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What is this?

Irish has no words for "yes" or "no". When asked Are you X?, you would reply (I) am or (I) am not. In this directory is a tool that, when given a question, creates a report as to the verb form that should be used when responding.

Read the blog post I wrote about this module for an introduction to the problem and a summary of what this module does.



The following tools must be set up before this module can be used:


You must set the paths to the above resources in the variables at the top of the process.py file.


Run python3 process.py. The program will wait for questions to be fed by stdin, and will output its report to stdout.


Enter one question in Irish per line over stdin.

As an example of inputs, see the file test_questions.txt in this directory.


The program will output one JSON document after each input line, with a report of the structure of the question. All results will have the following fields:

    "type": "TYPE",
    "error": null

If any error occurred during the processing of the question, the error field will not be null, but will contain a string describing the error. TYPE will be one of the following:

  • copula
  • verb

Depending on what kind of question it was, the rest of the JSON document will contain different data describing the structure of it. The best way to understand the structure is to run the command cat test_questions.txt | python3 process.py and inspect the results.

An example of an output for a verbal question:

    "type": "verb",
    "error": null,
    "verb": {
        "lemma": "buail",
        "surface": "mbuailfidh",
        "tams": [
    "question": "Nach mbuailfidh Eilís an bithiúnach ?"