Dissertation for my PhD study at CQuIC.
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See the front-matter page for license information. Most of previous publications may be open-source (see below).

Dispersive Quantum Interface with Atoms and Nanophotonic Waveguides

Comments and editorial inputs are highly welcome!

Some data of plots are compiled into TikZ files. Some data and scripts can be found in our previous paper repositories, for example, including the repo for our Faraday spin squeezing protocol paper (CC By 4.0), and the repo for the simulations of Green's tensors and spontaneous emission rates with waveguides (Jupyter notebooks with Julia v0.6 as the scripting language, MIT license).

Some of my handwritten notes that may or may not be included in this thesis are in the temp folder.


  • Latest release -- v1.0.3 (June 7, 2018):

    • Use a general form of Green's tensors and mention the specific case for the BEM program we use in a footnote.
    • submit to the university repository for official release.
  • v1.0.2 (May 26, 2018):

    • fix the compiling process instruction.
    • add some notes on the conventions of reduced matrix elements.
  • v1.0.1 (May 17, 2018):

    • update official graduation month to July as requested.
    • add minor notes on some technical points.
  • v1.0 (May 10, 2018): official submission attempt.

  • Dissertation submission pre-release for committee review: April 10, 2018.


Dependence: LaTeX 2e, GNU Make, and Git.

To compile the whole thesis:

git submodule init
git submodule update
cd main && make all clean

A PDF called main.pdf should be generated in the main folder. The first two lines of the commands are to download the bibliography file.

To compile in a GUI editor, use the parameters defined in the main/Makefile code for pdflatex, LuaLaTeX and other commands. Chapters can be compiled separately using the .tex files in the chapter folders.

To Cite


Table of Content:

  • Chapter 1: Introduction

    • 1.1 Motivation
    • 1.2 Our toolbox: Atom-waveguide interface
    • 1.3 Quantum measurement, entanglement and spin squeezing with an atomic ensemble
    • 1.4 Outline of This Dissertation
  • Chapter 2: Atom-waveguide interface

    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Polarization spectroscopy and dispersive light shift measures
      • 2.2.1 Measuring the polarization state of light in free space
      • 2.2.2 Polarization spectroscopy on waveguide interfaces
      • 2.2.3 Birefringence and Faraday effects caused by atom-light interactions
    • 2.3 Dispersive light response in the perspective of Green's function
      • 2.3.1 Eigenmodes of a dielectric waveguide
      • 2.3.2 Dyadic Green's functions of dipole radiations in presence of a dielectric waveguide
      • 2.3.3 Example Green's function of the nanofiber
    • 2.4 Phase shift and polarizability transformation
      • 2.4.1 Compare to the free-space case
  • Chapter 3: Spontaneous emission of atoms near a nanophotonic waveguide

    • 3.1 Polarizability of atoms
      • 3.1.1 Dipole oscillation and emission of polarized light
      • 3.1.2 Polarizability of alkali atoms
      • 3.1.3 Irreducible tensor representation of atomic polarizability
    • 3.2 Modification of decay rates of atomic transitions
      • 3.2.1 Free-dipole decay rates of multiplets and equivalent dipole method
      • 3.2.2 Waveguide-mediated decay rates
    • 3.3 Geometric effects of dielectric waveguide interfaces
      • 3.3.1 Modified decay rates from the perspective of waveguide geometry
      • 3.3.2 Enhanced anisotropy of guided modes with different geometries of waveguides
  • Chapter 4: QND measurement and spin squeezing using nanowaveguides

    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Atom-light coupling with waveguide modes
    • 4.3 Some special states of alkali atoms
      • 4.3.1 Clock states and clock space
      • 4.3.2 Stretched states and their squeezing subspace
      • 4.3.3 Spin coherent states, Dicke states and spin squeezed states
    • 4.4 Spin squeezing induced by QND measurement
  • Chapter 5: Dispersive response theory, QND measurement and spin squeezing

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Dyadic Green's function and input-output field response
    • 5.3 Heisenberg-Langevin-picture solution and atomic response
    • 5.4 QND measurement of atoms based on the birefringence effect
      • 5.4.1 Dispersive atom number measurement
      • 5.4.2 Collective spin squeezing via QND measurement
      • 5.4.3 Decoherence due to optical pumping
    • 5.5 Summary and Outlook
  • Chapter 6: Enhanced cooperativity for measurement-induced spin squeezing

    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 QND measurement and cooperativity via the Faraday effect
    • 6.3 Spin-squeezing dynamics
    • 6.4 Summary and Outlook
  • Chapter 7: Conclusion and Outlook

    • 7.1 Summary
    • 7.2 Outlook