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Overview

ORC(Optimized Row Columnar)使用特定的ReadersWriters,通过轻量级的数据压缩,如字典编码,位组装,差分编码和游程编码,而显著减小的生成文件,也可以配合zlib、Snappy使用。ORC 支持投影、下推、向量化、轻量级索引等特性。

File Tail

  • Postscript
  • Footer
    • Stripe Information
    • Type Information
    • Column Statistics
    • User Metadata
    • File Metadata

Compression

Run Length Encoding

  • Base 128 Varint
  • Byte Run Length Encoding
  • Boolean Run Length Encoding
  • Integer Run Length Encoding, version 1
  • Integer Run Length Encoding, version 2
    • Short Repeat - used for short sequences with repeated values
    • Direct - used for random sequences with a fixed bit width
    • Patched Base - used for random sequences with a variable bit width
    • Delta - used for monotonically increasing or decreasing sequences

Stripes

Column Encodings

  • SmallInt, Int, and BigInt Columns
  • Float and Double Columns
  • String, Char, and VarChar Columns
  • Boolean Columns
  • TinyInt Columns
  • Binary Columns
  • Decimal Columns
  • Date Columns
  • Timestamp Columns
  • Struct Columns
  • List Columns
  • Map Columns
  • Union Columns

Indexes

  • Row Group Index
  • Bloom Filter Index

Reference

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