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Stalin - a STAtic Language ImplementatioN Finally, a Lisp compiler that does what it should... Jeffrey Mark Siskind School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Purdue University Electrical Engineering Building, Room 330 465 Northwestern Avenue West Lafayette IN 47907-2035 USA voice: 765/496-3197 fax: 765/494-6440 email@example.com http://www.ece.purdue.edu/~qobi Monday 2 October 2006 INTRODUCTION This is release 0.11 of Stalin, a global optimizing compiler for Scheme. It is an alpha release and contains many known bugs. Not everything is fully implemented. This is the first self-hosting release. Stalin can now compile itself. Unlike previous releases, this release does not require you to have Scheme->C. And it does not require you to install Infrastructure or QobiScheme. Stalin is an extremely efficient compiler for Scheme. It is designed to be used not as a development tool but rather as a means to generate efficient executable images either for application delivery or for production research runs. In contrast to traditional Scheme implementations, Stalin is a batch-mode compiler. There is no interactive READ-EVAL-PRINT loop. Stalin compiles a single Scheme source file into an executable image (indirectly via C). Running that image has equivalent semantics to loading the Scheme source file into a virgin Scheme interpreter and then terminating its execution. The chief limitation is that it is not possible to LOAD or EVAL new expressions or procedure definitions into a running program after compilation. In return for this limitation, Stalin does substantial global compile-time analysis of the source program under this closed-world assumption and produces executable images that are small, stand-alone, and fast. Stalin incorporates numerous strategies for generating efficient code. Among them, Stalin does global static type analysis using a soft type system that supports recursive union types. Stalin can determine a narrow or even monomorphic type for each source code expression in arbitrary Scheme programs with no type declarations. This allows Stalin to reduce, or often eliminate, run-time type checking and dispatching. Stalin also does low-level representation selection on a per-expression basis. This allows the use of unboxed base machine data representations for all monomorphic types resulting in extremely high-performance numeric code. Stalin also does global static life-time analysis for all allocated data. This allows much temporary allocated storage to be reclaimed without garbage collection. Finally, Stalin has very efficient strategies for compiling closures. Together, these compilation techniques synergistically yield efficient object code. Furthermore, the executable images created by Stalin do not contain (user-defined or library) procedures that aren't called, variables and parameters that aren't used, and expressions that cannot be reached. This encourages a programming style whereby one creates and uses very general library procedures without fear that executable images will suffer from code bloat. IMPORTANT NOTE Contrary to any other indication in the documentation, this release does not run on DEC/Alpha under Linux due to limitations of gcc (it is not able to compile the file stalin-Alpha.c because it has too many global variables). It is possible to run Stalin under Linux on DEC/Alpha when it is compiled with Scheme->C (rather than self compiled) but I am not currently distributing that version. Contact me if you need to run Stalin under Alpha Linux and I will send you the Scheme->C version. It might be possible to compile stalin-Alpha.c with the DEC C compiler under Digital Unix. I do not have access to this environment to try this. If anybody else does, I would appreciate any feedback as to whether this works. DEVIATIONS Stalin nominally accepts the language defined by The Revised^4 Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme (R4RS). The language accepted by Stalin is known to deviate from R4RS in a number of ways as described below. (If you discover additional differences, please send mail to Big-Stalin@AI.MIT.EDU.) Many of these simply are features that are not (yet) implemented though I make no commitment to fully comply with R4RS and reserve the right to deviate from R4RS for any reason whatsoever, particularly performance. 1. Unimplemented syntax: 4.2.6 Nested quasiquotation is not supported. appendix Macros 2. Unimplemented procedures: 6.5.5 NUMERATOR DENOMINATOR RATIONALIZE MAKE-RECTANGULAR MAKE-POLAR REAL-PART IMAG-PART MAGNITUDE ANGLE 6.10.4 LOAD TRANSCRIPT-ON TRANSCRIPT-OFF 3. (1.1) Tail recursion optimization is done only on self calls. 4. (6.5) The following numeric data types are not supported: a. bignums: exact integers of arbitrary magnitude Furthermore, exact integer arithmetic can overflow without signaling an error and without yielding an inexact floating point number. b. ratios: exact non-integer rationals c. polar format complex numbers d. exact rectangular format complex numbers 5. It is not possible to access all of the underlying C scalar types. (This is not an incompatibility with R4RS but nonetheless important for other reasons.) a. No independent control over the float/double distinction. b. No long/short chars/ints/floats/doubles c. No unsigned chars/ints 6. (1.3.1) No R4RS compliance mode is provided. 7. Limitations of (6.5.6) STRING->NUMBER, (6.10.2) READ, and the source program: a. Can't parse largest negative number. b. Can't parse polar numbers with @. c. Can't parse rectangular numbers with i. d. Can't parse ratios with /. e. Can't parse numbers with embedded #. f. Can't parse exactness with #E and #I. g. Can't parse inexact numbers with mantissas where the digit string before the decimal point would overflow if read as an exact number, h. On Intel, SPARC, and SGI, the source program can't contain exact integer constants <-536870912 or >536870911. On Intel and SPARC, the compiler will generate incorrect C code without warning. On SGI, the compiler might signal an exception or might generate incorrect C code without warning. On Alpha, the source program can't contain exact integer constants <-2305843009213693952 or >2305843009213693951. The compiler will generate incorrect C code without warning. 8. (6.5.6) STRING->NUMBER doesn't accept the optional radix argument. 9. APPLY and CALL-WITH-CURRENT-CONTINUATION don't accept continuations or foreign procedures as their first argument. 10. (6.2) EQV? might return #T when given two procedures that can never be called. (BEGIN (DEFINE (F X) (LAMBDA () X)) (EQV? (F 1) (F 2))) ==> #T EQV? might return #T when given two fictitious pairs or degenerate vectors. (EQV? (CONS #T #T) (CONS #T #T)) ==> #T (EQV? (VECTOR #T) (VECTOR #T)) ==> #T 11. (6.5.5) =, <, >, <=, >= might not be transitive. 12. (6.5.6) STRING->NUMBER, READ, DISPLAY, and WRITE don't obey write/read invariance for inexact numbers. 13. (APPLY (LAMBDA X X) y) ==> y without checking that y is a list and without copying y. Furthermore, because of the way LIST is defined, (APPLY LIST X) doesn't copy X. 14. (6.10.1) Closing a port that has already been closed yields undefined behaviour rather than having no effect. EXTENSIONS Stalin extends R4RS in a number of ways: 1. New syntax: PRIMITIVE-PROCEDURE and FOREIGN-PROCEDURE. 2. New procedures: LIST-LENGTH, SUBLIST, SUB, LIST-APPEND, LIST-REVERSE, REF, LIST-SET!, REF!, LIST-FILL!, FILL!, LIST-COPY, STRING->UNINTERNED-SYMBOL, STRING-REVERSE, <<, >>, BITWISE-NOT, BITWISE-AND, BITWISE-OR, MAKE-DISPLACED-VECTOR, SUBVECTOR, VECTOR-APPEND, VECTOR-REVERSE, VECTOR-COPY, PANIC, POINTER?, INTEGER->STRING, INTEGER->INPUT-PORT, INTEGER->OUTPUT-PORT, and INTEGER->POINTER. 3. New data type: pointer. ZERO? can be used to check for null pointers (as well as null strings and null ports). INTEGER->POINTER can be used to convert an integer address to a pointer. INTEGER->STRING, INTEGER->INPUT-PORT, and INTEGER->OUTPUT-PORT can be used to convert an integer address to a string, input port, or output-port, respectively. 4. New variable: ARGV is bound to a vector of strings containing the command line arguments. 5. If the last expression executed by the program evaluates to an integer, then its value is returned as the status code of the program. Otherwise, the status code zero is returned. 6. Vectors are self evaluating. 7. DO iterator list can be empty. 8. Bodies can be empty. 9. The commands of DO and the expressions of COND, CASE, BEGIN, and DO are considered bodies. 10. Bodies can have definitions intermixed with expressions. 11. Definitions are executed in order and can reference variables defined by previous definitions. 12. Any body with just definitions treated like BEGIN. 13. Binding can be just a variable in LET, LET*, and LETREC. 14. DEFINE can take a single argument. 15. (EQV? "" "") ==> #T (EQV? #() #()) ==> #T 16. The procedures LENGTH, APPEND, REVERSE, and COPY are generic. 17. EOF objects, input ports, and output ports are disjoint from each other and all other data types. 18. All EOF objects are EQ?. A future version of this document will describe all of the above extensions in greater detail. INSTALLATION The Stalin compiler is written in Scheme and can compile itself. (While I have run Stalin under other Scheme implementations such as Scheme->C, SCM, and Gambit-C, this requires some modification of the Stalin source code.) To compile and use Stalin, you must have a C compiler installed. To install Stalin, do: % uncompress stalin-0.11.tar.Z % tar xf stalin-0.11.tar % cd stalin-0.11 % ./build To test Stalin, do: % cd benchmarks % ./compile-and-run-stalin-benchmarks which will compile and run some sample programs including the Gabriel benchmarks. If you wish to compare the performance of Stalin against Scheme->C, Gambit-C, Bigloo, and Chez (assuming that you have these systems installed) you can do: % ./benchmark This will compile all of the example with each of the Scheme compilers, run each example three times, and automatically produce a file `results.tex' with absolute CPU times for each benchmark and compiler as well as ratios of the CPU times used by Stalin vs. the other compilers. You might wish to put the executable `stalin' in your standard directory of executables. You might also wish to put the man page `stalin.man' in your standard directory of man pages. And you might wish to copy the directory `include' to `/usr/local/stalin/include'. If you do the latter then you need not specify the -I option when using Stalin. Stalin comes with an experimental Emacs interface. To use this interface you first need to compile the program pp.sc. This program must be compiled with Scheme->C (which is not included in the Stalin distribution). Compile this program with the following commands: % scc -o pp pp.sc % rm pp.c and then put `pp' in your path. The Emacs interface is in the file `stalin.el'. Read the instructions at the beginning of that file for an explanation of how to use that interface. Stalin also comes with an experimental FPI to OpenGL. This interface assumes that you have the files `GL/gl.h', `GL/glu.h', and `GL/glut.h' in your C compiler include path. To install this interface, do: % ./build-gl-fpi Please note that the OpenGL interface requires Mark Kilgard's GLUT which doesn't come with OpenGL by default. GLUT can be obtained from: http://reality.sgi.com/mjk_asd/glut3/glut3.html Since Stalin is now self-hosting, this distribution comes with pre-generated C code. The initial installation is done simply by compiling this C code. Since the C code generated by Stalin varies depending on architectural parameters, this distribution comes with two pre-generated versions: the file `stalin-32.c' for 32-bit architectures and the file `stalin-Alpha.c' for the DEC/Alpha. The `build' script automatically determines the architecture that it is running on and copies the appropriate file to `stalin.c' and then compiles this file. If you wish to rebuild Stalin from the Scheme sources (given a running Stalin compiler), you can touch or modify the file `stalin.sc' and then do: % make which will first generate `stalin.c' from `stalin.sc' and then generate `stalin' from `stalin.c'. This will automatically make a version that is appropriate for the architecture that you are running on. If you wish to cross-generate C code for a different architecture, then do either: % make stalin-32.c or: % make stalin-Alpha.c USAGE See the man page for how to invoke Stalin. The Stalin distribution comes with a number of examples in the benchmarks directory. The first example is a simple "Hello World" program in the file `hello.sc'. To compile and run it do: % ./make-hello % ./hello The second example is a version of the "Hello World" program that uses Xlib in the file `xhello.sc'. To compile and run it, first set your DISPLAY environment variable appropriately and then do: % ./make-xhello % ./xhello then click on the window to exit. The third example illustrates how to use the application framework that is included in QobiScheme. It is in the file `define-application-example.sc'. To compile and run it, first set your DISPLAY environment variable appropriately and then do: % ./make-define-application-example % ./define-application-example This program illustrates simple buttons ("Quit"), on/off buttons ("Flag"), radio buttons ("Line" and "Ellipse"), mode buttons ("A/B/C"), increment/decrement buttons ("-K" and "+K"), keystroke accelerators (c-X c-C and c-H), the builtin help facility, the type-in buffer with a few Emacs-like key bindings, mouse-clickable regions, and rubber-banding (click on the display pane to draw lines and ellipses). FOREIGN PROCEDURE INTERFACE Stalin has a rudimentary foreign procedure interface. The syntax (FOREIGN-PROCEDURE (<arg type> ...) <return type> <name>) returns a procedure. <arg type> must be one of CHAR, SIGNED-CHAR, UNSIGNED-CHAR, SHORT, UNSIGNED-SHORT, INT, UNSIGNED, LONG, UNSIGNED-LONG, FLOAT, DOUBLE, LONG-DOUBLE, CHAR*, FILE*, or VOID*. <return type> must be one of CHAR, SIGNED-CHAR, UNSIGNED-CHAR, SHORT, UNSIGNED-SHORT, INT, UNSIGNED, LONG, UNSIGNED-LONG, FLOAT, DOUBLE, LONG-DOUBLE, CHAR*, INPUT-PORT, OUTPUT-PORT, VOID*, VOID, or NO-RETURN. <name> must be a string that names the entry point. Calling that procedure calls the named entry point. Foreign procedure are first-class objects and can be passed as arguments to Scheme procedures, returned as results, and stored in and accessed from variables, pairs, vectors, and structures. PROCEDURE? returns #T when given a foreign procedure as its argument. <type> C Scheme ------------------------------------------------------- CHAR char character SIGNED-CHAR signed char character UNSIGNED-CHAR unsigned char character SHORT short exact integer UNSIGNED-SHORT unsigned short exact integer INT int exact integer UNSIGNED unsigned exact integer LONG long exact integer UNSIGNED-LONG unsigned long exact integer FLOAT float inexact real DOUBLE double inexact real LONG-DOUBLE long double inexact real CHAR* char* string FILE* FILE* input port or output port INPUT-PORT FILE* input port OUTPUT-PORT FILE* output port VOID void unspecified NO-RETURN void unspecified VOID* void* pointer When a foreign procedure is created, the entry point must take the given number of types and have its argument and return types declared to correspond to the above mapping from <type> to C. A foreign procedure must be called with the correct number of arguments of the correct types as specified by the above mapping from <type> to Scheme. No automatic type conversion is done on entry to or exit from the foreign procedure. If -Ot is not specified, a run time error will be generated if a foreign procedure is called with the wrong number of arguments or arguments of the wrong type. Such type checking is eliminated if the compiler can prove that it is redundant or if the -Ot option is specified. The foreign procedure returns a Scheme value of the type specified by the above mapping from <type> to Scheme unless the <return type> is VOID or NO-RETURN. If the <return type> is VOID, the returned value is unspecified. If the <return type> is NO-RETURN then the procedure doesn't return. As an example, the expression ((FOREIGN-PROCEDURE (CHAR*) INT "atoi") (VECTOR-REF ARGV 1)) parses the first command line argument into an exact integer. Stalin introduces a new object type called `pointer'. Pointers are first class objects and can be passed as arguments to Scheme procedures, returned as results, and stored in and accessed from variables, pairs, vectors, and structures. Pointers are disjoint from all other Scheme types. The only primitive procedures that are defined on pointers, however, are POINTER? and ZERO?. POINTER? takes a single argument. It returns #T if that argument is a pointer and #F otherwise. If ZERO? is given a pointer as its argument it returns #T if the pointer is NULL and #F otherwise. Pointers, however, can be passed into and out of foreign procedures as values of the C type void*. ZERO? can also be given a string or a port as its argument. It returns #T if the string or port is NULL and #F otherwise. Note that null strings are distinct from empty strings. Null strings and ports are never created by ordinary Scheme procedures. They can only be created by foreign procedures and the Scheme procedures INTEGER->STRING, INTEGER->INPUT-PORT, and INTEGER->OUTPUT-PORT. A foreign procedure invocation should not access a CHAR* or FILE* value that was passed as an argument to a different invocation of the same or different foreign procedure as that value might have been reclaimed in the interim. PORTABILITY Stalin should run under Solaris 1 and 2 on Sun/SPARCs (in 32-bit mode), IRIX 4, 5, and 6 on SGI/MIPs (in 32-bit mode), Linux on Intel/x86s (both with libc5 and glibc) and DEC/Alphas, and OSF/1 V3 and V4 on DEC/Alphas though it has only been extensively tested on Linux on Intel/x86s and DEC/Alphas. FUTURE PLANS Stalin currently provides only a minimal set of features, coinciding mostly with those specified in R4RS. Future plans include several language extensions: macros, displaced strings, an object system with inheritance and generic procedures, weak pointers and finalization, hash tables, a condition system, a module system, separate compilation, and a debugger. Additional compile-time optimizations are planned, as well improving the speed of the compiler. COMMUNICATION Bug mail should be addressed to Bug-Stalin@AI.MIT.EDU and not to me personally. Please include the version number (0.11) in the message. Periodic announcements of bug fixes, enhancements, and new releases will be made to Info-Stalin@AI.MIT.EDU. Send mail to Info-Stalin-Request@AI.MIT.EDU to be added to the Info-Stalin@AI.MIT.EDU mailing list. HOW TO OBTAIN The current release of Stalin is available by anonymous FTP from ftp://ftp.ecn.nec.com/qobi/stalin.tar.Z. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Rob Browning <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Jeffrey B. Siegal <email@example.com>, Bengt Kleberg <firstname.lastname@example.org>, and Sven Hartrumpf <Sven.Hartrumpf@FernUni-Hagen.de> contributed portions of the code and documentation. CONDITIONS This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.