A pipeline building library based on Arrows.
Python Shell
Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Failed to load latest commit information.


Pypeline - An arrow based pipelining library

Pypeline is licensed using the GNU Lesser General Public License Version 3.

A pipeline building library based on arrows. Arrows are abstractions of computation, and were proposed by John Hughes [Generalising Monads to Arrows, in Science of Computer Programming 37, pp67-111, May 2000]. Like monads, arrows provide a general structure for libraries, but are more general; arrows allow multiple inputs and behaviour that is independent of input.

This implementation is heavily inspired by the Haskell arrow typeclasses: a description of which can be found here.

Arrow introductory reading:

This project was developed as part of the MosesCore FP7 Project.


setuptools is required to build, test and install Pypeline. Eggs can be built and installed also.

To install an Egg:

sudo python setup.py install bdist_egg

To view setup help:

python setup.py --help


This Python implementation provides the following arrows:

  • Function arrow,
  • Function choice arrow,
  • Kleisli arrow, and
  • Kleisli choice arrow.

And also provides helper functions that lift the arrow abstraction to a pipeline component level, in order that pipelines can be constructed without "seeing" an arrow directly. However, if the programmer wishes, the underlying arrow classes can be used to build pipelines with or without the helper functions.

The library also implements some monad classes, primarily, for use with the Kleisli arrow class. These are:

  • Maybe, and
  • State.


Pipelines can be constructed using the helper functions defined in the modules in pypeline.helpers. There are three primitives that can be constructed:

  1. Pipelines,
  2. Pipeline components, and
  3. Wires.

A pipeline is a series of pipeline components that are, optionally, connected with wires. Pipeline components are built from functions.

Wires can be used to convert the output of one pipeline component into the input of the succeeding pipeline component. Wires can be constructed using a function or a dictionary. Assuming a pipeline component's output is a dictionary and the next component accepts, as input, a dictionary, a wire, constructed from a dictionary, maps values in the output dictionary into a dictionary which is to be used as an input. However, a wire constructed from a function can create arbitrary output to input mappings.

Wires convert the output schema from one pipeline component to the input schema of another component. Wires can be used to join pipelines or components that have been provided by others; where the input and outputs of these may not be compatible with your own implementations.

There are no rules for creating your pipelines. Pipelines, pipeline components, and wires are instances of a Kleisli arrow, and as such any one of these objects can be used as a 'pipeline'. It's up to you how your pipeline is constructed. The helper functions allow the programmer to compose the three conceptual primatives easily.

Pipeline Functions

Constructing a Pipeline

helpers.cons_pipeline(input_wire, component, output_wire)

Construct a pipeline from a component and two wires. The input wire shall convert a real world input into the expected input for the component, and the output wire shall convert the output from the component into an expected real world value. The funtion returns a core.arrows.KleisliArrow object that represents the pipeline.

Running a Pipeline

helpers.run_pipeline(pipeline, input, state)

Runs a pipeline with an input, which is presented to the first Kleisli arrow in the pipeline, and some initial state. The returned object shall be a 2-tuple containing the output, from the pipeline, and the resultant state.

Evaluating a Pipeline

helpers.eval_pipeline(pipeline, input, state)

Evaluates a pipeline with an input, which is presented to the first Kleisli arrow in the pipeline, and some initial state. The returned value is the output of the arrow in the pipeline.

Executing a Pipeline

helpers.exec_pipeline(pipeline, input, state)

Executes a pipeline with an input, which is presented to the first Kleisli arrow in the pipeline, and some initial state. The returned value is the resultant state object.

Pipeline Component Functions

Constructing a Function Based Pipeline Component

                                input_forming_function = None,
                                output_forming_function = None,
                                state_mutator_function = None)

Construct a pipeline component whose computation will be achieved using a function. Optional input and output forming functions pre- and post-process the input and output values to and from the function. An optional state mutator function can be provided to alter the state object passed into one of the pipeline run/evaluating/executing functions.

The function must take only two arguments: a value from the previous component, or input forming function if specified, and the state object. The return value of the function shall be acceptable to either the next Kleisli arrow, in the pipeline, or the input of the output forming function if one is specified. Or,

function :: a -> s -> b

The input and output forming functions shall take two arguments: a value and the state object. Or,

input_forming_function :: a -> s -> b
output_forming_function :: a -> s -> b

The state mutator function shall take one argument, the state object, and return a mutated state object if desired. The state mutator function is applied after all the other functions have been applied. If no state mutator function is specified the state flows through the component unchanged.

state_mutator_function :: s -> s

Wire Functions

Constructing a Function Based Wire


Construct a wire based on a function. The function should take two arguments: the output from the function or output forming function, if specified, and the state object. The function should return the object that shall be passed to the next pipeline component.

Constructing a Dictionary Based Wire


Construct a wire based on a conversion dictionary. Assuming that dictionaries are used as values passed through a pipeline, or pipeline component, a dictionary based wire can be used. The dictionary, whose keys are the keys in the previous component's output are mapped to the conversion dictionary's values that are the keys of the next stage input dictionary.

Constructing a Split Wire


Constructs a wire that splits a single input into a pair.

Constructing an Unsplit Wire


Constructs a wire that takes a pair and combines them into a single value specified by the unsplit_function. The unsplit function takes two arguments: the top and bottom values.

unsplit_function :: b -> c -> d

Wire Up Two Pipeline Components

helpers.wire_components(component_one, component_two, wire)

Returns a pipeline component that is the composition of two components with a wire between them.

Component Composition Functions

Constructing a Composed Component

helpers.cons_composed_component(first_component, second_component)

Returns a component that is the composition of the first_component and the second_component.

Constructing a Parallel Component

helpers.cons_parallel_component(top_component, bottom_component)

Returns a component that will execute the two provided components in "parallel". The input to the constructed component is a pair, whose first value is applied to the top_component and the second value is applied to the bottom_component. The constructed component`s output shall be a pair, whose first value is the output of the top component, and the second value is the output of the bottom component.