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HPy: a better API for Python

Build Status Documentation

IRC channel : #hpy on

Mailing list:

The goal of the project is to design a better API for extending Python in C. The current API is specific to the current implementation of CPython: it exposes a lot of internal details which makes it hard:

  • to implement it for other Python implementations (e.g. PyPy, GraalPython, Jython, IronPython, etc.)

  • to experiment with new things inside CPython itself: e.g. using a GC instead of refcounting, or to remove the GIL

The goal of this project is to improve the situation by designing a new API which solves some of the current problems.

More specifically, the goals include (but are not necessarily limited to):

  • to be usable on CPython right now with no (or almost no) performance impact

  • to make the adoption incremental: it should be possible to migrate existing C extensions piece by piece and to use the old and the new API side-by-side during the transition

  • to provide better debugging experience: in debug mode, you could get precise notification about which handles are kept open for too long or used after being closed.

  • to be more friendly for other implementations: in particular, we do not want reference counting to be part of the API: we want a more generic way of managing resources which is possible to implement with different strategies, including the existing reference counting and/or with a moving GC (like the ones used by PyPy or Java, for example)

  • to be smaller and easier to study/use/manage than the existing one

  • to avoid to expose internal details of a specific implementation, so that each implementation can experiment with new memory layout of objects, add optimizations, etc.

  • to be written in a way which could make it possible in the future to have a single binary which is ABI-compatible across multiple Python versions and/or multiple implementations

  • internal details might still be available, but in a opt-in way: for example, if Cython wants to iterate over a list of integers, it can ask if the implementation provides a direct low-level access to the content (e.g. in the form of a int64_t[] array) and use that. But at the same time, be ready to handle the generic fallback case.

More concrete goals

  • we will write a small C library which implements the new API on top of the existing one: no changes to CPython needed

  • PyPy will implement this natively: extensions using this API will be orders of magnitude faster than the ones using the existing old API (see this blog post for details)

  • Cython will adopt this from day one: existing Cython programs will benefit from this automatically

Why should I care about this stuff?

  • the existing C API is becoming a problem for CPython and for the evolution of the language itself: this project makes it possible to make experiments which might be "officially" adopted in the future

  • for PyPy, it will give obvious speed benefits: for example, data scientists will be able to get the benefit of fast C libraries and fast Python code at the same time, something which is hard to achieve now

  • the current implementation is too tied to CPython and proved to be a problem for almost all the other alternative implementations. Having an API which is designed to work well on two different implementations will make the job much easier for future ones: going from 2 to N is much easier than going from 1 to 2

  • arguably, it will be easier to learn and understand than the massive CPython C API

See also Python Performance: Past, Present, Future by Victor Stinner.

What does HPy mean?

The "H" in HPy stands for "handle": one of the key idea of the new API is to use fully opaque handles to represent and pass around Python objects.

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Become a financial contributor and help us sustain the HPy community: Contribute to HPy.