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堆排序

堆排序(Heapsort)是指利用堆这种数据结构所设计的一种排序算法。堆积是一个近似完全二叉树的结构,并同时满足堆积的性质:即子结点的键值或索引总是小于(或者大于)它的父节点。堆排序可以说是一种利用堆的概念来排序的选择排序。分为两种方法:

  1. 大顶堆:每个节点的值都大于或等于其子节点的值,在堆排序算法中用于升序排列;
  2. 小顶堆:每个节点的值都小于或等于其子节点的值,在堆排序算法中用于降序排列;

堆排序的平均时间复杂度为 Ο(nlogn)。

1. 算法步骤

  1. 将待排序序列构建成一个堆 H[0……n-1],根据(升序降序需求)选择大顶堆或小顶堆;

  2. 把堆首(最大值)和堆尾互换;

  3. 把堆的尺寸缩小 1,并调用 shift_down(0),目的是把新的数组顶端数据调整到相应位置;

  4. 重复步骤 2,直到堆的尺寸为 1。

2. 动图演示

动图演示

3. JavaScript 代码实现

var len;    // 因为声明的多个函数都需要数据长度,所以把len设置成为全局变量

function buildMaxHeap(arr) {   // 建立大顶堆
    len = arr.length;
    for (var i = Math.floor(len/2); i >= 0; i--) {
        heapify(arr, i);
    }
}

function heapify(arr, i) {     // 堆调整
    var left = 2 * i + 1,
        right = 2 * i + 2,
        largest = i;

    if (left < len && arr[left] > arr[largest]) {
        largest = left;
    }

    if (right < len && arr[right] > arr[largest]) {
        largest = right;
    }

    if (largest != i) {
        swap(arr, i, largest);
        heapify(arr, largest);
    }
}

function swap(arr, i, j) {
    var temp = arr[i];
    arr[i] = arr[j];
    arr[j] = temp;
}

function heapSort(arr) {
    buildMaxHeap(arr);

    for (var i = arr.length-1; i > 0; i--) {
        swap(arr, 0, i);
        len--;
        heapify(arr, 0);
    }
    return arr;
}

4. Python 代码实现

def buildMaxHeap(arr):
    import math
    for i in range(math.floor(len(arr)/2),-1,-1):
        heapify(arr,i)

def heapify(arr, i):
    left = 2*i+1
    right = 2*i+2
    largest = i
    if left < arrLen and arr[left] > arr[largest]:
        largest = left
    if right < arrLen and arr[right] > arr[largest]:
        largest = right

    if largest != i:
        swap(arr, i, largest)
        heapify(arr, largest)

def swap(arr, i, j):
    arr[i], arr[j] = arr[j], arr[i]

def heapSort(arr):
    global arrLen
    arrLen = len(arr)
    buildMaxHeap(arr)
    for i in range(len(arr)-1,0,-1):
        swap(arr,0,i)
        arrLen -=1
        heapify(arr, 0)
    return arr

5. Go 代码实现

func heapSort(arr []int) []int {
	arrLen := len(arr)
	buildMaxHeap(arr, arrLen)
	for i := arrLen - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
		swap(arr, 0, i)
		arrLen -= 1
		heapify(arr, 0, arrLen)
	}
	return arr
}

func buildMaxHeap(arr []int, arrLen int) {
	for i := arrLen / 2; i >= 0; i-- {
		heapify(arr, i, arrLen)
	}
}

func heapify(arr []int, i, arrLen int) {
	left := 2*i + 1
	right := 2*i + 2
	largest := i
	if left < arrLen && arr[left] > arr[largest] {
		largest = left
	}
	if right < arrLen && arr[right] > arr[largest] {
		largest = right
	}
	if largest != i {
		swap(arr, i, largest)
		heapify(arr, largest, arrLen)
	}
}

func swap(arr []int, i, j int) {
	arr[i], arr[j] = arr[j], arr[i]
}

6. Java 代码实现

public class HeapSort implements IArraySort {

    @Override
    public int[] sort(int[] sourceArray) throws Exception {
        // 对 arr 进行拷贝,不改变参数内容
        int[] arr = Arrays.copyOf(sourceArray, sourceArray.length);

        int len = arr.length;

        buildMaxHeap(arr, len);

        for (int i = len - 1; i > 0; i--) {
            swap(arr, 0, i);
            len--;
            heapify(arr, 0, len);
        }
        return arr;
    }

    private void buildMaxHeap(int[] arr, int len) {
        for (int i = (int) Math.floor(len / 2); i >= 0; i--) {
            heapify(arr, i, len);
        }
    }

    private void heapify(int[] arr, int i, int len) {
        int left = 2 * i + 1;
        int right = 2 * i + 2;
        int largest = i;

        if (left < len && arr[left] > arr[largest]) {
            largest = left;
        }

        if (right < len && arr[right] > arr[largest]) {
            largest = right;
        }

        if (largest != i) {
            swap(arr, i, largest);
            heapify(arr, largest, len);
        }
    }

    private void swap(int[] arr, int i, int j) {
        int temp = arr[i];
        arr[i] = arr[j];
        arr[j] = temp;
    }

}

7. PHP 代码实现

function buildMaxHeap(&$arr)
{
    global $len;
    for ($i = floor($len/2); $i >= 0; $i--) {
        heapify($arr, $i);
    }
}

function heapify(&$arr, $i)
{
    global $len;
    $left = 2 * $i + 1;
    $right = 2 * $i + 2;
    $largest = $i;

    if ($left < $len && $arr[$left] > $arr[$largest]) {
        $largest = $left;
    }

    if ($right < $len && $arr[$right] > $arr[$largest]) {
        $largest = $right;
    }

    if ($largest != $i) {
        swap($arr, $i, $largest);
        heapify($arr, $largest);
    }
}

function swap(&$arr, $i, $j)
{
    $temp = $arr[$i];
    $arr[$i] = $arr[$j];
    $arr[$j] = $temp;
}

function heapSort($arr) {
    global $len;
    $len = count($arr);
    buildMaxHeap($arr);
    for ($i = count($arr) - 1; $i > 0; $i--) {
        swap($arr, 0, $i);
        $len--;
        heapify($arr, 0);
    }
    return $arr;
}