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Hyscale-Tool Developer Guide

Version 0.9.1


HyScale (hyscale) is an app deployment tool designed to help developers deploy apps to Kubernetes without having to learn k8s concepts or write & maintain k8s manifests. Powered by HyScale’s enterprise-grade deployment automation & abstraction capabilities, hyscale accelerates developer adoption of Kubernetes for dev/test environments.

Prerequisites

  • Docker
  • Docker Login to all the registries
  • Kubeconfig at <user.home>/.kube/config

Architecture Overview

architecture

Command Layer: This layer parses the commands entered by the user and dispatches the input to respective command service.

Service Spec Layer: This layer reads the service spec from the file system and dispatches it to the workflow controller.

Workflow Controller: This controller reads the servicespec and controls the entire workflow of the deployment. The workflow is not chain but is controlled by the controller. Every individual component would process its task and responds back to the controller. This controller would give the necessary input to each component. Reads the kubernetes cluster details from <user.home>/.kube/config and the registry details from <user.home>/.docker/config.json.

Dockerfile Generator Module

dockerfile-generator

Generates dockerfile from the given servicespec . If you have a ready-made dockerfile, dockerfile generation will be skipped. BuildSpec from servicespec is the input to create dockerfile, you can supply the artifacts ( packaged code like binaries, jar, war, scripts etc ), configuration commands if there is any requirement to customize on top of the stack image. These configuration commands are baked & run inside the image. Run commands can also be supplied incase if you want to override the docker cmd. All these configuration under buildSpec is inside a docker image.

Key points:

  • Dockerfile & BuildSpec in servicespec are mutually exclusive fields , they cannot exist together.
  • Dockerfile Generator is executed when none of the following conditions is met i.e ( when skipped ):
    • When user has a ready-made dockerfile ie. user provided dockerfile in the service spec.
    • When both dockerfile & buildSpec are not provided.
    • When buildSpec exist & if it has no artifacts , configureCommands, runCommands, configScript, runScript.
  • Dockerfiles are generated at <user.home>/.hyscale/hyscale/apps/<app_name>/<service_name>/generated-files/dockerfiles/
  • Assume (<user.home>/.hyscale/hyscale/apps/<app_name>/<service_name>/generated-files/dockerfiles/ ) as Relative Docker Path.
  • Any supporting files referred in the buildSpec like artifacts, configuration script, run script are copied relative to the Dockerfile directory. . This is the action in Dockerfile Generation during the deploy command.
    • Artifacts : Moved to _Relative Docker Path/_artifacts/<Artifact-name>/<artifact>
    • Scripts: Moved(in case of ready-made scripts ) / Written (in case of commands) to Relative Docker Path. These scripts are baked at /hyscale/init-scripts/ inside the container.
    • Configure commands are run inside the image while run commands override docker "CMD" from the stack image if any.

Dockerfile template

FROM <<stackImage>>

COPY <<artifact_1>>  <<<<artifact_1_destination>>

.

.

.

COPY <<artifact_n>>  <<<<artifactn_n_destination>>

COPY configure.sh hyscale/init-scripts/	##Copies configure commands as configure.sh

COPY run.sh hyscale/init-scripts/		##Copies run commands as run.sh

RUN hyscale/init-scripts/configure.sh	##Run configure commands inside image

CMD /bin/bash /init-scripts/run.sh		##Execute run commands on container startup

Build & Push Module

build-push

Responsible for building the dockerfile either generated by the dockerfile generator or supplied by the user in the servicespec as "image.dockerfile". Builds the image if and only if dockerfile is present.

Push Image : Once the image is built / skipped in case of stack image , the image is tagged with image.registry/image.name:image.tag from the servicespec. Push uses docker push commands & thereby .docker/config.json is used to retrieve the registry credentials. User should login to registry on prior to deployment.

Build is skipped when :

  1. When buildspec is specified by the user without any artifacts, configure, run commands & scripts i.e, if the user needs a plain stack image to be used as the final image for deployment.

Build & Push are skipped when :

  1. When there is no dockerfile or buildspec present in the servicespec i.e, the image is already available in the registry.

Key Points:

  • Docker image is built using docker build command in the directory “image.dockerfile.path” or Relative Docker Path.
  • Build logs are written to <user.home>/.hyscale/hyscale/apps/<app_name>/<service_name>/logs/build.log
  • Image is built and tagged as hyscale.io/<app_name>/<service_name>:<tag>
  • During push, tool automatically does a docker login again to verify the credentials are correct. If the login fails , push fails and deployment is exited.
  • After successful login, push command is executed using docker push command.
  • Push logs are written to <user.home>/.hyscale/hyscale/apps/<app_name>/<service_name>/logs/push.log

Manifest Generator Module

manifest-generator

Generates the kube manifest from the given service spec. Manifest generation is a combination of different plugins. Each plugin is responsible to read the fields of service spec known by it and then generate respective snippets of kubernetes manifests. When all these snippets are joined / merged together we get a complete set of kube manifests.

Key Points:

  • Each plugin specifies the snippet to be injected into which kind and at what path .
  • All the snippets are merged into manifests using a tree insertion treating each snippet to be node to the manifest tree .
  • Each plugin can insert multiple snippets into a set of manifests, which results in injecting multiple nodes to the tree.
  • If a snippet injection fails the rest of the plugins will still be processed and injected . Plugin order is decided by the plugins.txt file the generator-services module.
  • After processing all the plugins, each manifest of a specific kind & name are written to a file at <user.home>/.hyscale/hyscale/apps/<app_name>/<service_name>/generated-files/manifests/ . The name of the manifest file is determined by the kind & name, while the name of the manifest resource is normalized(<app_name>-<service_name>).
  • Each service might result in the set of manifest resources : ConfigMap for props, Secrets for secrets, ImagePullSecret for image-registry-credentials, Deployment / Statefulset ,Service , Pods, PVC.
  • Tool creates a statefulset if and only if volumes are present in the servicespec else deployment is created.

Labels inserted by tool :

  • hyscale.io/appName : App Name from the command line, -a <<appName>>
  • hyscale.io/serviceName: service name from .hspec, -f <<.hspec>>
  • hyscale.io/envName : <<app>>-dev_

Manifest Plugins

  • MetaDataHandler : Creates the metadata of kubernetes resources of configmaps, secrets, service, deployment,statefulset . Each metadata is prepared as a snippet with its respective kind.
  • ConfigMapDataHandler : Created the configmap data from the servicespec props field. If there are no props in the servicespecs , this plugin is skipped.
  • SecretsDataHandler : Secrets data is handled when secrets from servicespec are specified as a map only , if they are specified as a list of secrets, tool expects the user to create kubernetes secret prior to the deployment with the name "<app_name>-<service_name>".
  • ReplicasHandler: Created the replicas snippet based on the servicespec replicas either in deployment / statefulset.
  • SelectorLabelsHandler: Handles the selector labels for service, statefulset/deployment
  • PodSpecLabels: Handles the labels for pods
  • VolumesHandler : Creates volumes for statefulset from configmap,secret if any has to be mounted to the pod.
  • ImagePullSecretHandler : Creates image pull secret with registry credentials and refers the secret in the statefulset.
  • StartCommandHandler : Creates the command & args for statefulset / deployment , _startCommands_ : "a,b,c" , _a_ is considered as the command & _b_,_c_ are considered as the args to statefulset/deployment.
  • ContainerNameHandler : Creates the name of the container as the service name.
  • ImageHandler : Handles the image for the statefulset/deployment by concatenating image.registry/image.name : image.tag from the given servicespec.
  • PodSpecEnvHandler: Creates env's from configmaps & secrets with respect to keys.
  • VolumeMountsHandler: Creates the volume mounts from configmap(if props has to be mounted at "propsVolumePath"), secrets ( if secrets has to be mounted at "secretsVolumePath") & also any declared volumes in the given servicespec.
  • PortsHandler: Handles the ports of statefulset/ deployment
  • HealthChecksHandler : Handles the liveness & readiness probe of statefulset/deployment from the ports field in the servicespec.
  • ResourceLimitsHandler: Handles the memory & cpu limits of statefulset/deployment from "memory" in servicespec
  • VolumeTemplatesHandler : Creates volumeClaimTemplates from the declared volumes of the given servicespec. Request to create the volume dynamically.
  • ServiceTypeHandler : Handles the exposure of the service , whether the service is an internal service ( exposed only within the cluster for the communication of other services ) or external ( to be accessed publicly )
  • ServiceSpecAnnotationHandler : Adds the _hyscale.io/service-spec_ to preserve the service spec from which it has been created.

Deployer Module

deployer

Deploys the manifest into kubernetes cluster . The cluster details are read from <user.home>/.kube/config file. User has to have a ready-made cluster to go for service deployments.

Key Points:

  • Creates the manifest and apply it on the resource, apply takes care of creating / updating the resource.
  • Every resource is created with a default annotation as _hyscale.io/last-applied-configuration_ which actually has the actual manifest that has been deployed. This helps to patch the resources on update. The patch is a json-patch constructed from the diff of new-manifest & old-manifest( fetched from the cluster with _hyscale.io/last-applied-configuration_) . The json-patch is then applied to the cluster and therefore the resource is updated.
  • Incase patching fails , the resource is automatically deleted & created again to ensure the availability of the resource.
  • The deployer also undeploys all the resources incase of undeploy service / undeploy app.
  • Fetches the pod logs from the cluster and persists them as deployment logs, this ensures the deployment logs to be there even after the pod restarts incase of failures. The pod logs can be fetched at any point of time with the "hyscalectl get service logs" command which are then persisted in service.logs file.
  • Pod logs can also be tailed with -t option in _hyscalectl get service logs_.
  • _hyscalectl get service status_ responds to whether the service has been Running, Not Running ,Not Deployed along with proper message of the action

Debugging:

  • In case the service deployment fails at any stage, the respective stage logs can be found at <user.home>/.hyscale/hyscale/apps/<app_name>/<service_name>/logs/ to debug the cause of failure.
  • hyscalectl get service status -s <service_name> -a <app_name> -n <namespace> the message field gives the reason in case failed pods.
  • User can check for pod logs using hyscalectl get service logs -s <service_name> -a <app_name> -n <namespace> for troubleshooting.
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