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#!/usr/bin/env python
#
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""Non-blocking HTTP client implementation using pycurl."""
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function, with_statement
import collections
import logging
import pycurl
import threading
import time
from tornado import httputil
from tornado import ioloop
from tornado.log import gen_log
from tornado import stack_context
from tornado.escape import utf8, native_str
from tornado.httpclient import HTTPResponse, HTTPError, AsyncHTTPClient, main
from tornado.util import bytes_type
try:
from io import BytesIO # py3
except ImportError:
from cStringIO import StringIO as BytesIO # py2
class CurlAsyncHTTPClient(AsyncHTTPClient):
def initialize(self, io_loop, max_clients=10, defaults=None):
super(CurlAsyncHTTPClient, self).initialize(io_loop, defaults=defaults)
self._multi = pycurl.CurlMulti()
self._multi.setopt(pycurl.M_TIMERFUNCTION, self._set_timeout)
self._multi.setopt(pycurl.M_SOCKETFUNCTION, self._handle_socket)
self._curls = [_curl_create() for i in range(max_clients)]
self._free_list = self._curls[:]
self._requests = collections.deque()
self._fds = {}
self._timeout = None
try:
self._socket_action = self._multi.socket_action
except AttributeError:
# socket_action is found in pycurl since 7.18.2 (it's been
# in libcurl longer than that but wasn't accessible to
# python).
gen_log.warning("socket_action method missing from pycurl; "
"falling back to socket_all. Upgrading "
"libcurl and pycurl will improve performance")
self._socket_action = \
lambda fd, action: self._multi.socket_all()
# libcurl has bugs that sometimes cause it to not report all
# relevant file descriptors and timeouts to TIMERFUNCTION/
# SOCKETFUNCTION. Mitigate the effects of such bugs by
# forcing a periodic scan of all active requests.
self._force_timeout_callback = ioloop.PeriodicCallback(
self._handle_force_timeout, 1000, io_loop=io_loop)
self._force_timeout_callback.start()
# Work around a bug in libcurl 7.29.0: Some fields in the curl
# multi object are initialized lazily, and its destructor will
# segfault if it is destroyed without having been used. Add
# and remove a dummy handle to make sure everything is
# initialized.
dummy_curl_handle = pycurl.Curl()
self._multi.add_handle(dummy_curl_handle)
self._multi.remove_handle(dummy_curl_handle)
def close(self):
self._force_timeout_callback.stop()
if self._timeout is not None:
self.io_loop.remove_timeout(self._timeout)
for curl in self._curls:
curl.close()
self._multi.close()
self._closed = True
super(CurlAsyncHTTPClient, self).close()
def fetch_impl(self, request, callback):
self._requests.append((request, callback))
self._process_queue()
self._set_timeout(0)
def _handle_socket(self, event, fd, multi, data):
"""Called by libcurl when it wants to change the file descriptors
it cares about.
"""
event_map = {
pycurl.POLL_NONE: ioloop.IOLoop.NONE,
pycurl.POLL_IN: ioloop.IOLoop.READ,
pycurl.POLL_OUT: ioloop.IOLoop.WRITE,
pycurl.POLL_INOUT: ioloop.IOLoop.READ | ioloop.IOLoop.WRITE
}
if event == pycurl.POLL_REMOVE:
if fd in self._fds:
self.io_loop.remove_handler(fd)
del self._fds[fd]
else:
ioloop_event = event_map[event]
if fd not in self._fds:
self.io_loop.add_handler(fd, self._handle_events,
ioloop_event)
self._fds[fd] = ioloop_event
else:
self.io_loop.update_handler(fd, ioloop_event)
self._fds[fd] = ioloop_event
def _set_timeout(self, msecs):
"""Called by libcurl to schedule a timeout."""
if self._timeout is not None:
self.io_loop.remove_timeout(self._timeout)
self._timeout = self.io_loop.add_timeout(
self.io_loop.time() + msecs / 1000.0, self._handle_timeout)
def _handle_events(self, fd, events):
"""Called by IOLoop when there is activity on one of our
file descriptors.
"""
action = 0
if events & ioloop.IOLoop.READ:
action |= pycurl.CSELECT_IN
if events & ioloop.IOLoop.WRITE:
action |= pycurl.CSELECT_OUT
while True:
try:
ret, num_handles = self._socket_action(fd, action)
except pycurl.error as e:
ret = e.args[0]
if ret != pycurl.E_CALL_MULTI_PERFORM:
break
self._finish_pending_requests()
def _handle_timeout(self):
"""Called by IOLoop when the requested timeout has passed."""
with stack_context.NullContext():
self._timeout = None
while True:
try:
ret, num_handles = self._socket_action(
pycurl.SOCKET_TIMEOUT, 0)
except pycurl.error as e:
ret = e.args[0]
if ret != pycurl.E_CALL_MULTI_PERFORM:
break
self._finish_pending_requests()
# In theory, we shouldn't have to do this because curl will
# call _set_timeout whenever the timeout changes. However,
# sometimes after _handle_timeout we will need to reschedule
# immediately even though nothing has changed from curl's
# perspective. This is because when socket_action is
# called with SOCKET_TIMEOUT, libcurl decides internally which
# timeouts need to be processed by using a monotonic clock
# (where available) while tornado uses python's time.time()
# to decide when timeouts have occurred. When those clocks
# disagree on elapsed time (as they will whenever there is an
# NTP adjustment), tornado might call _handle_timeout before
# libcurl is ready. After each timeout, resync the scheduled
# timeout with libcurl's current state.
new_timeout = self._multi.timeout()
if new_timeout != -1:
self._set_timeout(new_timeout)
def _handle_force_timeout(self):
"""Called by IOLoop periodically to ask libcurl to process any
events it may have forgotten about.
"""
with stack_context.NullContext():
while True:
try:
ret, num_handles = self._multi.socket_all()
except pycurl.error as e:
ret = e.args[0]
if ret != pycurl.E_CALL_MULTI_PERFORM:
break
self._finish_pending_requests()
def _finish_pending_requests(self):
"""Process any requests that were completed by the last
call to multi.socket_action.
"""
while True:
num_q, ok_list, err_list = self._multi.info_read()
for curl in ok_list:
self._finish(curl)
for curl, errnum, errmsg in err_list:
self._finish(curl, errnum, errmsg)
if num_q == 0:
break
self._process_queue()
def _process_queue(self):
with stack_context.NullContext():
while True:
started = 0
while self._free_list and self._requests:
started += 1
curl = self._free_list.pop()
(request, callback) = self._requests.popleft()
curl.info = {
"headers": httputil.HTTPHeaders(),
"buffer": BytesIO(),
"request": request,
"callback": callback,
"curl_start_time": time.time(),
}
# Disable IPv6 to mitigate the effects of this bug
# on curl versions <= 7.21.0
# http://sourceforge.net/tracker/?func=detail&aid=3017819&group_id=976&atid=100976
if pycurl.version_info()[2] <= 0x71500: # 7.21.0
curl.setopt(pycurl.IPRESOLVE, pycurl.IPRESOLVE_V4)
_curl_setup_request(curl, request, curl.info["buffer"],
curl.info["headers"])
self._multi.add_handle(curl)
if not started:
break
def _finish(self, curl, curl_error=None, curl_message=None):
info = curl.info
curl.info = None
self._multi.remove_handle(curl)
self._free_list.append(curl)
buffer = info["buffer"]
if curl_error:
error = CurlError(curl_error, curl_message)
code = error.code
effective_url = None
buffer.close()
buffer = None
else:
error = None
code = curl.getinfo(pycurl.HTTP_CODE)
effective_url = curl.getinfo(pycurl.EFFECTIVE_URL)
buffer.seek(0)
# the various curl timings are documented at
# http://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/curl_easy_getinfo.html
time_info = dict(
queue=info["curl_start_time"] - info["request"].start_time,
namelookup=curl.getinfo(pycurl.NAMELOOKUP_TIME),
connect=curl.getinfo(pycurl.CONNECT_TIME),
pretransfer=curl.getinfo(pycurl.PRETRANSFER_TIME),
starttransfer=curl.getinfo(pycurl.STARTTRANSFER_TIME),
total=curl.getinfo(pycurl.TOTAL_TIME),
redirect=curl.getinfo(pycurl.REDIRECT_TIME),
)
try:
info["callback"](HTTPResponse(
request=info["request"], code=code, headers=info["headers"],
buffer=buffer, effective_url=effective_url, error=error,
request_time=time.time() - info["curl_start_time"],
time_info=time_info))
except Exception:
self.handle_callback_exception(info["callback"])
def handle_callback_exception(self, callback):
self.io_loop.handle_callback_exception(callback)
class CurlError(HTTPError):
def __init__(self, errno, message):
HTTPError.__init__(self, 599, message)
self.errno = errno
def _curl_create():
curl = pycurl.Curl()
if gen_log.isEnabledFor(logging.DEBUG):
curl.setopt(pycurl.VERBOSE, 1)
curl.setopt(pycurl.DEBUGFUNCTION, _curl_debug)
return curl
def _curl_setup_request(curl, request, buffer, headers):
curl.setopt(pycurl.URL, native_str(request.url))
# libcurl's magic "Expect: 100-continue" behavior causes delays
# with servers that don't support it (which include, among others,
# Google's OpenID endpoint). Additionally, this behavior has
# a bug in conjunction with the curl_multi_socket_action API
# (https://sourceforge.net/tracker/?func=detail&atid=100976&aid=3039744&group_id=976),
# which increases the delays. It's more trouble than it's worth,
# so just turn off the feature (yes, setting Expect: to an empty
# value is the official way to disable this)
if "Expect" not in request.headers:
request.headers["Expect"] = ""
# libcurl adds Pragma: no-cache by default; disable that too
if "Pragma" not in request.headers:
request.headers["Pragma"] = ""
# Request headers may be either a regular dict or HTTPHeaders object
if isinstance(request.headers, httputil.HTTPHeaders):
curl.setopt(pycurl.HTTPHEADER,
[native_str("%s: %s" % i) for i in request.headers.get_all()])
else:
curl.setopt(pycurl.HTTPHEADER,
[native_str("%s: %s" % i) for i in request.headers.items()])
if request.header_callback:
curl.setopt(pycurl.HEADERFUNCTION, request.header_callback)
else:
curl.setopt(pycurl.HEADERFUNCTION,
lambda line: _curl_header_callback(headers, line))
if request.streaming_callback:
write_function = request.streaming_callback
else:
write_function = buffer.write
if bytes_type is str: # py2
curl.setopt(pycurl.WRITEFUNCTION, write_function)
else: # py3
# Upstream pycurl doesn't support py3, but ubuntu 12.10 includes
# a fork/port. That version has a bug in which it passes unicode
# strings instead of bytes to the WRITEFUNCTION. This means that
# if you use a WRITEFUNCTION (which tornado always does), you cannot
# download arbitrary binary data. This needs to be fixed in the
# ported pycurl package, but in the meantime this lambda will
# make it work for downloading (utf8) text.
curl.setopt(pycurl.WRITEFUNCTION, lambda s: write_function(utf8(s)))
curl.setopt(pycurl.FOLLOWLOCATION, request.follow_redirects)
curl.setopt(pycurl.MAXREDIRS, request.max_redirects)
curl.setopt(pycurl.CONNECTTIMEOUT_MS, int(1000 * request.connect_timeout))
curl.setopt(pycurl.TIMEOUT_MS, int(1000 * request.request_timeout))
if request.user_agent:
curl.setopt(pycurl.USERAGENT, native_str(request.user_agent))
else:
curl.setopt(pycurl.USERAGENT, "Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; pycurl)")
if request.network_interface:
curl.setopt(pycurl.INTERFACE, request.network_interface)
if request.use_gzip:
curl.setopt(pycurl.ENCODING, "gzip,deflate")
else:
curl.setopt(pycurl.ENCODING, "none")
if request.proxy_host and request.proxy_port:
curl.setopt(pycurl.PROXY, request.proxy_host)
curl.setopt(pycurl.PROXYPORT, request.proxy_port)
if request.proxy_username:
credentials = '%s:%s' % (request.proxy_username,
request.proxy_password)
curl.setopt(pycurl.PROXYUSERPWD, credentials)
else:
curl.setopt(pycurl.PROXY, '')
if request.validate_cert:
curl.setopt(pycurl.SSL_VERIFYPEER, 1)
curl.setopt(pycurl.SSL_VERIFYHOST, 2)
else:
curl.setopt(pycurl.SSL_VERIFYPEER, 0)
curl.setopt(pycurl.SSL_VERIFYHOST, 0)
if request.ca_certs is not None:
curl.setopt(pycurl.CAINFO, request.ca_certs)
else:
# There is no way to restore pycurl.CAINFO to its default value
# (Using unsetopt makes it reject all certificates).
# I don't see any way to read the default value from python so it
# can be restored later. We'll have to just leave CAINFO untouched
# if no ca_certs file was specified, and require that if any
# request uses a custom ca_certs file, they all must.
pass
if request.allow_ipv6 is False:
# Curl behaves reasonably when DNS resolution gives an ipv6 address
# that we can't reach, so allow ipv6 unless the user asks to disable.
# (but see version check in _process_queue above)
curl.setopt(pycurl.IPRESOLVE, pycurl.IPRESOLVE_V4)
# Set the request method through curl's irritating interface which makes
# up names for almost every single method
curl_options = {
"GET": pycurl.HTTPGET,
"POST": pycurl.POST,
"PUT": pycurl.UPLOAD,
"HEAD": pycurl.NOBODY,
}
custom_methods = set(["DELETE"])
for o in curl_options.values():
curl.setopt(o, False)
if request.method in curl_options:
curl.unsetopt(pycurl.CUSTOMREQUEST)
curl.setopt(curl_options[request.method], True)
elif request.allow_nonstandard_methods or request.method in custom_methods:
curl.setopt(pycurl.CUSTOMREQUEST, request.method)
else:
raise KeyError('unknown method ' + request.method)
# Handle curl's cryptic options for every individual HTTP method
if request.method in ("POST", "PUT"):
request_buffer = BytesIO(utf8(request.body))
curl.setopt(pycurl.READFUNCTION, request_buffer.read)
if request.method == "POST":
def ioctl(cmd):
if cmd == curl.IOCMD_RESTARTREAD:
request_buffer.seek(0)
curl.setopt(pycurl.IOCTLFUNCTION, ioctl)
curl.setopt(pycurl.POSTFIELDSIZE, len(request.body))
else:
curl.setopt(pycurl.INFILESIZE, len(request.body))
if request.auth_username is not None:
userpwd = "%s:%s" % (request.auth_username, request.auth_password or '')
if request.auth_mode is None or request.auth_mode == "basic":
curl.setopt(pycurl.HTTPAUTH, pycurl.HTTPAUTH_BASIC)
elif request.auth_mode == "digest":
curl.setopt(pycurl.HTTPAUTH, pycurl.HTTPAUTH_DIGEST)
curl.setopt(pycurl.USERPWD, native_str(userpwd))
gen_log.debug("%s %s (username: %r)", request.method, request.url,
request.auth_username)
else:
curl.unsetopt(pycurl.USERPWD)
gen_log.debug("%s %s", request.method, request.url)
if request.client_cert is not None:
curl.setopt(pycurl.SSLCERT, request.client_cert)
if request.client_key is not None:
curl.setopt(pycurl.SSLKEY, request.client_key)
if threading.activeCount() > 1:
# libcurl/pycurl is not thread-safe by default. When multiple threads
# are used, signals should be disabled. This has the side effect
# of disabling DNS timeouts in some environments (when libcurl is
# not linked against ares), so we don't do it when there is only one
# thread. Applications that use many short-lived threads may need
# to set NOSIGNAL manually in a prepare_curl_callback since
# there may not be any other threads running at the time we call
# threading.activeCount.
curl.setopt(pycurl.NOSIGNAL, 1)
if request.prepare_curl_callback is not None:
request.prepare_curl_callback(curl)
def _curl_header_callback(headers, header_line):
# header_line as returned by curl includes the end-of-line characters.
header_line = header_line.strip()
if header_line.startswith("HTTP/"):
headers.clear()
return
if not header_line:
return
headers.parse_line(header_line)
def _curl_debug(debug_type, debug_msg):
debug_types = ('I', '<', '>', '<', '>')
if debug_type == 0:
gen_log.debug('%s', debug_msg.strip())
elif debug_type in (1, 2):
for line in debug_msg.splitlines():
gen_log.debug('%s %s', debug_types[debug_type], line)
elif debug_type == 4:
gen_log.debug('%s %r', debug_types[debug_type], debug_msg)
if __name__ == "__main__":
AsyncHTTPClient.configure(CurlAsyncHTTPClient)
main()