
    2. The issuer returns an SRR (this indicates that at some point issued a valid token to this browser).
    3. When the promise returned by the method resolves, the SRR can be used in subsequent resource requests.
  5. Script running code in the top level document can call fetch("", {trust-token: {type: 'send-srr', issuer: ''}})
    1. The third-party receives the SRR, and now has some indication that thought this user was a human.
    2. The third-party responds to this fetch request based on that fact.
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