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# coding=utf-8
# Copyright 2018 The Google AI Language Team Authors and The HuggingFace Inc. team.
# Copyright (c) 2018, NVIDIA CORPORATION. All rights reserved.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
""" Finetuning the library models for question-answering on SQuAD (Bert, XLM, XLNet)."""
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function
import argparse
import logging
import os
import random
import glob
import numpy as np
import torch
from import (DataLoader, RandomSampler, SequentialSampler,
from import DistributedSampler
from tqdm import tqdm, trange
from tensorboardX import SummaryWriter
from pytorch_transformers import (WEIGHTS_NAME, BertConfig,
BertForQuestionAnswering, BertTokenizer,
XLMConfig, XLMForQuestionAnswering,
XLMTokenizer, XLNetConfig,
from pytorch_transformers import AdamW, WarmupLinearSchedule
from utils_squad import (read_squad_examples, convert_examples_to_features,
RawResult, write_predictions,
RawResultExtended, write_predictions_extended)
# The follwing import is the official SQuAD evaluation script (2.0).
# You can remove it from the dependencies if you are using this script outside of the library
# We've added it here for automated tests (see examples/ file)
from utils_squad_evaluate import EVAL_OPTS, main as evaluate_on_squad
logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)
ALL_MODELS = sum((tuple(conf.pretrained_config_archive_map.keys()) \
for conf in (BertConfig, XLNetConfig, XLMConfig)), ())
'bert': (BertConfig, BertForQuestionAnswering, BertTokenizer),
'xlnet': (XLNetConfig, XLNetForQuestionAnswering, XLNetTokenizer),
'xlm': (XLMConfig, XLMForQuestionAnswering, XLMTokenizer),
def set_seed(args):
if args.n_gpu > 0:
def to_list(tensor):
return tensor.detach().cpu().tolist()
def train(args, train_dataset, model, tokenizer):
""" Train the model """
if args.local_rank in [-1, 0]:
tb_writer = SummaryWriter()
args.train_batch_size = args.per_gpu_train_batch_size * max(1, args.n_gpu)
train_sampler = RandomSampler(train_dataset) if args.local_rank == -1 else DistributedSampler(train_dataset)
train_dataloader = DataLoader(train_dataset, sampler=train_sampler, batch_size=args.train_batch_size)
if args.max_steps > 0:
t_total = args.max_steps
args.num_train_epochs = args.max_steps // (len(train_dataloader) // args.gradient_accumulation_steps) + 1
t_total = len(train_dataloader) // args.gradient_accumulation_steps * args.num_train_epochs
# Prepare optimizer and schedule (linear warmup and decay)
no_decay = ['bias', 'LayerNorm.weight']
optimizer_grouped_parameters = [
{'params': [p for n, p in model.named_parameters() if not any(nd in n for nd in no_decay)], 'weight_decay': args.weight_decay},
{'params': [p for n, p in model.named_parameters() if any(nd in n for nd in no_decay)], 'weight_decay': 0.0}
optimizer = AdamW(optimizer_grouped_parameters, lr=args.learning_rate, eps=args.adam_epsilon)
scheduler = WarmupLinearSchedule(optimizer, warmup_steps=args.warmup_steps, t_total=t_total)
if args.fp16:
from apex import amp
except ImportError:
raise ImportError("Please install apex from to use fp16 training.")
model, optimizer = amp.initialize(model, optimizer, opt_level=args.fp16_opt_level)
# multi-gpu training (should be after apex fp16 initialization)
if args.n_gpu > 1:
model = torch.nn.DataParallel(model)
# Distributed training (should be after apex fp16 initialization)
if args.local_rank != -1:
model = torch.nn.parallel.DistributedDataParallel(model, device_ids=[args.local_rank],
# Train!"***** Running training *****")" Num examples = %d", len(train_dataset))" Num Epochs = %d", args.num_train_epochs)" Instantaneous batch size per GPU = %d", args.per_gpu_train_batch_size)" Total train batch size (w. parallel, distributed & accumulation) = %d",
args.train_batch_size * args.gradient_accumulation_steps * (torch.distributed.get_world_size() if args.local_rank != -1 else 1))" Gradient Accumulation steps = %d", args.gradient_accumulation_steps)" Total optimization steps = %d", t_total)
global_step = 0
tr_loss, logging_loss = 0.0, 0.0
train_iterator = trange(int(args.num_train_epochs), desc="Epoch", disable=args.local_rank not in [-1, 0])
set_seed(args) # Added here for reproductibility (even between python 2 and 3)
for _ in train_iterator:
epoch_iterator = tqdm(train_dataloader, desc="Iteration", disable=args.local_rank not in [-1, 0])
for step, batch in enumerate(epoch_iterator):
batch = tuple( for t in batch)
inputs = {'input_ids': batch[0],
'attention_mask': batch[1],
'token_type_ids': None if args.model_type == 'xlm' else batch[2],
'start_positions': batch[3],
'end_positions': batch[4]}
if args.model_type in ['xlnet', 'xlm']:
inputs.update({'cls_index': batch[5],
'p_mask': batch[6]})
outputs = model(**inputs)
loss = outputs[0] # model outputs are always tuple in pytorch-transformers (see doc)
if args.n_gpu > 1:
loss = loss.mean() # mean() to average on multi-gpu parallel (not distributed) training
if args.gradient_accumulation_steps > 1:
loss = loss / args.gradient_accumulation_steps
if args.fp16:
with amp.scale_loss(loss, optimizer) as scaled_loss:
torch.nn.utils.clip_grad_norm_(amp.master_params(optimizer), args.max_grad_norm)
torch.nn.utils.clip_grad_norm_(model.parameters(), args.max_grad_norm)
tr_loss += loss.item()
if (step + 1) % args.gradient_accumulation_steps == 0:
scheduler.step() # Update learning rate schedule
global_step += 1
if args.local_rank in [-1, 0] and args.logging_steps > 0 and global_step % args.logging_steps == 0:
# Log metrics
if args.local_rank == -1 and args.evaluate_during_training: # Only evaluate when single GPU otherwise metrics may not average well
results = evaluate(args, model, tokenizer)
for key, value in results.items():
tb_writer.add_scalar('eval_{}'.format(key), value, global_step)
tb_writer.add_scalar('lr', scheduler.get_lr()[0], global_step)
tb_writer.add_scalar('loss', (tr_loss - logging_loss)/args.logging_steps, global_step)
logging_loss = tr_loss
if args.local_rank in [-1, 0] and args.save_steps > 0 and global_step % args.save_steps == 0:
# Save model checkpoint
output_dir = os.path.join(args.output_dir, 'checkpoint-{}'.format(global_step))
if not os.path.exists(output_dir):
model_to_save = model.module if hasattr(model, 'module') else model # Take care of distributed/parallel training
model_to_save.save_pretrained(output_dir), os.path.join(output_dir, 'training_args.bin'))"Saving model checkpoint to %s", output_dir)
if args.max_steps > 0 and global_step > args.max_steps:
if args.max_steps > 0 and global_step > args.max_steps:
if args.local_rank in [-1, 0]:
return global_step, tr_loss / global_step
def evaluate(args, model, tokenizer, prefix=""):
dataset, examples, features = load_and_cache_examples(args, tokenizer, evaluate=True, output_examples=True)
if not os.path.exists(args.output_dir) and args.local_rank in [-1, 0]:
args.eval_batch_size = args.per_gpu_eval_batch_size * max(1, args.n_gpu)
# Note that DistributedSampler samples randomly
eval_sampler = SequentialSampler(dataset) if args.local_rank == -1 else DistributedSampler(dataset)
eval_dataloader = DataLoader(dataset, sampler=eval_sampler, batch_size=args.eval_batch_size)
# Eval!"***** Running evaluation {} *****".format(prefix))" Num examples = %d", len(dataset))" Batch size = %d", args.eval_batch_size)
all_results = []
for batch in tqdm(eval_dataloader, desc="Evaluating"):
batch = tuple( for t in batch)
with torch.no_grad():
inputs = {'input_ids': batch[0],
'attention_mask': batch[1],
'token_type_ids': None if args.model_type == 'xlm' else batch[2] # XLM don't use segment_ids
example_indices = batch[3]
if args.model_type in ['xlnet', 'xlm']:
inputs.update({'cls_index': batch[4],
'p_mask': batch[5]})
outputs = model(**inputs)
for i, example_index in enumerate(example_indices):
eval_feature = features[example_index.item()]
unique_id = int(eval_feature.unique_id)
if args.model_type in ['xlnet', 'xlm']:
# XLNet uses a more complex post-processing procedure
result = RawResultExtended(unique_id = unique_id,
start_top_log_probs = to_list(outputs[0][i]),
start_top_index = to_list(outputs[1][i]),
end_top_log_probs = to_list(outputs[2][i]),
end_top_index = to_list(outputs[3][i]),
cls_logits = to_list(outputs[4][i]))
result = RawResult(unique_id = unique_id,
start_logits = to_list(outputs[0][i]),
end_logits = to_list(outputs[1][i]))
# Compute predictions
output_prediction_file = os.path.join(args.output_dir, "predictions_{}.json".format(prefix))
output_nbest_file = os.path.join(args.output_dir, "nbest_predictions_{}.json".format(prefix))
if args.version_2_with_negative:
output_null_log_odds_file = os.path.join(args.output_dir, "null_odds_{}.json".format(prefix))
output_null_log_odds_file = None
if args.model_type in ['xlnet', 'xlm']:
# XLNet uses a more complex post-processing procedure
write_predictions_extended(examples, features, all_results, args.n_best_size,
args.max_answer_length, output_prediction_file,
output_nbest_file, output_null_log_odds_file, args.predict_file,
model.config.start_n_top, model.config.end_n_top,
args.version_2_with_negative, tokenizer, args.verbose_logging)
write_predictions(examples, features, all_results, args.n_best_size,
args.max_answer_length, args.do_lower_case, output_prediction_file,
output_nbest_file, output_null_log_odds_file, args.verbose_logging,
args.version_2_with_negative, args.null_score_diff_threshold)
# Evaluate with the official SQuAD script
evaluate_options = EVAL_OPTS(data_file=args.predict_file,
results = evaluate_on_squad(evaluate_options)
return results
def load_and_cache_examples(args, tokenizer, evaluate=False, output_examples=False):
if args.local_rank not in [-1, 0] and not evaluate:
torch.distributed.barrier() # Make sure only the first process in distributed training process the dataset, and the others will use the cache
# Load data features from cache or dataset file
input_file = args.predict_file if evaluate else args.train_file
cached_features_file = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(input_file), 'cached_{}_{}_{}'.format(
'dev' if evaluate else 'train',
list(filter(None, args.model_name_or_path.split('/'))).pop(),
if os.path.exists(cached_features_file) and not args.overwrite_cache and not output_examples:"Loading features from cached file %s", cached_features_file)
features = torch.load(cached_features_file)
else:"Creating features from dataset file at %s", input_file)
examples = read_squad_examples(input_file=input_file,
is_training=not evaluate,
features = convert_examples_to_features(examples=examples,
is_training=not evaluate)
if args.local_rank in [-1, 0]:"Saving features into cached file %s", cached_features_file), cached_features_file)
if args.local_rank == 0 and not evaluate:
torch.distributed.barrier() # Make sure only the first process in distributed training process the dataset, and the others will use the cache
# Convert to Tensors and build dataset
all_input_ids = torch.tensor([f.input_ids for f in features], dtype=torch.long)
all_input_mask = torch.tensor([f.input_mask for f in features], dtype=torch.long)
all_segment_ids = torch.tensor([f.segment_ids for f in features], dtype=torch.long)
all_cls_index = torch.tensor([f.cls_index for f in features], dtype=torch.long)
all_p_mask = torch.tensor([f.p_mask for f in features], dtype=torch.float)
if evaluate:
all_example_index = torch.arange(all_input_ids.size(0), dtype=torch.long)
dataset = TensorDataset(all_input_ids, all_input_mask, all_segment_ids,
all_example_index, all_cls_index, all_p_mask)
all_start_positions = torch.tensor([f.start_position for f in features], dtype=torch.long)
all_end_positions = torch.tensor([f.end_position for f in features], dtype=torch.long)
dataset = TensorDataset(all_input_ids, all_input_mask, all_segment_ids,
all_start_positions, all_end_positions,
all_cls_index, all_p_mask)
if output_examples:
return dataset, examples, features
return dataset
def main():
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
## Required parameters
parser.add_argument("--train_file", default=None, type=str, required=True,
help="SQuAD json for training. E.g., train-v1.1.json")
parser.add_argument("--predict_file", default=None, type=str, required=True,
help="SQuAD json for predictions. E.g., dev-v1.1.json or test-v1.1.json")
parser.add_argument("--model_type", default=None, type=str, required=True,
help="Model type selected in the list: " + ", ".join(MODEL_CLASSES.keys()))
parser.add_argument("--model_name_or_path", default=None, type=str, required=True,
help="Path to pre-trained model or shortcut name selected in the list: " + ", ".join(ALL_MODELS))
parser.add_argument("--output_dir", default=None, type=str, required=True,
help="The output directory where the model checkpoints and predictions will be written.")
## Other parameters
parser.add_argument("--config_name", default="", type=str,
help="Pretrained config name or path if not the same as model_name")
parser.add_argument("--tokenizer_name", default="", type=str,
help="Pretrained tokenizer name or path if not the same as model_name")
parser.add_argument("--cache_dir", default="", type=str,
help="Where do you want to store the pre-trained models downloaded from s3")
parser.add_argument('--version_2_with_negative', action='store_true',
help='If true, the SQuAD examples contain some that do not have an answer.')
parser.add_argument('--null_score_diff_threshold', type=float, default=0.0,
help="If null_score - best_non_null is greater than the threshold predict null.")
parser.add_argument("--max_seq_length", default=384, type=int,
help="The maximum total input sequence length after WordPiece tokenization. Sequences "
"longer than this will be truncated, and sequences shorter than this will be padded.")
parser.add_argument("--doc_stride", default=128, type=int,
help="When splitting up a long document into chunks, how much stride to take between chunks.")
parser.add_argument("--max_query_length", default=64, type=int,
help="The maximum number of tokens for the question. Questions longer than this will "
"be truncated to this length.")
parser.add_argument("--do_train", action='store_true',
help="Whether to run training.")
parser.add_argument("--do_eval", action='store_true',
help="Whether to run eval on the dev set.")
parser.add_argument("--evaluate_during_training", action='store_true',
help="Rul evaluation during training at each logging step.")
parser.add_argument("--do_lower_case", action='store_true',
help="Set this flag if you are using an uncased model.")
parser.add_argument("--per_gpu_train_batch_size", default=8, type=int,
help="Batch size per GPU/CPU for training.")
parser.add_argument("--per_gpu_eval_batch_size", default=8, type=int,
help="Batch size per GPU/CPU for evaluation.")
parser.add_argument("--learning_rate", default=5e-5, type=float,
help="The initial learning rate for Adam.")
parser.add_argument('--gradient_accumulation_steps', type=int, default=1,
help="Number of updates steps to accumulate before performing a backward/update pass.")
parser.add_argument("--weight_decay", default=0.0, type=float,
help="Weight deay if we apply some.")
parser.add_argument("--adam_epsilon", default=1e-8, type=float,
help="Epsilon for Adam optimizer.")
parser.add_argument("--max_grad_norm", default=1.0, type=float,
help="Max gradient norm.")
parser.add_argument("--num_train_epochs", default=3.0, type=float,
help="Total number of training epochs to perform.")
parser.add_argument("--max_steps", default=-1, type=int,
help="If > 0: set total number of training steps to perform. Override num_train_epochs.")
parser.add_argument("--warmup_steps", default=0, type=int,
help="Linear warmup over warmup_steps.")
parser.add_argument("--n_best_size", default=20, type=int,
help="The total number of n-best predictions to generate in the nbest_predictions.json output file.")
parser.add_argument("--max_answer_length", default=30, type=int,
help="The maximum length of an answer that can be generated. This is needed because the start "
"and end predictions are not conditioned on one another.")
parser.add_argument("--verbose_logging", action='store_true',
help="If true, all of the warnings related to data processing will be printed. "
"A number of warnings are expected for a normal SQuAD evaluation.")
parser.add_argument('--logging_steps', type=int, default=50,
help="Log every X updates steps.")
parser.add_argument('--save_steps', type=int, default=50,
help="Save checkpoint every X updates steps.")
parser.add_argument("--eval_all_checkpoints", action='store_true',
help="Evaluate all checkpoints starting with the same prefix as model_name ending and ending with step number")
parser.add_argument("--no_cuda", action='store_true',
help="Whether not to use CUDA when available")
parser.add_argument('--overwrite_output_dir', action='store_true',
help="Overwrite the content of the output directory")
parser.add_argument('--overwrite_cache', action='store_true',
help="Overwrite the cached training and evaluation sets")
parser.add_argument('--seed', type=int, default=42,
help="random seed for initialization")
parser.add_argument("--local_rank", type=int, default=-1,
help="local_rank for distributed training on gpus")
parser.add_argument('--fp16', action='store_true',
help="Whether to use 16-bit (mixed) precision (through NVIDIA apex) instead of 32-bit")
parser.add_argument('--fp16_opt_level', type=str, default='O1',
help="For fp16: Apex AMP optimization level selected in ['O0', 'O1', 'O2', and 'O3']."
"See details at")
parser.add_argument('--server_ip', type=str, default='', help="Can be used for distant debugging.")
parser.add_argument('--server_port', type=str, default='', help="Can be used for distant debugging.")
args = parser.parse_args()
if os.path.exists(args.output_dir) and os.listdir(args.output_dir) and args.do_train and not args.overwrite_output_dir:
raise ValueError("Output directory ({}) already exists and is not empty. Use --overwrite_output_dir to overcome.".format(args.output_dir))
# Setup distant debugging if needed
if args.server_ip and args.server_port:
# Distant debugging - see
import ptvsd
print("Waiting for debugger attach")
ptvsd.enable_attach(address=(args.server_ip, args.server_port), redirect_output=True)
# Setup CUDA, GPU & distributed training
if args.local_rank == -1 or args.no_cuda:
device = torch.device("cuda" if torch.cuda.is_available() and not args.no_cuda else "cpu")
args.n_gpu = torch.cuda.device_count()
else: # Initializes the distributed backend which will take care of sychronizing nodes/GPUs
device = torch.device("cuda", args.local_rank)
args.n_gpu = 1
args.device = device
# Setup logging
logging.basicConfig(format = '%(asctime)s - %(levelname)s - %(name)s - %(message)s',
datefmt = '%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S',
level = logging.INFO if args.local_rank in [-1, 0] else logging.WARN)
logger.warning("Process rank: %s, device: %s, n_gpu: %s, distributed training: %s, 16-bits training: %s",
args.local_rank, device, args.n_gpu, bool(args.local_rank != -1), args.fp16)
# Set seed
# Load pretrained model and tokenizer
if args.local_rank not in [-1, 0]:
torch.distributed.barrier() # Make sure only the first process in distributed training will download model & vocab
args.model_type = args.model_type.lower()
config_class, model_class, tokenizer_class = MODEL_CLASSES[args.model_type]
config = config_class.from_pretrained(args.config_name if args.config_name else args.model_name_or_path)
tokenizer = tokenizer_class.from_pretrained(args.tokenizer_name if args.tokenizer_name else args.model_name_or_path, do_lower_case=args.do_lower_case)
model = model_class.from_pretrained(args.model_name_or_path, from_tf=bool('.ckpt' in args.model_name_or_path), config=config)
if args.local_rank == 0:
torch.distributed.barrier() # Make sure only the first process in distributed training will download model & vocab"Training/evaluation parameters %s", args)
# Training
if args.do_train:
train_dataset = load_and_cache_examples(args, tokenizer, evaluate=False, output_examples=False)
global_step, tr_loss = train(args, train_dataset, model, tokenizer)" global_step = %s, average loss = %s", global_step, tr_loss)
# Save the trained model and the tokenizer
if args.do_train and (args.local_rank == -1 or torch.distributed.get_rank() == 0):
# Create output directory if needed
if not os.path.exists(args.output_dir) and args.local_rank in [-1, 0]:
os.makedirs(args.output_dir)"Saving model checkpoint to %s", args.output_dir)
# Save a trained model, configuration and tokenizer using `save_pretrained()`.
# They can then be reloaded using `from_pretrained()`
model_to_save = model.module if hasattr(model, 'module') else model # Take care of distributed/parallel training
# Good practice: save your training arguments together with the trained model, os.path.join(args.output_dir, 'training_args.bin'))
# Load a trained model and vocabulary that you have fine-tuned
model = model_class.from_pretrained(args.output_dir)
tokenizer = tokenizer_class.from_pretrained(args.output_dir, do_lower_case=args.do_lower_case)
# Evaluation - we can ask to evaluate all the checkpoints (sub-directories) in a directory
results = {}
if args.do_eval and args.local_rank in [-1, 0]:
checkpoints = [args.output_dir]
if args.eval_all_checkpoints:
checkpoints = list(os.path.dirname(c) for c in sorted(glob.glob(args.output_dir + '/**/' + WEIGHTS_NAME, recursive=True)))
logging.getLogger("pytorch_transformers.modeling_utils").setLevel(logging.WARN) # Reduce model loading logs"Evaluate the following checkpoints: %s", checkpoints)
for checkpoint in checkpoints:
# Reload the model
global_step = checkpoint.split('-')[-1] if len(checkpoints) > 1 else ""
model = model_class.from_pretrained(checkpoint)
# Evaluate
result = evaluate(args, model, tokenizer, prefix=global_step)
result = dict((k + ('_{}'.format(global_step) if global_step else ''), v) for k, v in result.items())
results.update(result)"Results: {}".format(results))
return results
if __name__ == "__main__":
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