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List of languages that compile to JS

erik-kallen edited this page · 193 revisions

CoffeeScript Family (& Friends)

Family (share genes with CoffeeScript)
  • Coco A CoffeeScript dialect that aims to be more radical and practical, also acts as a test bed for features that get imported in CoffeeScript.
  • Parsec CoffeeScript CS based on parser combinators. The project's aim is to add static metaprogramming (i.e. macros + syntax extensibility) to Coffee Script (CS), similar to how Metalua adds such features to Lua. The resulting compiler, once merged with the official compiler, should be usable as a drop-in replacement for it.
  • A dialect of CoffeeScript that adds built-in support for contracts.
  • Uberscript, a CoffeeScript fork that adds type annotations which are compiled to Google closure compiler type annotation comments.
  • ToffeeScript A dialect of CoffeeScript that support Asynchronous Syntax, Symbol and Regexp operator =~
  • Caffeine A dialect of CoffeeScript that support packages and classes import, useful for browser applications
Friends (philosophically related)
  • JS11 JavaScript with augmented semicolon insertion, reduced punctuation, and limited sugar. Debugs line-for-line.
  • Kaffeine Enhanced Syntax for JavaScript.
  • Jack Making programming playful.
  • move A simpler and cleaner programming language.

JavaScript Parsers and Extensions

Javascript Optimizers
Security enforcing JavaScript
  • Caja Compiles ES5/strict to ES3 and supports object-capabilities
  • ADsafe Client-side static verifier and API, making third party scripts safe.
  • FBJS Facebook JavaScript, used for scripting FBML (Facebook Markup Language) gadgets.
  • Jacaranda Static verifier supporting object-capabilities.
  • Microsoft Web Sandbox Technology preview of securing web content through isolation.
  • Gatekeeper Microsoft Research project.
  • Dojo Secure Framework for building secure mashups.
Static typing
  • Some of the ones listed below are also statically typed, such as mobl, GWT, JSIL, NS Basic, and Haxe.
  • Dart by Google. C/Java-like syntax with optional typing.
  • JavaScript++ adds pluggable type system and type inference, among other features
  • SafeJS
  • MileScript [commercial] A strongly-typed language similar to C# and Java, but which compiles to JS. free for non-profit, educational use.
  • Mascara [commercial] Enhances JavaScript with powerful features like classes, namespaces and type-checking.
  • Roy tries to meld JavaScript semantics with some features common in static functional languages
  • Elm type-safe functional language that compiles to HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.
Synchronous to Asynchronous JavaScript Compilers (CPS)
  • Streamline.js Uses underscore (_) to stand for callbacks. This fork preserves line numbers for debugging.
  • mobl The new language for programming the mobile web.
  • StratifiedJS JavaScript + structured concurrency. See also apollo on that site.
  • NarrativeJS JavaScript extension with asynchronous futures and promises.
  • jwacs JavaScript With Advanced Continuation Support.
  • Jscex Write simple JavaScript code, execute it asynchronously by compiling to monadic form.
  • TameJS adds new keywords 'twait' and 'mkevent'
  • async.js Async utilities for node and the browser
JavaScript Language Extensions
  • ContextJS is an implementation of Context-oriented Programming for JavaScript.
  • Objective-J Shares with JavaScript the same relationship that Objective-C has with the C programming language: that of being a strict, but small, superset.
  • Mochiscript Object-oriented JavaScript with syntactic sugar. Released as a Ruby gem.
  • jangaroo AS3 (ActionScript) to JavaScript.
  • Flapjax Event-driven, reactive evaluation.
  • jLang adds object oriented syntax, namespaces, operators overriding
  • Restrict Mode
  • TIScript gentle extension of JavaScript


  • HotRuby Runs opcode, compiled by YARV on Ruby inside a web browser or in Flash.
  • ColdRuby Compiler of Ruby 1.9 MRI bytecode, and a runtime written in JavaScript to aid in execution of Ruby code.
  • rb2js Converts Ruby to JavaScript.
  • RubyJS A successor to rb2js
  • Red Writes like Ruby and runs like JavaScript
  • Quby Used for game coding site, not open source.
  • Opal Ruby to Javascript compiler.
  • 8ball ruby-to-javascript source-to-source transformer


  • PYXC-PJ [CS friend] Python to JS. Can generate a (line/col)-number mappings file.
  • Pyjamas Python to JS.
  • Pyjs Python to (readable) JS.
  • Skulpt Python. Client side.
  • PyCow Python to MooTools JS.
  • PyvaScript Python-like syntax to JavaScript.


  • GWT Google Web Toolkit, compiles java to javascript
  • Java2Script Eclipse Java to JavaScript compiler plugin and JavaScript version of SWT
  • j2js Java bytecode to JavaScript.
  • Strongly-Typed Javascript (STJS) - Javascript code generator from a Java source. It is built as a Maven plugin.
  • BicaJVM Javascript implementation of JVM


  • scalagwt enhanced GWT (accepts jribble as well as java) plus scala to jribble.

C#, .NET

  • jsc [experimental] Recompile your .NET assembly to JavaScript, ActionScript, PHP or Java.
  • JSIL MSIL (.NET bytecode) to Javascript
  • Script# [commercial] Compiles C# to JS.
  • Prefix in development
  • SaltarelleCompiler Open source C# to JS compiler

Lisp, Scheme

  • BiwaScheme Scheme(R6RS) in JavaScript
  • ClojureScript Clojure to JS, the official version. Supports the majority of Clojure including persistent datastructures.
  • clojurejs Subset of Clojure to JS.
  • EdgeLisp A Lisp in the tradition of Common Lisp
  • Fargo Scheme in JavaScript
  • Moby Scheme A Scheme running in JS.
  • nconc scheme interpreter in javascript with stack-friendly tail calls and full call/cc
  • Parenscript Subset of Common Lisp to JS.
  • Ralph Lisp-1 dialect that compiles to JavaScript, inspired by Dylan
  • scheme2js Scheme to JavaScript.
  • Scriptjure Library for generating JavaScript from Clojure forms.
  • Sibilant JavaScript with a lisp.
  • Spock A Scheme to JavaScript compiler that uses Henry Baker's Cheney-on-the-MTA compilation strategy
  • Whalesong Racket to JS compiler



  • ghcjs Compile normal Haskell into JS
  • jmacro Quasi-Quoted JS that you can insert Haskell values into, also supports a more haskellish version of javascript.

The rest of these probably don't work, particularly with code written for the common GHC compiler.

  • Compile a subset of Haskell into JS
  • UHC (Utrecht Haskell Compiler) backend converts UHC core to JavaScript, allowing the compiling of Haskell code to JS.
  • YHC (York Haskell Compiler) backend, as above but with YHC core language.
  • jshaskell


  • Amber - formerly known as Jtalk
  • Clamato a Smalltalk dialect that is designed to operate within the JavaScript runtime.
  • Silver Smalltalk [commercial] Smalltalk in the browser.
  • Lively Kernel - smalltalk/squeak-like development environment in the browser. See also Avocado, built on top of it.


  • Emscripten LLVM to JavaScript compiler. LLVM is "an aggressive open-source compiler for C and C++," as well as other languages.
  • mala vala (gobject) to javascript
  • Clue C language compiler to different runtimes (Lua, JS, Perl 5, C, Java, CL).


  • NS Basic/App Studio [commercial] Visual Basic-style BASIC to JavaScript compiler. Includes IDE. Targets iOS and Android.
  • qb.js An implementation of QBASIC in Javascript


  • Haxe compiles to several platforms (C++, Flash, JS, Neko, PHP).
  • Fantom Evolutionary object-oriented language emphasizing succinct and effective APIs (JVM, CLR, JS).
  • LZX (Laszlo XML) LZX is OpenLaszlo's declarative user interface language, which is compiled into JavaScript 2 as an intermediary format, and further compiled into either JavaScript 1.5 or ActionScript 3.
  • Clue and jsc above target multiple runtimes in addition to javascript

Tierless languages (produce both client & server)

  • Fun A programming language for realtime webapps - compiles to client-side and server-side JS.
  • Ur In the tradition of ML and Haskell.
  • WebSharper Lets you compile F# to JS.
  • SharpKit Lets you compile C# to JS.
  • mobl The new language for programming the mobile web.
  • E Compiles E to JS. E is a secure distributed persistent pure object language.
  • Sugar new programming language designed to replace JavaScript for client-side (and server-side) web development
  • Opa (in private beta) write your complete application in just one language, and the compiler will transform it into a self-sufficient executable

Visual programming tools


  • Oia A port of Io to JavaScript.
  • Quixe a Glulx VM interpreter written in Javascript
  • Gnusto a Z-Machine VM interpreter written in Javascript
  • Logo Interpreter
  • p2js perl to javascript converter
  • Reb2Static Rebol to Javascript
  • RPN Interpreter for a language with a Reverse Polish Notation syntax.
  • phype run PHP code directly in your browser
  • OP4JS object pascal for javascript, in development
  • jsForth
  • wForth
  • Pit F# to Javascript compiler
  • Agda a dependently typed functional programming language and mechanized proof assistant
  • SMLtoJs SML to Javascript compiler

Tools for Compiler Writers

Javascript Parser Generators
  • jison Bison in javascript, used by Coffeescript
  • OMeta/JS (source) metacompiler for many languages to many targets, including js.
  • PEG.js parser generator for JavaScript based on the parsing expression grammar formalism
  • languagejs - PEG parser written in JavaScript with first class errors
  • Canopy Self-hosting PEG parser compiler for JavaScript, influenced by Ruby parser generators such as Treetop and Citrus. Depends on JS.Class library
  • JS/CC LALR(1) parser generator
  • jsparse PEG by Grandmaster Chris Double
  • ReParse parser combinator library for Javascript like Haskell's Parsec
  • p4js Monadic parser library for JavaScript
  • JSGLR Scannerless, Generalized Left-to-right Rightmost (SGLR) derivation parser for JavaScript
  • antlr has a javascript target
  • Cruiser.Parse LL(k) parser
Javascript AST, Semantics

See Also

  • altJS a Google group and #altjs IRC channel for those interested in alternative languages for javascript ('transpilers'). There is a Try altJS feature, too, to test out various compilers in the browser.
  • jswiki another github wiki with listings of various javascript libraries
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