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Installing Horde Framework 5
.. contents:: Contents
.. section-numbering::
This document contains instructions for installing the Horde Framework on your
The Horde Framework, by itself, does not provide any significant end user
functionality; it provides a base for other applications and tools for
developers. When you have installed Horde as described below, you will
probably want to install some of the available Horde applications, such as
IMP_ (a webmail client), or Kronolith_ (a calendar). There is a list of Horde
applications and projects at
If you are interested in developing applications for Horde, there is developer
documentation and references available at, and some
tutorials and papers on Horde available at
For information on the capabilities and features of Horde, see the file
README_ in the top-level directory of the Horde distribution.
.. _IMP:
.. _Kronolith:
Quick Install
These are very terse instructions how to install Horde and its prerequisites
on a LAMP_ (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) sytem. They are addressed to
experienced administrators who know exactly what they are doing. For more
detailed instructions, start reading below at Prerequisites_.
1. Compiling PHP for Apache 2::
cd php-x.x.x/
./configure --with-apxs2=/usr/sbin/apxs2 \
--with-gettext --enable-mbstring --with-gd \
--with-png-dir=/usr --with-jpeg-dir=/usr \
make install
2. Restart Apache.
3. Make sure your PEAR package is up-to-date::
pear upgrade PEAR
4. Register Horde PEAR channel::
pear channel-discover
5. Set Horde installation directory::
pear install horde/horde_role
pear run-scripts horde/horde_role
6. Install Horde::
pear install -a -B horde/horde
7. Configure Horde::
cd config/
cp conf.php.dist conf.php
8. Finish configuration::
Go to Administration => Configuration => Horde
(Or navigate to http://your-server/horde/admin/config)
9. Create database tables
Go to Administration => Configuration. Click ``Update All DB Schemas``.
10. Test Horde (optional)
Enable the test script in the Horde configuration at the ``General`` in the
``PHP Settings`` section, or edit ``horde/config/conf.php`` and set
``'testdisable'`` to false.
Go to::
.. Important:: Disable the test script again after you are done.
.. _LAMP:
The following prerequisites are **REQUIRED** for Horde to function properly.
1. A webserver that supports PHP.
Horde is primarily developed under the Apache and Lighttpd webservers,
which we recommend. These servers are available from:
2. PHP 5.3.0 or above.
PHP is the interpreted language in which Horde is written.
You can obtain PHP sources at::
.. Note:: Although the PHP 5.3 API is supported, for stability, performance,
and security reasons it is **HIGHLY RECOMMENDED** to use a version of
PHP >= 5.4.0.
.. Note:: While it may be possible to install PHP using the package manager
for your operating system, it is not recommended to do so if your
distribution (e.g. Debian) does NOT update the actual PHP version in
its package updates. Otherwise, you will be stuck with a PHP version that
does not contain the most recent bug and security patches. On these
systems, it is **HIGHLY RECOMMENDED** to either install PHP from source
OR use a 3rd party package repository that contains the most recently
released PHP version on the branch (5.4, 5.5, etc.) that you want to use.
Follow the instructions in the PHP package to build PHP for your system. If
you use Apache, be sure to build PHP as a library with one of the following
options to ``./configure``, and not as a standalone executable.
The following PHP extensions respective options are **REQUIRED** by Horde
(listed with their own prerequisites and configure options). In many cases,
the required libraries and tools can be obtained as packages from your
operating system vendor.
a. Gettext support. ``--with-gettext``
Gettext is the GNU Translation Project's localization library.
Horde uses gettext to provide local translations of text displayed by
applications. Information on obtaining the gettext package is available
See also note below on configuring Translations_.
All Horde translations are stored in UTF-8, so your underlying system
MUST support UTF-8 for all locales that you wish to provide translation
support for.
b. XML and DOM support.
XML and DOM support are enabled in PHP 5 by default. You only have to
make sure that you do **not** use ``--disable-dom``,
``--disable-simplexml``, or ``--disable-xml``.
Make sure you are using a newer (v2.7 or greater) version of libxml.
Older versions of libxml are broken when handling certain charsets.
The following PHP options are **RECOMMENDED** to enable advanced features in
a. File Upload Support
File upload support is **REQUIRED** by many applications to allow
advanced features to work. To enable file upload support:
1. In your php.ini file, the following line **must** be present::
file_uploads = On
2. Your temporary upload directory **must** be writable to the user
the web server is running as. If you leave the configuration
option ``upload_tmp_dir`` blank in ``php.ini``, PHP will use the
default directory compiled into it (normally ``/tmp`` on
Unix-like systems).
3. Set the maximum size of the uploaded files via the
``upload_max_filesize`` configuration option in ``php.ini``. For
example, to allow 5 MB attachments, place the following line in
your ``php.ini`` file::
upload_max_filesize = 5M
If either ``file_uploads`` is turned off, or your temporary upload
directory is *not* writable by the server, all file upload
functionality will be disabled by Horde and will not be available to
the user.
See the `File Uploads`_ FAQ entry for further information.
b. A preferences container.
Horde applications can store user preferences in a variety of backends.
Common storage backends include an SQL database, an LDAP directory, a
Kolab server, local files, a NoSQL database, or in PHP sessions.
For SQL database preferences storage, Horde is thoroughly tested on
MySQL(i) (``--with-mysql(i)``), PostgreSQL (``--with-pgsql``), and
SQLite (enabled by default in PHP). LDAP and/or Kolab (``--with-ldap``)
is another common storage backend. NoSQL support is provided through
Alternatively, preferences can be stored in PHP sessions, which
requires no external programs or configure options, but which will not
maintain preferences between sessions.
While the SQL, LDAP, or Kolab server need not be running on the machine
on which you are installing Horde, the appropriate client libraries to
access the server must be available locally.
If a preference container is not configured, no preference options
will be configurable via Horde's web interface - the default values
stored in each applications ``config/prefs.php`` file will be used.
c. Multibyte character support (mbstring and iconv extensions) ``--enable-mbstring``
If these extensions are enabled, Horde can better support multibyte
character sets.
For iconv support you should use the GNU libiconv library, which is more
stable and supports more charsets, compared to other iconv
implementations, like Solaris', for example.
Iconv support is enabled by default in PHP 5. You only have to make sure
that you do **not** use ``--without-iconv``
d. GD support ``--with-gd``
Horde will use the GD extension to perform manipulations on image data
through the Horde_Image library.
If you want GD to be able to work with PNG images, you should use the
``--with-png-dir`` option to make sure PHP can find the PNG libraries
it needs to compile.
If you want GD to be able to work with JPEG images, you should use the
``--with-jpeg-dir`` option to make sure PHP can find the JPEG libraries
it needs to compile.
You can also use the imagick_ extension or the ImageMagick_ package to do
these manipulations instead. The imagick_ extension is the recommended
method for image manipulation. See the ``Image Manipulation`` tab of the
Horde configuration for more details. ImageMagick version 6.5.7 or better
is recommended.
.. _imagick:
.. _ImageMagick:
e. tidy ``--with-tidy``
The tidy PHP extension is required to sanitize HTML data.
.. Important:: Additionally, individual Horde applications may **REQUIRE**
or **RECOMMEND** other options to be built into PHP
also. Please check ``docs/INSTALL`` for all applications you
wish to use to see if other PHP options are needed.
f. fileinfo
Allows Horde applications to guess the MIME type of files by analyzing
their contents.
This extension is automatically enabled by default.
g. _`curl` ``--with-curl``
The `curl extension`_, if installed, will be used instead of PHP's
fopen() when retrieving data from external HTTP servers (remote
calendars, web APIs, etc.). This is much more reliable and flexible, so
it is recommended to either enable it or install the http_ extension.
This extension can be enabled by adding the ``--with-curl`` option when
compiling PHP.
3. PEAR Modules
PEAR is short for "PHP Extension and Application Repository". The goal of
PEAR is to provide a means of distributing reusable code.
For more information, see
.. Important:: Make sure you are running a supported (i.e. new enough)
version of PEAR: use the test script described below under
"`Configuring Horde`_". Do **not** use the PEAR version
Check that the path where the PEAR packages are installed are part of the
``include_path`` parameter that PHP uses to find PEAR packages.
Run the command::
pear config-show
You will see something like::
PEAR directory php_dir /usr/share/php
Now open the php.ini file of your system, for example ``/etc/php.ini``,
find the ``include_path`` and make sure that ``/usr/share/php`` is part of
the list. If you had to change that value, restart the web server after
saving ``php.ini``.
.. Important:: If you are going to install Horde the recommended way,
i.e. using the PEAR installer, you can skip the remainder of
this section. Installing Horde through PEAR will
automatically download and install all required PEAR
These PEAR packages are **RECOMMENDED** to be installed:
a. Net_DNS2
If installed, it will be used instead of the built-in PHP function
gethostbyaddr() for host name lookups. This has the advantage that
Net_DNS2 has configurable timeouts and retries.
To install, enter the following at the command prompt::
pear install Net_DNS2
b. File_Fstab
Required only if you use the localhost driver for the Accounts block.
To install, enter the following at the command prompt::
pear install File_Fstab
This method of installing PEAR packages requires that you have a PHP version
that has been compiled as a static binary. All versions of PHP build both
both a SAPI module (Apache, CGI, etc.) and a command-line (CLI) binary.
Check if you have a php binary in ``/usr/local/bin`` (``/usr/bin`` if you
installed from an operating system package) before recompiling.
For more detailed directions on installing PEAR packages, see the PEAR
documentation at
4. PECL Modules
PECL is short for "PHP Extension Community Library". The goal of PECL is
to provide a means of easily distributing PHP extensions.
For more information, see
PECL is the "sister" of PEAR and uses the same packaging and distribution
system as PEAR, so the configuration/setup is essentially identical to the
PEAR instructions above.
When you install a PECL extension, you have to add it to your ``php.ini``
so it gets loaded. Add the following line to your ``php.ini`` file to load
the extension (the extension should be installed in the directory specified
by the ``extension_dir`` option in ``php.ini``)::
Or on Windows::
After that, restart your webserver.
These PECL packages are **RECOMMENDED** to be installed:
a. imagick
The imagick extension can be used by Horde's image library to provide
image manipulations.
To install, enter the following at the command prompt::
pecl install imagick
The imagick extension **must** be compiled against ImageMagick version
6.2.9 or better, though version 6.5.7 or better is recommended.
b. horde_lz4
If the horde_lz4 extension is available, Horde can perform real-time
compression on data, resulting in reduced storage load on the server for
things like cache storage and session data. It is highly recommended.
To install, enter the following at the command prompt::
pecl install horde/horde_lz4
c. memcache
If using memcache, the memcache PECL extension must be installed.
To install, enter the following at the command prompt::
pecl install memcache
d. _`http`
The `http extension`_, if installed, will be used instead of PHP's
fopen() when retrieving data from external HTTP servers (remote
calendars, web APIs, etc.). This is much more reliable and flexible, so
it recommended to either install this or enable the curl_ extension.
To install, enter the following at the command prompt::
pecl install http
For additional help on using the pear command-line program to install PECL
extensions, see the PEAR installation section above.
The following non-PHP prerequisites are **RECOMMENDED**.
1. aspell - Spelling Checker
Aspell, a comand-line program, is used as Horde's spell-checking engine.
You must install and configure aspell to use Horde's spell-check feature.
Version 0.60 or higher is REQUIRED.
You can obtain aspell from:
The following non-PHP prerequisites are optional.
1. Sendmail.
It is highly **RECOMMENDED** that Horde be configured to use SMTP for
sending e-mails.
Alternatively, Horde can use the local sendmail program, or a program that
implements the ``sendmail(8)`` API (as included with postfix, qmail, and
exim, among others). However, local use of sendmail binaries to send mail
is discouraged due to authentication/permission issues (since Horde will
invoke the sendmail binary as the web/PHP user), and because it is not
possible to reliably auto-configure sendmail since there is no unified
API across platforms/sendmail variants.
Installing Horde
The **RECOMMENDED** way to install Horde is using the PEAR installer.
Alternatively, if you want to run the latest development code or get the
latest not yet released fixes, you can install Horde from Git.
Installing with PEAR
Before beginning, make sure your PEAR package is up-to-date::
pear upgrade PEAR
Next, you need to register the Horde PEAR channel server to your local PEAR
system. This has to be done only **once** ever on a single PEAR system::
pear channel-discover
Next install a so-called "role" for Horde. This role defines where Horde is
installed. This should be a directory in your web server's web root, e.g.
``/var/www/horde``. Again this has to be done only **once** ever on
a single PEAR system::
pear install horde/horde_role
pear run-scripts horde/horde_role
When installing Horde through PEAR now, the installer will automatically
install any dependencies of Horde too. If you want to install Horde with all
optional dependencies, but without the binary PECL packages that have to be
compiled, specify both the ``-a`` and the ``-B`` flag::
pear install -a -B horde/horde
By default, only the required dependencies will be installed::
pear install horde/horde
If you want to install Horde even with all binary dependencies, you need to
remove the ``-B`` flag. Please note that this might also try to install PHP
extensions through PECL that might need further configuration or activation in
your PHP configuration::
pear install -a horde/horde
Installing into separate PEAR
.. Warning:: Unless you really know **why** you want to do this, you probably
do **not** want to do this. Use the general PEAR installation
instructions from above instead.
If you want to create a separate PEAR installation for installing Horde,
independent from the system-wide PEAR installation, this can be done with the
following commands (in this example, ``/var/www/horde`` is used as the
location of the web-accessible horde directory)::
mkdir /var/www/horde
pear config-create /var/www/horde /var/www/horde/pear.conf
pear -c /var/www/horde/pear.conf install pear
Then follow the regular installation steps, but use the ``pear`` command from
the PEAR installation you just created, e.g.::
/var/www/horde/pear/pear -c /var/www/horde/pear.conf channel-discover \
Finally configure your web server in some way to point PHP's ``include_path``
setting to the PEAR installation and the ``PHP_PEAR_SYSCONF_DIR`` environment
variable to the directory used during the config-create command::
php_value include_path /var/www/horde/pear/php
SetEnv PHP_PEAR_SYSCONF_DIR /var/www/horde
It is recommended to not use the .htaccess file in ``/var/www/horde/`` to set
these values because it will be overwritten with every further update.
Installing from Git
Configuring Horde
1. Configuring the web server
Horde requires the following webserver settings. Examples shown are for
Apache; other webservers' configurations will differ.
a. PHP interpretation for files matching ``*.php``::
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
.. Note:: The above instructions may not work if you have specified PHP
as an output filter with ``SetOutputFilter`` directive in
Apache 2.x versions. In particular, Red Hat 8.0 and above
Apache 2.x RPMS have the output filter set, and **MUST NOT**
have the above ``AddType`` directive added.
b. ``index.php`` as an index file (brought up when a user requests a URL for
a directory)::
DirectoryIndex index.php
c. If you plan to provide ActiveSync support to your users, you have to
create an alias of the ``/Microsoft-Servers-ActiveSync`` URL to
``/horde/rpc.php``. See for details.
c. If you plan to provide CardDAV support to users with iOS devices, you
have to create an alias of the ``/.well-known/carddav`` URL to
``/horde/rpc.php``. See for details.
2. Configuring Horde
To configure Horde, change to the ``config/`` directory of the installed
distribution, and copy the ``conf.php.dist`` configuration file to
Documentation on the format and purpose of the configuration files in the
``config/`` directory can be found in each file. The defaults will be
correct for most sites. If you wish to customize Horde's appearance and
behavior, create "local" files for the configuration file you want to
change. For example if you want to change the default value and lock a
preference, create a ``config/prefs.local.php`` file with the following
$_prefs['prefname']['value'] = 'somedefault';
$_prefs['prefname']['locked'] = true;
This works with any configuration file.
.. Warning:: All configuration files in Horde are PHP scripts that are
executed by the web server. If you make an error in one of
these files, Horde might stop working. Thus it is always a good
idea to test the configuration files after you edited them. If
you want to test mime_drivers.local.php for example run::
php -l mime_drivers.local.php
3. Completing Configuration
You can now access Horde without a password, and you will be logged in as
an administrator.
.. Important:: You should first configure a real authentication
backend and designate which accounts in your real
backend will be administrator accounts. Horde does
**NOT** have a default administrator account - all
users, including administrators, must exist in the
actual authentication backend. Click on ``Configuration``
in the ``Administration`` menu and configure Horde.
Start in the ``Authentication`` tab.
Here is an example for configuring authentication against a remote IMAP
server. Similar steps apply for authenticating against a database, an LDAP
server, etc.
.. NOTE:: This is an example/testing configuration only, and should **NOT**
be used if you intend to install IMP (Internet Message Program)
and authenticate to the remote mail server. Please see the IMP
documentation for further details.
a. In the ``Which users should be treated as administrators`` field enter a
comma separated list of user names of your choosing. This will control
who is allowed to make configuration changes, see passwords, potentially
add users, etc.
b. In the ``What backend should we use for authenticating users to Horde``
pulldown menu select ``IMAP authentication``. The page will reload and
you will have specific options for IMAP authentication.
c. In the ``Configuration type`` pulldown menu select ``Separate values``.
The page will reload with additional options. Fill in the remaining
three fields appropriately:
- IP name/number of the IMAP server
- For a secure connection, select port 993.
- Select the secure connection protocol to use, if desired.
Continue to configure Horde through all the tabs of the configuration
interface and click on ``Generate Horde Configuration``. An important item
that you probably want to configure is the ``Database Settings``, which
defines the database configuration that is used, by default, for several
different Horde sub-systems.
.. Important:: By default Horde will be using database backends for most
sub-systems. If you do not plan to use a database with Horde,
you need to go through all tabs of the configuration screen
and change the configuration for those systems from ``SQL``
to a suitable alternative.
Configuration of applications in ``registry.php`` is documented in the
``INSTALL`` file of each application. Most applications require you to
configure them with a "Horde administrator" account. A Horde administrator
account is any normal Horde account that has been added to the administrator
list in the ``Authentication`` tab of the Horde configuration.
The other files in that directory need only be modified if you wish to
customize Horde's appearance or behaviour -- the defaults will work at most
4. Creating databases
Once you created the database configuration in the previous step, you can
create all database tables by hitting the ``Update all DB schemas`` button
in the configuration screen.
Please note that this requires the database that you entered in the database
configuration to already exist, and the configured database user to have
sufficient permissions to create new tables in this database.
Alternatively you can run the ``horde-db-migrate`` script in the Horde
directory from the command line.
If you installed Horde into the global PEAR system, this script should be in
your command path. If the script cannot be found in your path, you need to
specify the full path to the script, e.g.::
You can use the ``pear`` command to find the place where the script has been
pear config-get bin_dir
If you installed into a local PEAR installation, you need to tell PHP and
PEAR where to find the installation and the script, e.g.::
PHP_PEAR_SYSCONF_DIR=/var/www/horde php \
-d include_path=/var/www/horde/pear/php \
5. Setting up alarm emails
If you want your users to be able to receive emails from the Horde_Alarm
system, you must set up a cron entry for ``horde-alarms``, you
must have at least one administrator specified in the Horde configuration,
and you must have the PHP CLI installed (a CGI binary is not supported -
``php -v`` will report what kind of PHP binary you have).
Running the job every 5 minutes is recommended::
# Horde Alarms
*/5 * * * * /usr/bin/horde-alarms
If not installing Horde through PEAR or if PEAR's ``bin_dir`` configuration
doesn't point to ``/usr/bin/``, replace ``/usr/bin/horde-alarms`` with the
path to the ``horde-alarms`` script in your Horde installation.
6. Testing Horde
Once you have configured your webserver, PHP, and Horde, bring up the
included test page in your Web browser to ensure that all necessary
prerequisites have been met. If you installed Horde as described above, the
URL to the test page would be::
The test script is disabled by default for security reasons. To enable
set the 'testdisable' configuration option to false. After testing is
completed, the testdisable option should be reset to true.
Check that your PHP and PEAR versions are acceptably recent, that all
required capabilities are present, and that ``magic_quotes_runtime``
is set to ``Off``. Then note the ``Session counter: 1`` line under ``PHP
Sessions``, and reload the page. The session counter should increment.
If you get a warning like ``Failed opening '/path/to/test.php' for
inclusion``, make sure that the web server has the permission to read the
``test.php`` file.
7. Securing Horde
a. Passwords
Some of Horde's configuration files contain passwords which local users
could use to access your database. It is recommended to ensure that at
least the Horde configuration files (in ``config/``) are not readable to
system users. There are ``.htaccess`` files restricting access to
directories that do not need to be accessed directly; before relying on
those, ensure that your webserver supports ``.htaccess`` and is
configured to use them, and that the files in those directories are in
fact inaccessible via the browser.
An additional approach is to make Horde's configuration files owned by
the user ``root`` and by a group which only the webserver user belongs
to, and then making them readable only to owner and group. For example,
if your webserver runs as ``www.www``, do as follows::
chown -R root.www config/*
find config/ -type f -exec chmod 0440 '{}' \;
b. Sessions
Session data -- including hashed versions of your users' passwords, in
some applications -- may not be stored as securely as necessary.
If you are using file-based PHP sessions (which are the default), be
sure that session files are not being written into ``/tmp`` with
permissions that allow other users to read them. Ideally, change the
``session.save_path`` setting in ``php.ini`` to a directory only
readable and writeable by your webserver.
Additionally, you can change the session handler of PHP to use any
storage backend requested (e.g. SQL database) via the ``Custom Session
Handler`` tab in the Horde configuration.
For more information about securing your webserver, PHP and Horde, see the
`docs/SECURITY`_ file.
Dynamic View Troubleshooting
Horde's dynamic, AJAX-based views differ from traditional Horde applications in
that they require javascript support; in fact, javascript performs the bulk of
the page display. As such, debugging the dynamic views is more complex than
with other Horde applications.
If you run into problems with the dynamic view, first follow the
troubleshooting steps for Horde - namely checking PHP error logs and Horde
debug logs to determine if the problem is located there. Server-based errors
will be logged in the traditional manner.
Only if traditional debugging is unsuccessful will you need to move to
javascript debugging. It is highly recommended to use Mozilla Firefox with
the `Firebug`_ extension installed in order to better track javascript
errors - it is what the developers use and makes deciphering error codes and
error line numbers much easier. You will also want to turn off javascript
caching, if on, in ``horde/conf/conf.php``.
If you do find a javascript error, it would be great if you could fix the
issue and provide a patch :) Absent that, before reporting to the mailing
list, IRC room, or bug tracker make sure you have a valid javascript error,
the file the error is being caused in, the line number of the error, and a
reliable way to reproduce the error. Developers/other interested folks will
be much more likely to help you if all this information is provided.
Configuring Applications
A list of available Horde applications can be found at
Instructions on configuring Horde applications can be found in the ``INSTALL``
file in the application's ``docs/`` directory.
Temporary Files
Various Horde applications will generate temporary files in PHP's temporary
directory (see the ``General`` tab in the Horde configuration). For various
reasons, some of these files may not be removed when the user's session
ends. To reclaim this disk space, it may be necessary to periodically delete
these old temporary files.
An example cron-based solution can be found at
``horde/scripts/temp-cleanup.cron`` in PEAR's ``data_dir`` directory. Another
possible solution is to use utilities like ``tmpwatch``, ``tmpreaper`` or
anything similar to remove old files.
Stale sessions are automatically pruned by PHP according to the
`session.gc_probability`_, `session.gc_divisor`_, and
`session.gc_maxlifetime`_ settings located in ``php.ini``.
Note for international users: Horde uses GNU gettext to provide local
translations of text displayed by applications; the translations are found in
the po/ directory. If a translation is not yet available for your locale (and
you wish to create one), or if you're having trouble using a provided
translation, please see the docs/TRANSLATIONS_ file for instructions.
Obtaining Support
If you encounter problems with Horde, help is available!
The Horde Frequently Asked Questions List (FAQ), available on the Web at
The Horde Project runs a number of mailing lists, for individual applications
and for issues relating to the project as a whole. Information, archives, and
subscription information can be found at
Lastly, Horde developers, contributors and users may also be found on IRC,
on the channel #horde on the Freenode Network (
Please keep in mind that Horde is free software written by volunteers.
For information on reasonable support expectations, please read
Thanks for using Horde!
The Horde Team
.. _`curl extension`:
.. _`http extension`:
.. _`File Uploads`:
.. _`Firebug`:
.. _`session.gc_probability`:
.. _`session.gc_divisor`:
.. _`session.gc_maxlifetime`: