ReproMPI Benchmark
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README.org

ReproMPI Benchmark

Introduction

The ReproMPI Benchmark is a tool designed to accurately measure the run-time of MPI blocking collective operations. It provides multiple process synchronization methods and a flexible mechanism for predicting the number of measurements that are sufficient to obtain statistically sound results.

Installation

Prerequisites

  • an MPI library
  • CMake (version >= 2.6)
  • GSL libraries

Basic installation

cd $BENCHMARK_PATH
./cmake .
make

For specific configuration options check the Benchmark Configuration section.

Running the ReproMPI Benchmark

The ReproMPI code is designed to serve two specific purposes:

Benchmarking of MPI collective calls

The most common usage scenario of the benchmark is to specify an MPI collective function to be benchmarked, a (list of) message sizes and the number of measurement repetitions for each test, as in the following example.

mpirun -np 4 ./bin/mpibenchmark --calls-list=MPI_Bcast,MPI_Allgather 
             --msizes-list=8,1024,2048  --nrep=10

Estimating the number of measurement iterations

In this scenario, the user can generate an estimation of the number of measurements required for a stable result with respect to one or multiple prediction methods.

More details about the various methods that are supported and their usage can be found in:

  • S. Hunold, A. Carpen-Amarie, F.D. Lübbe and J.L. Träff, “Automatic Verification of Self-Consistent MPI Performance Guidelines”, EuroPar (2016)

This is an example of how to perform such an estimation:

mpirun -np 4 ./bin/mpibenchmarkPredNreps --calls-list=MPI_Bcast,MPI_Allgather 
              --msizes-list=8,1024,2048 --rep-prediction=min=1,max=200,step=5

Command-line Options

Common Options

  • -h print help
  • -v print run-times measured for each process
  • --msizes-list=<values> list of comma-separated message sizes in Bytes, e.g., --msizes-list=10,1024
  • --msize-interval=min=<min>,max=<max>,step=<step> list of power of 2 message sizes as an interval between 2^min and 2^max, with 2^step distance between values, e.g., --msize-interval=min=1,max=4,step=1
  • --calls-list=<args> list of comma-separated MPI calls to be benchmarked, e.g., --calls-list=MPI_Bcast,MPI_Allgather
  • --root-proc=<process_id> root node for collective operations
  • --operation=<mpi_op> MPI operation applied by collective operations (where applicable), e.g., --operation=MPI_BOR.

    Supported operations: MPI_BOR, MPI_BAND, MPI_LOR, MPI_LAND, MPI_MIN, MPI_MAX, MPI_SUM, MPI_PROD

  • --datatype=<mpi_type> MPI datatype used by collective operations, e.g., --datatype=MPI_CHAR.

    Supported datatypes: MPI_CHAR, MPI_INT, MPI_FLOAT, MPI_DOUBLE

  • --shuffle-jobs shuffle experiments before running the benchmark
  • --params=k1:v1,k2:v2 list of comma-separated key:value pairs to be printed in the benchmark output.
  • -f | --input-file=<path> input file containing the list of benchmarking jobs (tuples of MPI function, message size, number of repetitions). It replaces all the other common options.

Options Related to the Window-based Synchronization

  • --window-size=<win> window size in microseconds for Window-based synchronization

Specific options for synchronization methods based on a linear model of the clock drift

  • --fitpoints=<nfit> number of fitpoints (default: 20)
  • --exchanges=<nexc> number of exchanges (default: 10)

Specific Options for the ReproMPI Benchmark

  • --nrep=<nrep> set number of experiment repetitions
  • --summary=<args> list of comma-separated data summarizing methods (mean, median, min, max), e.g., --summary=mean,max

Specific Options for Estimating the Number of Repetitions

  • --rep-prediction=min=<min>,max=<max>,step=<step> set the total number of repetitions to be estimated between <min> and <max>, so that at each iteration i, the number of measurements (nrep) is either nrep(0) = <min>, or nrep(i) = nrep(i-1) + <step> * 2^(i-1), e.g., --rep-prediction=min=1,max=4,step=1
  • --pred-method=m1,m2 comma-separated list of prediction methods, i.e., rse, cov_mean, cov_median (default: rse)
  • --var-thres=thres1,thres2 comma-separated list of thresholds corresponding to the specified prediction methods (default: 0.01)
  • --var-win=win1,win2 comma-separated list of (non-zero) windows corresponding to the specified prediction methods; rse does not rely on a measurement window, however a dummy window value is required in this list when multiple methods are used (default: 10)

Supported Collective Operations:

MPI Collectives

  • MPI_Allgather
  • MPI_Allreduce
  • MPI_Alltoall
  • MPI_Barrier
  • MPI_Bcast
  • MPI_Exscan
  • MPI_Gather
  • MPI_Reduce
  • MPI_Reduce_scatter
  • MPI_Reduce_scatter_block
  • MPI_Scan
  • MPI_Scatter

Mockup Functions of Various MPI Collectives

  • GL_Allgather_as_Allreduce
  • GL_Allgather_as_Alltoall
  • GL_Allgather_as_GatherBcast
  • GL_Allreduce_as_ReduceBcast
  • GL_Allreduce_as_ReducescatterAllgather
  • GL_Allreduce_as_ReducescatterblockAllgather
  • GL_Bcast_as_ScatterAllgather
  • GL_Gather_as_Allgather
  • GL_Gather_as_Reduce
  • GL_Reduce_as_Allreduce
  • GL_Reduce_as_ReducescatterGather
  • GL_Reduce_as_ReducescatterblockGather
  • GL_Reduce_scatter_as_Allreduce
  • GL_Reduce_scatter_as_ReduceScatterv
  • GL_Reduce_scatter_block_as_ReduceScatter
  • GL_Scan_as_ExscanReducelocal
  • GL_Scatter_as_Bcast

Benchmark Configuration

Process Synchronization Methods

MPI_Barrier

This is the default synchronization method enabled for the benchmark.

Dissemination Barrier

To benchmark collective operations acorss multiple MPI libraries using the same barrier implementation, the benchmark provides a dissemination barrier that can replace the default MPI_Barrier to synchronize processes.

To enable the dissemination barrier, the following flag has to be set before compiling the benchmark (e.g., using the ccmake command).

ENABLE_BENCHMARK_BARRIER

Both barrier-based synchronization methods can alternatively use a double barrier before each measurement.

ENABLE_DOUBLE_BARRIER

Window-based Synchronization

The ReproMPI benchmark implements a window-based process synchronization mechanism, which estimates the clock offset/drift of each process relative to a reference process and then uses the obtained global clocks to synchronize processes before each measurement and to compute run-times.

It relies on one of the following clock synchronization methods:

  • HCA synchronization: this is the clock synchronization algorithm we propose in []. It computes a linear model of the clock drift of each process. The HCA method can be configured by setting the following flags before compilation.
ENABLE_WINDOWSYNC_HCA 
ENABLE_LOGP_SYNC

The ENABLE_LOGP_SYNC flag determines which variant of the HCA algorithm is used, i.e., either HCA1 (which computes the clock models in O(p) steps) or HCA2 (which requires only O(log p) rounds).

  • SKaMPI synchronization: it implements the SKaMPI clock synchronization algorithm. To enable it, set the following flag before compilation.
ENABLE_WINDOWSYNC_SK
  • Jones and Koenig synchronization: it implements the clock synchronization algorithm introduced by Jones and Koenig~[]. To enable it, set the following flag before compilation.
ENABLE_WINDOWSYNC_JK

Timing procedure

The MPI operation run-time is computed in a different manner depending on the selected clock synchronization method. If global clocks are available, the run-times are computed as the difference between the largest exit time and the first start time among all processes.

If a barrier-based synchronization is used, the run-time of an MPI call is computed as the largest local run-time across all processes.

However, the timing proceduce that relies on global clocks can be used in combination with a barrier-based synchronization when the following flag is enabled:

ENABLE_GLOBAL_TIMES

More information regarding the timing procedure can be found in [].

Clock resolution

The MPI_Wtime cll is used by default to obtain the current time. To obtain accurate measurements of short time intervals, the benchmark can rely on the high resolution RDTSC/RDTSCP instructions (if they are available on the test machines) by setting on of the following flags:

ENABLE_RDTSC
ENABLE_RDTSCP

Additionally, setting the clock frequency of the CPU is required to obtain accurate measurements:

FREQUENCY_MHZ                    2300

The clock frequency can also be automatically estimated (as done by the NetGauge tool) by enabling the following variable:

CALIBRATE_RDTSC

However, this method reduces the results accuracy and we advise to manually set the highest CPU frequency instead. More details about the usage of RDTSC-based timers can be found in our research report[].

List of Compilation Flags

This is the full list of compilation flags that can be used to control all the previously detailed configuration parameters.

CALIBRATE_RDTSC                  OFF   
COMPILE_BENCH_TESTS              OFF          
COMPILE_PRED_BENCHMARK           ON                
COMPILE_SANITY_CHECK_TESTS       OFF               
ENABLE_BENCHMARK_BARRIER         OFF             
ENABLE_DOUBLE_BARRIER            OFF             
ENABLE_GLOBAL_TIMES              OFF             
ENABLE_LOGP_SYNC                 OFF             
ENABLE_RDTSC                     OFF             
ENABLE_RDTSCP                    OFF           
ENABLE_WINDOWSYNC_HCA            OFF            
ENABLE_WINDOWSYNC_JK             OFF        
ENABLE_WINDOWSYNC_SK             OFF      
FREQUENCY_MHZ                    2300