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Emergency First Response

Primary Care Knowledge Review

When someone needs emergency care, time is critical because:

  • chances of successful resuscitation diminish with time
  • when a person has no heartbeat and is not breathing, irreversible brain damage can occur within minutes

Three reasons why you should assist someone who needs emergency care are because you can:

  • save or restore a patient's life
  • reduce a patient's recovery time; either in the hospital or at home
  • make the difference between a patient having a temporary or lifelong disability

Six reasons people hesitate when providing emergency care to a patient are:

  • anxiety
  • guilt
  • fear of imperfect performance
  • fear of making a person worse
  • fear of infection
  • responsibility concerns (legal)

Good Samaritan laws are enacted to encourage people to come to the aid of others. Generally, they protect individuals who voluntarily offer assistance to those in need.

To be protected by Good Samaritan laws you should:

  • only provide care with the scope of your training
  • ask for permission to help
  • act in good faith
  • do not be reckless of negligent
  • act as a prudent person would
  • do not abandon the patient once you begin care. The exception to this is if you must do so to protect yourself from imminent danger

The four links in the Chain of Survival are:

  • early recognition and call for help
  • early CPR
  • early defibrillation
  • early professional care and follow-up

Hello? My name is ___. I'm an emergency responder. May I help you?

After establishing patient unresponsiveness and identifying that he is not breathing normally, you should activate emergency medical services immediately.

Emergency medical service in the United States is 911.

You should never fear harming a patient when performing CPR on an individual who is unresponsive and is not breathing normally because they are already in the worst possible state of health.

When not used or practiced, your primary care skills will deteriorate over time. It's a good idea to take a refresher course at least every 12 to 24 months to keep you skills current.

As an emergency responder you may help avoid infection by blood-borne pathogens by always placing a barrier between you and any moist or wet substance originating from a patient.

Six common signs and symptoms of a stroke are sudden:

  • weakness or numbness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body or on both sides
  • confusion or drowsiness
  • trouble speaking, understanding, or swallowing
  • vision trouble from one or both eyes
  • trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance, or coordination
  • severe headache with no known cause

Primary assessment is an emergency responder's first evaluation of an injured or ill person.

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Cycle of Care: AB-CABS stands for:

  • (A) Airway open?
  • (B) Breathing normally?
  • (C) Chest Compressions
  • (A) Airway open
  • (B) Breathing for patient
  • (S) Serious bleeding, shock, spinal injury

Defibrillation is important to a patient with cardiac arrest because it disrupts the abnormal twitching (fibrillation) of a heart, restoring a normal heartbeat.

The three different types of bleeding are:

  • arterial: bright red blood that spurts form a wound in rhythm with the heartbeat
  • venous: dark red blood, steadily flowing from a wound without rhythmic spurts
  • capillary: blood slowly oozing from the wound

Nine indications of shock are:

  • rapid, weak pulse
  • pale or bluish tissue color
  • moist, clammy skin - possibly with shivering
  • mental confusion anxiety, restlessness or irritability
  • altered consciousness
  • nausea and perhaps vomiting
  • thirst
  • lackluster eyes, dazed look
  • shallow, but rapid, labored breathing

You should always suspect a spinal injury in these circumstances:

  • traffic/car accident
  • being thrown from a motorized vehicle
  • falling from a height greater than a patient's own height
  • a penetration wound, such as a gunshot
  • severe blow to the head, neck or back
  • swimming pool, head-first dive accident
  • lightning strike
  • serious impact injury
  • patient complains of pain in neck or back

Secondary Care (First Aid) Knowledge Review

Regardless of a patient's injury or illness, you perform a primary assessment and monitor the patient's Cycle of Care.

Once a patient is stabilized during primary care, you attend to the next level or emergency care - secondary care.

An injury is defined as physical harm to the body. An illness is an unhealthy condition of the body.

A sign is something you can see, hear, or feel. A symptom is something the patient tells you is wrong.

Assessment first aid is the treatment of conditions that are not immediately life-threatening.

Other Notes

SAMPLE:

  • Signs
  • Allergies
  • Medications
  • Pre-existing Medical History
  • Last Meal
  • Events

Adult heart rate at rest is 60-80 beats per minute

Adult Breathing Rate is 12-20 breaths per minute

Skills Workbook

  1. Stop: Assess Scene
  2. Think: Formulate
  3. Act: Begin Providing Care