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"""Fork of urllib2.
When reading this, don't assume that all code in here is reachable. Code in
the rest of mechanize may be used instead.
Copyright (c) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Python
Software Foundation; All Rights Reserved
Copyright 2002-2009 John J Lee <>
This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the BSD or ZPL 2.1 licenses (see the file
COPYING.txt included with the distribution).
# XXX issues:
# If an authentication error handler that tries to perform
# authentication for some reason but fails, how should the error be
# signalled? The client needs to know the HTTP error code. But if
# the handler knows that the problem was, e.g., that it didn't know
# that hash algo that requested in the challenge, it would be good to
# pass that information along to the client, too.
# ftp errors aren't handled cleanly
# check digest against correct (i.e. non-apache) implementation
# Possible extensions:
# complex proxies XXX not sure what exactly was meant by this
# abstract factory for opener
import copy
import base64
import httplib
import mimetools
import logging
import os
import posixpath
import random
import re
import socket
import sys
import time
import urllib
import urlparse
import bisect
from cStringIO import StringIO
except ImportError:
from StringIO import StringIO
import hashlib
except ImportError:
# python 2.4
import md5
import sha
def sha1_digest(bytes):
def md5_digest(bytes):
def sha1_digest(bytes):
return hashlib.sha1(bytes).hexdigest()
def md5_digest(bytes):
return hashlib.md5(bytes).hexdigest()
socket._fileobject("fake socket", close=True)
except TypeError:
# python <= 2.4
create_readline_wrapper = socket._fileobject
def create_readline_wrapper(fh):
return socket._fileobject(fh, close=True)
# python 2.4 splithost has a bug in empty path component case
_hostprog = None
def splithost(url):
"""splithost('//host[:port]/path') --> 'host[:port]', '/path'."""
global _hostprog
if _hostprog is None:
import re
_hostprog = re.compile('^//([^/?]*)(.*)$')
match = _hostprog.match(url)
if match: return, 2)
return None, url
from urllib import (unwrap, unquote, splittype, quote,
addinfourl, splitport,
splitattr, ftpwrapper, splituser, splitpasswd, splitvalue)
# support for FileHandler, proxies via environment variables
from urllib import localhost, url2pathname, getproxies
from urllib2 import HTTPError, URLError
import _request
import _rfc3986
import _sockettimeout
from _clientcookie import CookieJar
from _response import closeable_response
# used in User-Agent header sent
__version__ = sys.version[:3]
_opener = None
def urlopen(url, data=None, timeout=_sockettimeout._GLOBAL_DEFAULT_TIMEOUT):
global _opener
if _opener is None:
_opener = build_opener()
return, data, timeout)
def install_opener(opener):
global _opener
_opener = opener
# copied from
_cut_port_re = re.compile(r":\d+$")
def request_host(request):
"""Return request-host, as defined by RFC 2965.
Variation from RFC: returned value is lowercased, for convenient
url = request.get_full_url()
host = urlparse.urlparse(url)[1]
if host == "":
host = request.get_header("Host", "")
# remove port, if present
host = _cut_port_re.sub("", host, 1)
return host.lower()
class Request:
def __init__(self, url, data=None, headers={},
origin_req_host=None, unverifiable=False):
# unwrap('<URL:type://host/path>') --> 'type://host/path'
self.__original = unwrap(url)
self.type = None
# self.__r_type is what's left after doing the splittype = None
self.port = None
self._tunnel_host = None = data
self.headers = {}
for key, value in headers.items():
self.add_header(key, value)
self.unredirected_hdrs = {}
if origin_req_host is None:
origin_req_host = request_host(self)
self.origin_req_host = origin_req_host
self.unverifiable = unverifiable
def __getattr__(self, attr):
# XXX this is a fallback mechanism to guard against these
# methods getting called in a non-standard order. this may be
# too complicated and/or unnecessary.
# XXX should the __r_XXX attributes be public?
if attr[:12] == '_Request__r_':
name = attr[12:]
if hasattr(Request, 'get_' + name):
getattr(self, 'get_' + name)()
return getattr(self, attr)
raise AttributeError, attr
def get_method(self):
if self.has_data():
return "POST"
return "GET"
# XXX these helper methods are lame
def add_data(self, data): = data
def has_data(self):
return is not None
def get_data(self):
def get_full_url(self):
return self.__original
def get_type(self):
if self.type is None:
self.type, self.__r_type = splittype(self.__original)
if self.type is None:
raise ValueError, "unknown url type: %s" % self.__original
return self.type
def get_host(self):
if is None:, self.__r_host = splithost(self.__r_type)
if = unquote(
def get_selector(self):
scheme, authority, path, query, fragment = _rfc3986.urlsplit(
if path == "":
path = "/" # RFC 2616, section 3.2.2
fragment = None # RFC 3986, section 3.5
return _rfc3986.urlunsplit([scheme, authority, path, query, fragment])
def set_proxy(self, host, type):
orig_host = self.get_host()
if self.get_type() == 'https' and not self._tunnel_host:
self._tunnel_host = orig_host
self.type = type
self.__r_host = self.__original = host
def has_proxy(self):
"""Private method."""
# has non-HTTPS proxy
return self.__r_host == self.__original
def get_origin_req_host(self):
return self.origin_req_host
def is_unverifiable(self):
return self.unverifiable
def add_header(self, key, val):
# useful for something like authentication
self.headers[key.capitalize()] = val
def add_unredirected_header(self, key, val):
# will not be added to a redirected request
self.unredirected_hdrs[key.capitalize()] = val
def has_header(self, header_name):
return (header_name in self.headers or
header_name in self.unredirected_hdrs)
def get_header(self, header_name, default=None):
return self.headers.get(
self.unredirected_hdrs.get(header_name, default))
def header_items(self):
hdrs = self.unredirected_hdrs.copy()
return hdrs.items()
class OpenerDirector:
def __init__(self):
client_version = "Python-urllib/%s" % __version__
self.addheaders = [('User-agent', client_version)]
# manage the individual handlers
self.handlers = []
self.handle_open = {}
self.handle_error = {}
self.process_response = {}
self.process_request = {}
def add_handler(self, handler):
if not hasattr(handler, "add_parent"):
raise TypeError("expected BaseHandler instance, got %r" %
added = False
for meth in dir(handler):
if meth in ["redirect_request", "do_open", "proxy_open"]:
# oops, coincidental match
i = meth.find("_")
protocol = meth[:i]
condition = meth[i+1:]
if condition.startswith("error"):
j = condition.find("_") + i + 1
kind = meth[j+1:]
kind = int(kind)
except ValueError:
lookup = self.handle_error.get(protocol, {})
self.handle_error[protocol] = lookup
elif condition == "open":
kind = protocol
lookup = self.handle_open
elif condition == "response":
kind = protocol
lookup = self.process_response
elif condition == "request":
kind = protocol
lookup = self.process_request
handlers = lookup.setdefault(kind, [])
if handlers:
bisect.insort(handlers, handler)
added = True
if added:
# the handlers must work in an specific order, the order
# is specified in a Handler attribute
bisect.insort(self.handlers, handler)
def close(self):
# Only exists for backwards compatibility.
def _call_chain(self, chain, kind, meth_name, *args):
# Handlers raise an exception if no one else should try to handle
# the request, or return None if they can't but another handler
# could. Otherwise, they return the response.
handlers = chain.get(kind, ())
for handler in handlers:
func = getattr(handler, meth_name)
result = func(*args)
if result is not None:
return result
def _open(self, req, data=None):
result = self._call_chain(self.handle_open, 'default',
'default_open', req)
if result:
return result
protocol = req.get_type()
result = self._call_chain(self.handle_open, protocol, protocol +
'_open', req)
if result:
return result
return self._call_chain(self.handle_open, 'unknown',
'unknown_open', req)
def error(self, proto, *args):
if proto in ('http', 'https'):
# XXX http[s] protocols are special-cased
dict = self.handle_error['http'] # https is not different than http
proto = args[2] # YUCK!
meth_name = 'http_error_%s' % proto
http_err = 1
orig_args = args
dict = self.handle_error
meth_name = proto + '_error'
http_err = 0
args = (dict, proto, meth_name) + args
result = self._call_chain(*args)
if result:
return result
if http_err:
args = (dict, 'default', 'http_error_default') + orig_args
return self._call_chain(*args)
# XXX probably also want an abstract factory that knows when it makes
# sense to skip a superclass in favor of a subclass and when it might
# make sense to include both
def build_opener(*handlers):
"""Create an opener object from a list of handlers.
The opener will use several default handlers, including support
for HTTP, FTP and when applicable, HTTPS.
If any of the handlers passed as arguments are subclasses of the
default handlers, the default handlers will not be used.
import types
def isclass(obj):
return isinstance(obj, (types.ClassType, type))
opener = OpenerDirector()
default_classes = [ProxyHandler, UnknownHandler, HTTPHandler,
HTTPDefaultErrorHandler, HTTPRedirectHandler,
FTPHandler, FileHandler, HTTPErrorProcessor]
if hasattr(httplib, 'HTTPS'):
skip = set()
for klass in default_classes:
for check in handlers:
if isclass(check):
if issubclass(check, klass):
elif isinstance(check, klass):
for klass in skip:
for klass in default_classes:
for h in handlers:
if isclass(h):
h = h()
return opener
class BaseHandler:
handler_order = 500
def add_parent(self, parent):
self.parent = parent
def close(self):
# Only exists for backwards compatibility
def __lt__(self, other):
if not hasattr(other, "handler_order"):
# Try to preserve the old behavior of having custom classes
# inserted after default ones (works only for custom user
# classes which are not aware of handler_order).
return True
return self.handler_order < other.handler_order
class HTTPErrorProcessor(BaseHandler):
"""Process HTTP error responses.
The purpose of this handler is to to allow other response processors a
look-in by removing the call to parent.error() from
For non-2xx error codes, this just passes the job on to the
Handler.<proto>_error_<code> methods, via the OpenerDirector.error method.
Eventually, HTTPDefaultErrorHandler will raise an HTTPError if no other
handler handles the error.
handler_order = 1000 # after all other processors
def http_response(self, request, response):
code, msg, hdrs = response.code, response.msg,
# According to RFC 2616, "2xx" code indicates that the client's
# request was successfully received, understood, and accepted.
if not (200 <= code < 300):
# hardcoded http is NOT a bug
response = self.parent.error(
'http', request, response, code, msg, hdrs)
return response
https_response = http_response
class HTTPDefaultErrorHandler(BaseHandler):
def http_error_default(self, req, fp, code, msg, hdrs):
# why these error methods took the code, msg, headers args in the first
# place rather than a response object, I don't know, but to avoid
# multiple wrapping, we're discarding them
if isinstance(fp, HTTPError):
response = fp
response = HTTPError(
req.get_full_url(), code, msg, hdrs, fp)
assert code == response.code
assert msg == response.msg
assert hdrs == response.hdrs
raise response
class HTTPRedirectHandler(BaseHandler):
# maximum number of redirections to any single URL
# this is needed because of the state that cookies introduce
max_repeats = 4
# maximum total number of redirections (regardless of URL) before
# assuming we're in a loop
max_redirections = 10
# Implementation notes:
# To avoid the server sending us into an infinite loop, the request
# object needs to track what URLs we have already seen. Do this by
# adding a handler-specific attribute to the Request object. The value
# of the dict is used to count the number of times the same URL has
# been visited. This is needed because visiting the same URL twice
# does not necessarily imply a loop, thanks to state introduced by
# cookies.
# Always unhandled redirection codes:
# 300 Multiple Choices: should not handle this here.
# 304 Not Modified: no need to handle here: only of interest to caches
# that do conditional GETs
# 305 Use Proxy: probably not worth dealing with here
# 306 Unused: what was this for in the previous versions of protocol??
def redirect_request(self, req, fp, code, msg, headers, newurl):
"""Return a Request or None in response to a redirect.
This is called by the http_error_30x methods when a
redirection response is received. If a redirection should
take place, return a new Request to allow http_error_30x to
perform the redirect. Otherwise, raise HTTPError if no-one
else should try to handle this url. Return None if you can't
but another Handler might.
m = req.get_method()
if (code in (301, 302, 303, 307, "refresh") and m in ("GET", "HEAD")
or code in (301, 302, 303, "refresh") and m == "POST"):
# Strictly (according to RFC 2616), 301 or 302 in response
# to a POST MUST NOT cause a redirection without confirmation
# from the user (of urllib2, in this case). In practice,
# essentially all clients do redirect in this case, so we do
# the same.
# TODO: really refresh redirections should be visiting; tricky to fix
new = _request.Request(
new._origin_req = getattr(req, "_origin_req", req)
return new
raise HTTPError(req.get_full_url(), code, msg, headers, fp)
def http_error_302(self, req, fp, code, msg, headers):
# Some servers (incorrectly) return multiple Location headers
# (so probably same goes for URI). Use first header.
if 'location' in headers:
newurl = headers.getheaders('location')[0]
elif 'uri' in headers:
newurl = headers.getheaders('uri')[0]
newurl = _rfc3986.clean_url(newurl, "latin-1")
newurl = _rfc3986.urljoin(req.get_full_url(), newurl)
# XXX Probably want to forget about the state of the current
# request, although that might interact poorly with other
# handlers that also use handler-specific request attributes
new = self.redirect_request(req, fp, code, msg, headers, newurl)
if new is None:
# loop detection
# .redirect_dict has a key url if url was previously visited.
if hasattr(req, 'redirect_dict'):
visited = new.redirect_dict = req.redirect_dict
if (visited.get(newurl, 0) >= self.max_repeats or
len(visited) >= self.max_redirections):
raise HTTPError(req.get_full_url(), code,
self.inf_msg + msg, headers, fp)
visited = new.redirect_dict = req.redirect_dict = {}
visited[newurl] = visited.get(newurl, 0) + 1
# Don't close the fp until we are sure that we won't use it
# with HTTPError.
http_error_301 = http_error_303 = http_error_307 = http_error_302
http_error_refresh = http_error_302
inf_msg = "The HTTP server returned a redirect error that would " \
"lead to an infinite loop.\n" \
"The last 30x error message was:\n"
def _parse_proxy(proxy):
"""Return (scheme, user, password, host/port) given a URL or an authority.
If a URL is supplied, it must have an authority (host:port) component.
According to RFC 3986, having an authority component means the URL must
have two slashes after the scheme:
>>> _parse_proxy('file:/')
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: proxy URL with no authority: 'file:/'
The first three items of the returned tuple may be None.
Examples of authority parsing:
>>> _parse_proxy('')
(None, None, None, '')
>>> _parse_proxy('')
(None, None, None, '')
The authority component may optionally include userinfo (assumed to be
>>> _parse_proxy('')
(None, 'joe', 'password', '')
>>> _parse_proxy('')
(None, 'joe', 'password', '')
Same examples, but with URLs instead:
>>> _parse_proxy('')
('http', None, None, '')
>>> _parse_proxy('')
('http', None, None, '')
>>> _parse_proxy('')
('http', 'joe', 'password', '')
>>> _parse_proxy('')
('http', 'joe', 'password', '')
Everything after the authority is ignored:
>>> _parse_proxy('')
('ftp', 'joe', 'password', '')
Test for no trailing '/' case:
>>> _parse_proxy('')
('http', 'joe', 'password', '')
scheme, r_scheme = splittype(proxy)
if not r_scheme.startswith("/"):
# authority
scheme = None
authority = proxy
if not r_scheme.startswith("//"):
raise ValueError("proxy URL with no authority: %r" % proxy)
# We have an authority, so for RFC 3986-compliant URLs (by ss 3.
# and 3.3.), path is empty or starts with '/'
end = r_scheme.find("/", 2)
if end == -1:
end = None
authority = r_scheme[2:end]
userinfo, hostport = splituser(authority)
if userinfo is not None:
user, password = splitpasswd(userinfo)
user = password = None
return scheme, user, password, hostport
class ProxyHandler(BaseHandler):
# Proxies must be in front
handler_order = 100
def __init__(self, proxies=None, proxy_bypass=None):
if proxies is None:
proxies = getproxies()
assert hasattr(proxies, 'has_key'), "proxies must be a mapping"
self.proxies = proxies
for type, url in proxies.items():
setattr(self, '%s_open' % type,
lambda r, proxy=url, type=type, meth=self.proxy_open: \
meth(r, proxy, type))
if proxy_bypass is None:
proxy_bypass = urllib.proxy_bypass
self._proxy_bypass = proxy_bypass
def proxy_open(self, req, proxy, type):
orig_type = req.get_type()
proxy_type, user, password, hostport = _parse_proxy(proxy)
if proxy_type is None:
proxy_type = orig_type
if req.get_host() and self._proxy_bypass(req.get_host()):
return None
if user and password:
user_pass = '%s:%s' % (unquote(user), unquote(password))
creds = base64.b64encode(user_pass).strip()
req.add_header('Proxy-authorization', 'Basic ' + creds)
hostport = unquote(hostport)
req.set_proxy(hostport, proxy_type)
if orig_type == proxy_type or orig_type == 'https':
# let other handlers take care of it
return None
# need to start over, because the other handlers don't
# grok the proxy's URL type
# e.g. if we have a constructor arg proxies like so:
# {'http': ''}, we may end up turning
# a request for into one for
class HTTPPasswordMgr:
def __init__(self):
self.passwd = {}
def add_password(self, realm, uri, user, passwd):
# uri could be a single URI or a sequence
if isinstance(uri, basestring):
uri = [uri]
if not realm in self.passwd:
self.passwd[realm] = {}
for default_port in True, False:
reduced_uri = tuple(
[self.reduce_uri(u, default_port) for u in uri])
self.passwd[realm][reduced_uri] = (user, passwd)
def find_user_password(self, realm, authuri):
domains = self.passwd.get(realm, {})
for default_port in True, False:
reduced_authuri = self.reduce_uri(authuri, default_port)
for uris, authinfo in domains.iteritems():
for uri in uris:
if self.is_suburi(uri, reduced_authuri):
return authinfo
return None, None
def reduce_uri(self, uri, default_port=True):
"""Accept authority or URI and extract only the authority and path."""
# note HTTP URLs do not have a userinfo component
parts = urlparse.urlsplit(uri)
if parts[1]:
scheme = parts[0]
authority = parts[1]
path = parts[2] or '/'
# host or host:port
scheme = None
authority = uri
path = '/'
host, port = splitport(authority)
if default_port and port is None and scheme is not None:
dport = {"http": 80,
"https": 443,
if dport is not None:
authority = "%s:%d" % (host, dport)
return authority, path
def is_suburi(self, base, test):
"""Check if test is below base in a URI tree
Both args must be URIs in reduced form.
if base == test:
return True
if base[0] != test[0]:
return False
common = posixpath.commonprefix((base[1], test[1]))
if len(common) == len(base[1]):
return True
return False
class HTTPPasswordMgrWithDefaultRealm(HTTPPasswordMgr):
def find_user_password(self, realm, authuri):
user, password = HTTPPasswordMgr.find_user_password(self, realm,
if user is not None:
return user, password
return HTTPPasswordMgr.find_user_password(self, None, authuri)
class AbstractBasicAuthHandler:
# XXX this allows for multiple auth-schemes, but will stupidly pick
# the last one with a realm specified.
# allow for double- and single-quoted realm values
# (single quotes are a violation of the RFC, but appear in the wild)
rx = re.compile('(?:.*,)*[ \t]*([^ \t]+)[ \t]+'
'realm=(["\'])(.*?)\\2', re.I)
# XXX could pre-emptively send auth info already accepted (RFC 2617,
# end of section 2, and section 1.2 immediately after "credentials"
# production).
def __init__(self, password_mgr=None):
if password_mgr is None:
password_mgr = HTTPPasswordMgr()
self.passwd = password_mgr
self.add_password = self.passwd.add_password
def http_error_auth_reqed(self, authreq, host, req, headers):
# host may be an authority (without userinfo) or a URL with an
# authority
# XXX could be multiple headers
authreq = headers.get(authreq, None)
if authreq:
mo =
if mo:
scheme, quote, realm = mo.groups()
if scheme.lower() == 'basic':
return self.retry_http_basic_auth(host, req, realm)
def retry_http_basic_auth(self, host, req, realm):
user, pw = self.passwd.find_user_password(realm, host)
if pw is not None:
raw = "%s:%s" % (user, pw)
auth = 'Basic %s' % base64.b64encode(raw).strip()
if req.headers.get(self.auth_header, None) == auth:
return None
newreq = copy.copy(req)
newreq.add_header(self.auth_header, auth)
newreq.visit = False
return None
class HTTPBasicAuthHandler(AbstractBasicAuthHandler, BaseHandler):
auth_header = 'Authorization'
def http_error_401(self, req, fp, code, msg, headers):
url = req.get_full_url()
return self.http_error_auth_reqed('www-authenticate',
url, req, headers)
class ProxyBasicAuthHandler(AbstractBasicAuthHandler, BaseHandler):
auth_header = 'Proxy-authorization'
def http_error_407(self, req, fp, code, msg, headers):
# http_error_auth_reqed requires that there is no userinfo component in
# authority. Assume there isn't one, since urllib2 does not (and
# should not, RFC 3986 s. 3.2.1) support requests for URLs containing
# userinfo.
authority = req.get_host()
return self.http_error_auth_reqed('proxy-authenticate',
authority, req, headers)
def randombytes(n):
"""Return n random bytes."""
# Use /dev/urandom if it is available. Fall back to random module
# if not. It might be worthwhile to extend this function to use
# other platform-specific mechanisms for getting random bytes.
if os.path.exists("/dev/urandom"):
f = open("/dev/urandom")
s =
return s
L = [chr(random.randrange(0, 256)) for i in range(n)]
return "".join(L)
class AbstractDigestAuthHandler:
# Digest authentication is specified in RFC 2617.
# XXX The client does not inspect the Authentication-Info header
# in a successful response.
# XXX It should be possible to test this implementation against
# a mock server that just generates a static set of challenges.
# XXX qop="auth-int" supports is shaky
def __init__(self, passwd=None):
if passwd is None:
passwd = HTTPPasswordMgr()
self.passwd = passwd
self.add_password = self.passwd.add_password
self.retried = 0
self.nonce_count = 0
self.last_nonce = None
def reset_retry_count(self):
self.retried = 0
def http_error_auth_reqed(self, auth_header, host, req, headers):
authreq = headers.get(auth_header, None)
if self.retried > 5:
# Don't fail endlessly - if we failed once, we'll probably
# fail a second time. Hm. Unless the Password Manager is
# prompting for the information. Crap. This isn't great
# but it's better than the current 'repeat until recursion
# depth exceeded' approach <wink>
raise HTTPError(req.get_full_url(), 401, "digest auth failed",
headers, None)
self.retried += 1
if authreq:
scheme = authreq.split()[0]
if scheme.lower() == 'digest':
return self.retry_http_digest_auth(req, authreq)
def retry_http_digest_auth(self, req, auth):
token, challenge = auth.split(' ', 1)
chal = parse_keqv_list(parse_http_list(challenge))
auth = self.get_authorization(req, chal)
if auth:
auth_val = 'Digest %s' % auth
if req.headers.get(self.auth_header, None) == auth_val:
return None
newreq = copy.copy(req)
newreq.add_unredirected_header(self.auth_header, auth_val)
newreq.visit = False
def get_cnonce(self, nonce):
# The cnonce-value is an opaque
# quoted string value provided by the client and used by both client
# and server to avoid chosen plaintext attacks, to provide mutual
# authentication, and to provide some message integrity protection.
# This isn't a fabulous effort, but it's probably Good Enough.
dig = sha1_digest("%s:%s:%s:%s" % (self.nonce_count, nonce,
time.ctime(), randombytes(8)))
return dig[:16]
def get_authorization(self, req, chal):
realm = chal['realm']
nonce = chal['nonce']
qop = chal.get('qop')
algorithm = chal.get('algorithm', 'MD5')
# mod_digest doesn't send an opaque, even though it isn't
# supposed to be optional
opaque = chal.get('opaque', None)
except KeyError:
return None
H, KD = self.get_algorithm_impls(algorithm)
if H is None:
return None
user, pw = self.passwd.find_user_password(realm, req.get_full_url())
if user is None:
return None
# XXX not implemented yet
if req.has_data():
entdig = self.get_entity_digest(req.get_data(), chal)
entdig = None
A1 = "%s:%s:%s" % (user, realm, pw)
A2 = "%s:%s" % (req.get_method(),
# XXX selector: what about proxies and full urls
if qop == 'auth':
if nonce == self.last_nonce:
self.nonce_count += 1
self.nonce_count = 1
self.last_nonce = nonce
ncvalue = '%08x' % self.nonce_count
cnonce = self.get_cnonce(nonce)
noncebit = "%s:%s:%s:%s:%s" % (nonce, ncvalue, cnonce, qop, H(A2))
respdig = KD(H(A1), noncebit)
elif qop is None:
respdig = KD(H(A1), "%s:%s" % (nonce, H(A2)))
# XXX handle auth-int.
logger = logging.getLogger("mechanize.auth")"digest auth auth-int qop is not supported, not "
"handling digest authentication")
return None
# XXX should the partial digests be encoded too?
base = 'username="%s", realm="%s", nonce="%s", uri="%s", ' \
'response="%s"' % (user, realm, nonce, req.get_selector(),
if opaque:
base += ', opaque="%s"' % opaque
if entdig:
base += ', digest="%s"' % entdig
base += ', algorithm="%s"' % algorithm
if qop:
base += ', qop=auth, nc=%s, cnonce="%s"' % (ncvalue, cnonce)
return base
def get_algorithm_impls(self, algorithm):
# algorithm should be case-insensitive according to RFC2617
algorithm = algorithm.upper()
if algorithm == 'MD5':
H = md5_digest
elif algorithm == 'SHA':
H = sha1_digest
# XXX MD5-sess
KD = lambda s, d: H("%s:%s" % (s, d))
return H, KD
def get_entity_digest(self, data, chal):
# XXX not implemented yet
return None
class HTTPDigestAuthHandler(BaseHandler, AbstractDigestAuthHandler):
"""An authentication protocol defined by RFC 2069
Digest authentication improves on basic authentication because it
does not transmit passwords in the clear.
auth_header = 'Authorization'
handler_order = 490 # before Basic auth
def http_error_401(self, req, fp, code, msg, headers):
host = urlparse.urlparse(req.get_full_url())[1]
retry = self.http_error_auth_reqed('www-authenticate',
host, req, headers)
return retry
class ProxyDigestAuthHandler(BaseHandler, AbstractDigestAuthHandler):
auth_header = 'Proxy-Authorization'
handler_order = 490 # before Basic auth
def http_error_407(self, req, fp, code, msg, headers):
host = req.get_host()
retry = self.http_error_auth_reqed('proxy-authenticate',
host, req, headers)
return retry
class AbstractHTTPHandler(BaseHandler):
def __init__(self, debuglevel=0):
self._debuglevel = debuglevel
def set_http_debuglevel(self, level):
self._debuglevel = level
def do_request_(self, request):
host = request.get_host()
if not host:
raise URLError('no host given')
if request.has_data(): # POST
data = request.get_data()
if not request.has_header('Content-type'):
if not request.has_header('Content-length'):
'Content-length', '%d' % len(data))
sel_host = host
if request.has_proxy():
scheme, sel = splittype(request.get_selector())
sel_host, sel_path = splithost(sel)
if not request.has_header('Host'):
request.add_unredirected_header('Host', sel_host)
for name, value in self.parent.addheaders:
name = name.capitalize()
if not request.has_header(name):
request.add_unredirected_header(name, value)
return request
def do_open(self, http_class, req):
"""Return an addinfourl object for the request, using http_class.
http_class must implement the HTTPConnection API from httplib.
The addinfourl return value is a file-like object. It also
has methods and attributes including:
- info(): return a mimetools.Message object for the headers
- geturl(): return the original request URL
- code: HTTP status code
host_port = req.get_host()
if not host_port:
raise URLError('no host given')
h = http_class(host_port, timeout=req.timeout)
except TypeError:
# Python < 2.6, no per-connection timeout support
h = http_class(host_port)
headers = dict(req.headers)
# We want to make an HTTP/1.1 request, but the addinfourl
# class isn't prepared to deal with a persistent connection.
# It will try to read all remaining data from the socket,
# which will block while the server waits for the next request.
# So make sure the connection gets closed after the (only)
# request.
headers["Connection"] = "close"
headers = dict(
(name.title(), val) for name, val in headers.items())
if req._tunnel_host:
if not hasattr(h, "set_tunnel"):
if not hasattr(h, "_set_tunnel"):
raise URLError("HTTPS through proxy not supported "
"(Python >= 2.6.4 required)")
# python 2.6
set_tunnel = h._set_tunnel
set_tunnel = h.set_tunnel
h.request(req.get_method(), req.get_selector(),, headers)
r = h.getresponse()
except socket.error, err: # XXX what error?
raise URLError(err)
# Pick apart the HTTPResponse object to get the addinfourl
# object initialized properly.
# Wrap the HTTPResponse object in socket's file object adapter
# for Windows. That adapter calls recv(), so delegate recv()
# to read(). This weird wrapping allows the returned object to
# have readline() and readlines() methods.
# XXX It might be better to extract the read buffering code
# out of socket._fileobject() and into a base class.
r.recv =
fp = create_readline_wrapper(r)
resp = closeable_response(fp, r.msg, req.get_full_url(),
r.status, r.reason)
return resp
class HTTPHandler(AbstractHTTPHandler):
def http_open(self, req):
return self.do_open(httplib.HTTPConnection, req)
http_request = AbstractHTTPHandler.do_request_
if hasattr(httplib, 'HTTPS'):
class HTTPSConnectionFactory:
def __init__(self, key_file, cert_file):
self._key_file = key_file
self._cert_file = cert_file
def __call__(self, hostport):
return httplib.HTTPSConnection(
key_file=self._key_file, cert_file=self._cert_file)
class HTTPSHandler(AbstractHTTPHandler):
def __init__(self, client_cert_manager=None):
self.client_cert_manager = client_cert_manager
def https_open(self, req):
if self.client_cert_manager is not None:
key_file, cert_file = self.client_cert_manager.find_key_cert(
conn_factory = HTTPSConnectionFactory(key_file, cert_file)
conn_factory = httplib.HTTPSConnection
return self.do_open(conn_factory, req)
https_request = AbstractHTTPHandler.do_request_
class HTTPCookieProcessor(BaseHandler):
"""Handle HTTP cookies.
Public attributes:
cookiejar: CookieJar instance
def __init__(self, cookiejar=None):
if cookiejar is None:
cookiejar = CookieJar()
self.cookiejar = cookiejar
def http_request(self, request):
return request
def http_response(self, request, response):
self.cookiejar.extract_cookies(response, request)
return response
https_request = http_request
https_response = http_response
class UnknownHandler(BaseHandler):
def unknown_open(self, req):
type = req.get_type()
raise URLError('unknown url type: %s' % type)
def parse_keqv_list(l):
"""Parse list of key=value strings where keys are not duplicated."""
parsed = {}
for elt in l:
k, v = elt.split('=', 1)
if v[0] == '"' and v[-1] == '"':
v = v[1:-1]
parsed[k] = v
return parsed
def parse_http_list(s):
"""Parse lists as described by RFC 2068 Section 2.
In particular, parse comma-separated lists where the elements of
the list may include quoted-strings. A quoted-string could
contain a comma. A non-quoted string could have quotes in the
middle. Neither commas nor quotes count if they are escaped.
Only double-quotes count, not single-quotes.
res = []
part = ''
escape = quote = False
for cur in s:
if escape:
part += cur
escape = False
if quote:
if cur == '\\':
escape = True
elif cur == '"':
quote = False
part += cur
if cur == ',':
part = ''
if cur == '"':
quote = True
part += cur
# append last part
if part:
return [part.strip() for part in res]
class FileHandler(BaseHandler):
# Use local file or FTP depending on form of URL
def file_open(self, req):
url = req.get_selector()
if url[:2] == '//' and url[2:3] != '/':
req.type = 'ftp'
return self.open_local_file(req)
# names for the localhost
names = None
def get_names(self):
if FileHandler.names is None:
FileHandler.names = (socket.gethostbyname('localhost'),
except socket.gaierror:
FileHandler.names = (socket.gethostbyname('localhost'),)
return FileHandler.names
# not entirely sure what the rules are here
def open_local_file(self, req):
import email.utils as emailutils
except ImportError:
# python 2.4
import email.Utils as emailutils
import mimetypes
host = req.get_host()
file = req.get_selector()
localfile = url2pathname(file)
stats = os.stat(localfile)
size = stats.st_size
modified = emailutils.formatdate(stats.st_mtime, usegmt=True)
mtype = mimetypes.guess_type(file)[0]
headers = mimetools.Message(StringIO(
'Content-type: %s\nContent-length: %d\nLast-modified: %s\n' %
(mtype or 'text/plain', size, modified)))
if host:
host, port = splitport(host)
if not host or \
(not port and socket.gethostbyname(host) in self.get_names()):
return addinfourl(open(localfile, 'rb'),
headers, 'file:'+file)
except OSError, msg:
# urllib2 users shouldn't expect OSErrors coming from urlopen()
raise URLError(msg)
raise URLError('file not on local host')
class FTPHandler(BaseHandler):
def ftp_open(self, req):
import ftplib
import mimetypes
host = req.get_host()
if not host:
raise URLError('ftp error: no host given')
host, port = splitport(host)
if port is None:
port = ftplib.FTP_PORT
port = int(port)
# username/password handling
user, host = splituser(host)
if user:
user, passwd = splitpasswd(user)
passwd = None
host = unquote(host)
user = unquote(user or '')
passwd = unquote(passwd or '')
host = socket.gethostbyname(host)
except socket.error, msg:
raise URLError(msg)
path, attrs = splitattr(req.get_selector())
dirs = path.split('/')
dirs = map(unquote, dirs)
dirs, file = dirs[:-1], dirs[-1]
if dirs and not dirs[0]:
dirs = dirs[1:]
fw = self.connect_ftp(user, passwd, host, port, dirs, req.timeout)
type = file and 'I' or 'D'
for attr in attrs:
attr, value = splitvalue(attr)
if attr.lower() == 'type' and \
value in ('a', 'A', 'i', 'I', 'd', 'D'):
type = value.upper()
fp, retrlen = fw.retrfile(file, type)
headers = ""
mtype = mimetypes.guess_type(req.get_full_url())[0]
if mtype:
headers += "Content-type: %s\n" % mtype
if retrlen is not None and retrlen >= 0:
headers += "Content-length: %d\n" % retrlen
sf = StringIO(headers)
headers = mimetools.Message(sf)
return addinfourl(fp, headers, req.get_full_url())
except ftplib.all_errors, msg:
raise URLError, ('ftp error: %s' % msg), sys.exc_info()[2]
def connect_ftp(self, user, passwd, host, port, dirs, timeout):
fw = ftpwrapper(user, passwd, host, port, dirs, timeout)
except TypeError:
# Python < 2.6, no per-connection timeout support
fw = ftpwrapper(user, passwd, host, port, dirs)
## fw.ftp.set_debuglevel(1)
return fw
class CacheFTPHandler(FTPHandler):
# XXX would be nice to have pluggable cache strategies
# XXX this stuff is definitely not thread safe
def __init__(self):
self.cache = {}
self.timeout = {}
self.soonest = 0
self.delay = 60
self.max_conns = 16
def setTimeout(self, t):
self.delay = t
def setMaxConns(self, m):
self.max_conns = m
def connect_ftp(self, user, passwd, host, port, dirs, timeout):
key = user, host, port, '/'.join(dirs), timeout
if key in self.cache:
self.timeout[key] = time.time() + self.delay
self.cache[key] = ftpwrapper(user, passwd, host, port, dirs, timeout)
self.timeout[key] = time.time() + self.delay
return self.cache[key]
def check_cache(self):
# first check for old ones
t = time.time()
if self.soonest <= t:
for k, v in self.timeout.items():
if v < t:
del self.cache[k]
del self.timeout[k]
self.soonest = min(self.timeout.values())
# then check the size
if len(self.cache) == self.max_conns:
for k, v in self.timeout.items():
if v == self.soonest:
del self.cache[k]
del self.timeout[k]
self.soonest = min(self.timeout.values())
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