PHP TableGateway implementation using Doctrine DBAL
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README.md

DBALGateway - Table Gateway for Doctrine DBAL.

Build Status

Doctrine DBAL is a fantastic extension to PDO but writing CRUD code for simple 1 to 1 mappings still represents a time sink. This component implements Table Gateway on top of Doctrine DBAL and is heavily inspired by zf2 Table Gateway.

What are the benefits?

  1. Using metadata the gateway will convert values, for example DateTime is converted to a stamps and the stamp is converted back to DateTime.
  2. Events system, e.g pre_select , post_delete , pre_insert... based around the symfony2 event dispatcher.
  3. Query Logger using Monolog, you would normally write this yourself.
  4. Builder can map records to entities, you could build an active record on top of this gateway.
  5. Supply a collection class and it will load them into it.
  6. Fluid interface for running selects, inserts, updates and deletes.
  7. Faster than manual CRUD.

Whats are the cons?

  1. Loose auto-completion in your IDE, for subclasses, only get it for the bases classes.
  2. Overhead a little more memory and extra method calls.

Install

This component can be installed via composer.

{
    "require" : {
        "icomefromthenet/dbal-gateway" : "dev-master",
    }

}

Usage.

There are 3 components to every table.

  1. Metadata instanceof DBALGateway\Metadata\Table.
  2. Subclass of DBALGateway\Table\AbstractTable the gateway.
  3. Subclass of DBALGateway\Query\AbstractQuery the query class.

There are 2 optional components to every table

  1. Custom result-set implementation of Doctrine\Common\Collections\Collection.
  2. Entity builder implementation of DBALGateway\Builder\BuilderInterface.

1. The Metadata

Assume have the following databse table.

delimiter $$

CREATE TABLE `users` (
  `id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `username` varchar(32) COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci NOT NULL,
  `first_name` varchar(45) COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci NOT NULL,
  `last_name` varchar(45) COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci NOT NULL,
  `dte_created` datetime NOT NULL,
  `dte_updated` datetime NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 COLLATE=utf8_unicode_ci$$

You can declare the metadata as follows.

<?php
namespace ExampleFile

use DBALGateway\Metadata\Table;

call_user_func(function(){

    # create the table object
    $table = new Table('users');
    
    # assign normal columns 
    $table->addColumn('id',"integer", array("unsigned" => true));
    $table->addColumn('username', "string", array("length" => 32));
    $table->addColumn('first_name', "string", array("length" => 45));
    $table->addColumn('last_name',"string", array("length" => 45));
    $table->addColumn('dte_created','datetime');
    $table->addColumn('dte_updated','datetime');
    $table->setPrimaryKey(array("id"));

    # assign virtual columns, these are perfect for calulated values.
    # these columns can not be inserted but will be converted if found in a result-set.
    $table->addVirtualColumn('uptime',"datetime");
    
    return $table;    
});

The datatypes (second argument in addColumn) are not mysql types but doctrine types, the mapping can be found under Doctrine\DBAL\Platforms\{MYPLATFORM}.

2. The Table Gateway.

You will need to declare a subclass of DBALGateway\Metadata\Table and override the method newQueryObject().

<?php
namespace DBALGateway\Tests\Base\Mock;

use DBALGateway\Table\AbstractTable;

class MockUserTableGateway extends AbstractTable
{
    /**
      *  Create a new instance of the querybuilder
      *
      *  @access public
      *  @return QueryBuilder
      */
    public function newQueryBuilder()
    {
        return new MockUserQuery($this->adapter,$this);
    }

}

You may also include other custom code on this class. But note all methods a marked as protected be careful with naming.

3. The QueryClass

You will need to subclass DBALGateway\Query\AbstractQuery which is itself a subclass of Doctrine\DBAL\Query\QueryBuilder.

<?php
namespace DBALGateway\Tests\Base\Mock;

use DBALGateway\Query\AbstractQuery;
use DateTime;

class MockUserQuery extends AbstractQuery
{
    
    public function filterByUser($id)
    {
        $this->where('id = :id')->setParameter('id', $id, $this->getGateway()->getMetaData()->getColumn('id')->getType());
        return $this;
    }
    
    public function filterByUsername($name)
    {
        $this->where('username = :username')->setParameter('username', $id, $this->getGateway()->getMetaData()->getColumn('username')->getType());
        
        return $this;
    }
    
    
    public function filterByDateCreated(DateTime $created)
    {
        $this->where('dte_created = :dte_created')->setParameter('dte_created', $id, $this->getGateway()->getMetaData()->getColumn('dte_created')->getType());
        
        return $this;
    }
    
    public function filterByDateUpdated(DateTime $updated)
    {
        $this->where('dte_updated = :dte_updated')->setParameter('dte_updated', $id, $this->getGateway()->getMetaData()->getColumn('dte_updated')->getType());
        
        return $this;
    }
    
}

Each custom filter should do the following.

  1. Set a unique named parameter.
  2. Set the parameter value and fetch the doctrine type from the meta-data in the table gateway.
  3. Return $this.

4. The Collections class.

When using find() on the gateway results will be stored in a collection class offerd by doctrine Doctrine\Common\Collections\ArrayCollection. If the gateway's constructor is passed an instance an alternative that inherits the interface from Doctrine\Common\Collections\Collection it will clone a copy and use that.


use Doctrine\Common\Collections\Collection;


class CustomCollection implements Collection
{
 .....

}

$collection = new CustomCollection();

$gateway = new MockUserGateway('user',$conn,$event,$meta,$collection,null);

This gateway will clone $collection on each call to find. Note: findOne() does not return collection just entity/array.

5. The Entity Builder

When using find() or findOne() each result found in the set will be passed to the builder for conversion into an entity. A builder must implement the interface found at DBALGateway\Builder\BuilderInterface.

use DBALGateway\Builder\BuilderInterface;

class EntityBuilder implements BuilderInterface
{
     /**
      *  Convert data array into entity
      *
      *  @return mixed
      *  @param array $data
      *  @access public
      */
    public function build($data)
    {
        $user = new UserEntity();
        
        $user->id = $data['id'];
        $user->username = $data['username'];
        
        ... etc
        
        return $user;
        
    }
    
    /**
      *  Convert and entity into a data array
      *
      *  @return array
      *  @access public
      */
    public function demolish($entity)
    {
    
    }

}

$builder = new EntityBuilder();
$gateway = new MockUserGateway('users',$conn,$event,$meta,null,$builder);

Note: If a collection class is used this new entity will be given to the collection.

Running Queries

Run an INSERT Query.

$gateway = new MockUserGateway('users',$conn,$event,$meta);

$success = $gateway->insertQuery()
             ->start()
                ->addColumn('username','ausername')
                ->addColumn('first_name','myfname')
                ->addColumn('last_name','mylname')
                ->addColumn('dte_created',new DateTime())
                ->addColumn('dte_updated',DateTime())
             ->end()
           ->insert(); 

if($success) {
 
 $id = $gateway->lastInsertId();
 
}

Run an UPDATE Query.

$gateway = new MockUserGateway('users',$conn,$event,$meta);

$success = $gateway->updateQuery()
             ->start()
                ->addColumn('username','ausername')
                ->addColumn('first_name','myfname')
                ->addColumn('last_name','mylname')
                ->addColumn('dte_created',new DateTime())
                ->addColumn('dte_updated',DateTime())
             ->where()
                ->filterByUser(101)
             ->end()
           ->update(); 

if($success) {
 
 echo 'table row was updated';
 
}

Run a DELETE Query.

$gateway = new MockUserGateway('users',$conn,$event,$meta);

$success = $gateway->deleteQuery()
             ->start()
                ->filterByUser(1)
             ->end()
           ->delete(); 

if($success) {
 
 echo 'table row was removed';
 
}

Run a SELECT Query.

There are two methods findOne() and find().

$gateway = new MockUserGateway('users',$conn,$event,$meta);

$result = $gateway->selectQuery()
             ->start()
                ->filterByUser(1)
             ->end()
           ->findOne(); 

if($result !== null) {
    echo $result['id'];
    echo $result['username'];
    echo $result['dte_created']->format('U');
}
$gateway = new MockUserGateway('users',$conn,$event,$meta);

$result = $gateway->selectQuery()
             ->start()
                ->filterByUser(1)
             ->end()
           ->find(); 

if($result !== null) {
    echo $result[0]['id'];
    echo $result[0]['username'];
    echo $result[0]['dte_created']->format('U');
}

Instance a Gateway?

A Gateway has the following dependecies.

  1. The table name in the schema.
  2. The Doctrine\DBAL\Connection $connection.
  3. An instance of Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventDispatcherInterface.
  4. The meta data for table instance of DBALGateway\Metadata\Table.
  5. (optional) a result-set to clone an instance class that implements Doctrine\Common\Collections\Collection
  6. (optional) a enity builder an instance class that implements DBALGateway\Builder\BuilderInterface
 new MockUserGateway('users',$conn,$event,$meta,$result_set,$builder);

Features and Events.

The Gateway emits a number of events.

Event Name Event Description
pre_initilize Occurs during object construction.
post_initilize Occurs after object construction.
pre_select Occurs before a select query is run.
post_select Occurs after a select query is run.
pre_delete Occurs before delete query is run.
post_delete Occurs after delete query is run.
pre_insert Occurs before an insert is run.
post_insert Occurs after an insert is run.
pre_update Occurs before an update is run.
post_update Occurs after an update is run.

For an example see the BufferedQueryLogger.