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Jetson Containers

Running CUDA containers on the Jetson platform

  1. Preface
  2. Introduction
  3. Configuration
  4. Building
  5. Running
  6. Tensorflow
  7. OpenCV
  8. Flashing Devices
  9. Image Sizes


This project provides a repeatable, containerized approach to building software and libraries to run on the NVIDIA Jetson platform.

NVIDIA has chosen to break host isolation and use the NVIDIA Container Runtime. NVIDIA's runtime mounts many files (few GB) from the host OS into the container. While they are working on making the containers smaller, it is unknown when this will happen. So while the NGC L4T containers may be smaller, they are loading GBs of data into the container at runtime.

The jetson-containers project focuses on containerizing your entire application laying out the foundations for:

  • Building container images
  • Flashing devices
  • Installing/compiling 3rd part libraries such as Tensorflow and OpenCV


When building your application and choosing a base, the JetPack images can be trimmed to only include what is needed by your application. This can drastically reduce the size of your images.

These containers enable the OS can be flashed without JetPack having only the main driver pack installed and using less than 1GB storage. The other libraries will be included in the containers enabling migration and updates without involving the host operating system.

When building third party libraries, such as OpenCV and PyTorch, a swapfile will likely have to be created in the host OS if compiling on the device. These packages require more memory than the system contains and will crash with very cryptic errors if they run out of memory.

The JetPack base images follow the Nvidia pattern of having base, runtime, and devel images for each device to start from. Additionally, runtime-cudnn, deepstream, devel-cudnn, and all images are available as well. You cannot download the JetPack installers without logging in with the SDK manager, so the make tasks herein will automate the download/login through the SDK Manager and save off the device specific packages.

Note: if you have the SDK Manager open, the command line will not work. NVIDIA has incorrectly handled their single instance implementation and the CLI will fail to run.


There are several walk through blog posts that may serve as helpful introductions:


The .env File

The Makefile scripts will import a .env file (for an example look at the .envtemp file) and export the variables defined.


  • REPO - This is for your own container registry/repo. The builds will take care of the tags and images names. For example


  • DOCKER - Allows swapping out for another container runtime such as Moby or Balena. This variable is used in all container operations.
  • DOCKER_HOST - Setting the DOCKER_HOST variable will proxy builds to another machine such as a Jetson device. This allows running the make scripts from an x86_x64 host. This feature was added in November 2018. When using this feature, it is helpful to add your public key to the device's ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file. This will prevent credential checks on every build.
  • DOCKER_BUILD_ARGS - Allows adding arguments such as volume mounting or cleanup (-rm/--squash) during build operations.
  • DOCKER_DEPS_IMAGE_BUILD_ARGS - This argument is used for the driver pack and Tensorflow build commands. The default will squash as our base images which need to copy from a dependencies image. Without this the images will be massive.
  • DOCKER_RUN_ARGS - Allows adding arguments such as environment variables, mounts, network configuration, etc when running images. Can also be used to configure X11 forwarding.


Storing these images will also require significant disk space. It is highly recommended that an NVME or other hard drive is installed and mounted at boot through fstab. Once mounted, configure your container runtime to store its containers and images there. You'll also want to enable the experimental features to get --squash available during builds. This can be turned off by manually specifying DOCKER_BUILD_ARGS.


    "data-root": "/some/external/docker",
    "experimental": true


The project uses make to set up the dependent builds constructing the final images. The recipes fall into a few categories:

  • Driver packs (32.4.3, 32.3.1, 32.2.1, 32.2, 32.1)
  • JetPack Dependencies (4.4, 4.3, 4.2.2, 4.2.1, 4.2)
  • JetPack (4.4, 4.3, 4.2.2, 4.2.1, 4.2)
  • Devices (jax (xavier), nx, tx2, tx1, nano)
  • Flashing containers
  • OpenCV (4.1.0)


The JetPack dependency builds must be run on an x86_64 host. They can be built with make <device>-jetpack-<jetpack-version>-deps. This will build an image using files downloaded from the SDK Manager installed. As the container runs, click the link and log into your nvidia account in the web browser. Once built, push the image to your container registry so that the device can leverage it all other builds. This may sound like a lot, but it is really just:

  • Make sure DOCKER_HOST, if set, is pointing to an x86_64 host
  • make jax-jetpack-4.4-deps, or make nano-dev-jetpack-4.4-deps, or make tx2-jetpack-4.4-deps, or make jetpack-4.4-deps to build them all
  • The login prompt can be skipped if you open the SDK Manager and cache your credentials when logging in. Ensure that the SDK Manager is closed before using the CLI.
  • Upload finished image(s) to your container registry

All other steps for JetPack require these previous steps to have been completed.

CTI Dependencies

CTI has a board support package which must be installed into the rootfs. When building flash images for CTI boards, there are three options:

  1. Run ~/jetson-containers$ make cti-<driver pack>-<device>-deps such as ~/jetson-containers$ make cti-32.1-tx2-deps which will download the BSP and generate an image l4t:cti-32.1-tx2-deps with the driver pack installed into /data.
  2. Download the BSP from the CTI web site and save it to an empty folder. In the .env file, set the SDKM_DOWNLOADS to this folder and run ~/jetson-containers$ make cti-<driver pack>-<device>-deps-from-folder. For example: ~/jetson-containers$ make cti-32.1-tx2-deps-from-folder which will generate an image l4t:cti-32.1-tx2-deps with the driver pack installed into /data.
  3. Download the BSP into the folder with the downloads from the SDK Manager. In the .env file, set the SDKM_DOWNLOADS to the chosen folder. Run ~/jetson-containers$ make <device>-jetpack-<version>-deps-from-folder. For example: ~/jetson-containers$ make tx2-jetpack-4.2-deps-from-folder which will generate an image l4t:tx2-jetpack-4.2-deps with the BSP and JetPack dependencies installed into /data.

For all of these, open your .env and set BSP_DEPENDENCIES_IMAGE to the dependency image created. In the last example it will be the same image as the DEPENDENCIES_IMAGE setting found in the /cti/<version>/drivers/*.conf file associated with the image being flashed.

Driver Packs

The driver packs form the base of the device images. Each version of JetPack is built on top of a driver pack. To build an image, follow the pattern:

make <driver-pack>-<device>-jetpack-<jetpack-version>

Note: not all combinations are valid and the Makefile should have all valid combinations declared. Note: if these command's are not run on the device, the DOCKER_HOST variable must be set. Note: from 4.2, building Jetson containers on the host is also supported: leave the DOCKER_HOST empty and make sure qemu-user-static is installed and interpreters are registered on the host. If not, please run:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends qemu-user-static binfmt-support


make driver-packs # build all driver pack bases
make jetpack-4.4 # build all JetPack 4.4. device builds and the driver packs they depend on
make 32.3.1-jax-jetpack-4.3
make 32.4.3-nx-jetpack-4.4

There are additional recipes for building the samples container for any given jetpack/device (make 32.4.3-nx-jetpack-4.4-samples) and running the container (make run-32.4.3-nx-jetpack-4.4-samples) which demonstrates mult-stage builds. Note: In order to run the image you must be on the device or have set the DOCKER_HOST variable in the .env file.


To run a container with GPU support there are a couple options. First, not recommended, run with the --privileged option.

Another option is to add the host's GPUs to the container. Depending on your application you may need to add other othe devices such as /dev/tegra_dc_ctrl:

docker run \
    --device=/dev/nvhost-ctrl \
    --device=/dev/nvhost-ctrl-gpu \
    --device=/dev/nvhost-prof-gpu \
    --device=/dev/nvmap \
    --device=/dev/nvhost-gpu \
    --device=/dev/nvhost-as-gpu \
    --device=/dev/nvhost-vic \

Starting in API 1.40 the --gpus options was added. This requires that the NVIDIA conatiner runtime is installed as Docker/Moby will query the driver:

docker run --gpus all <image-name>

With Azure IoT Edge, the following be specified in the deployment manifest if you don't want to mount all of the devices listed above:

"createOptions": {
    "HostConfig": {
        "DeviceRequests": [
                "Capabilities": [
                "Cound": -1

X11 Forwarding

Running containerized applications with X11 forwarding requires simple configuration changes

  • On the host OS, run xhost +
  • Add --net=host and -e "DISPLAY" arguments to docker

The DOCKER_RUN_ARGS variable can be set in the .env file to DOCKER_RUN_ARGS=--net=host -e "DISPLAY" which will set up the forwarding when using make. Then run the run-32.1-jax-jetpack-4.2-samples task. This works for both local and remote sessions leveraging DOCKER_HOST. Note that when using DOCKER_HOST the forwarding will be done on the target and not forwarded locally.


Tensorflow builds have been added to all jetpack/device combinations. The commands to build them follow the pattern:

make <driver-pack>-<device>-jetpack-<jetpack-version>-tf-<tensorflow version>-nv<nv version>-<target>

  • The Tensorflow and NV versions are found by browsing the NVIDIA Tensorflow index
  • Where target is one of min, runtime, runtime-tensorrt, and devel.


make 32.4.3-jax-jetpack-4.4-tf-2.2.0-nv20.8-min
make 32.2.3-tx2-jetpack-4.2.3-tf-1.13.1-nv19.4-runtime-tensorrt


Building OpenCV can take a few hours depending on your device and performance mode. When the OpenCV builds are complete, the install .sh file can be found in the /dist folder.

Building Custom OpenCV

make opencv-4.0.1-l4t-32.1-jetpack-4.2

Flashing Devices

Flashing devices usually requires installation of JetPack. To make this easier and more repeatable, you can now flash your device using a container.

There are default profiles which match the device and JetPack versions in the flash/jetpack-bases folder. Once the image is created, you have a versionable image which will be the base OS and drivers for your device.


make image-jetpack # create all jetpack default configuration images for flashing.
make image-32.2-tx2i-jetpack-4.2.1 # JetPack 4.2.1 for TX2i with driver pack 32.2
make image-32.1-jax-jetpack-4.2 # JetPack 4.2 for Xavier with driver pack 32.1

Note: Ensure that if the DOCKER_HOST variable is set, the host specified must be x86_64. Note: The Dockerfiles can be modified to chroot the rootfs folder customizing the image such as setting up cloud-init.

To flash the device, put the device into recovery mode and connect it to the host via USB cable. You can follow the instructions from your device instructions, or run reboot recovery from a terminal session on the device. Now, run ./ along with the image tag you want to execute. For example, looking at images previously built:

>:~/jetson-containers/flash$ docker images
REPOSITORY                           TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
l4t:32.1-jax-jetpack-4.2-image     latest              e59950b4ebdc        5 hours ago         3.73GB

We can flash the Xavier with the default JetPack 4.2 configuration by executing ./ l4t:32.1-jax-jetpack-4.2-image. If your device is not in recovery mode, you will see an error similar to:

# L4T BSP Information:
# R31 (release), REVISION: 1.0, GCID: 13194883, BOARD: t186ref, EABI: aarch64, 
# DATE: Wed Oct 31 22:26:16 UTC 2018
Error: probing the target board failed.
       Make sure the target board is connected through 
       USB port and is in recovery mode.

If your device was in recovery mode, you should see progress displayed. Once the device has been flashed, it will automatically restart.

CTI BSPs Flashing

  1. Build BSP dependencies image
  2. Build JetPack dependencies image
  3. Build flashing image

Example: Building Orbitty

>:~/jetson-containers/$ make cti-32.1-tx2-125-deps
>:~/jetson-containers/$ make 32.1-tx2-jetpack-4.2-deps
>:~/jetson-containers/$ make image-cti-32.1-v125-orbitty
>:~/jetson-containers/$ ./flash/ l4t:cti-32.1-v125-orbitty-image

If you want to use a different dependency image for the BSP, set BSP_DEPENDENCIES_IMAGE in the .env file.

Image sizes


Repository Tag Size
arm64v8/ubuntu bionic 56.7MB


Dependency packs:

Note that these are only used on build machines.

Repository Driver Size
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-deps ~4.56GB
l4t 32.3.1-***-jetpack-4.3-deps ~3.96GB
l4t 32.2.1-***-jetpack-4.2.2-deps ~3.5GB
l4t 32.2-***-jetpack-4.2.1-deps ~3.5GB
l4t 32.1-***-jetpack-4.2-deps ~3.30GB

Driver packs:

Repository Driver Size
l4t 32.4.3-*** ~786MB
l4t 32.3.1-*** ~765MB
l4t 32.2.1-*** ~460MB
l4t 32.2-*** ~470MB
l4t 32.1-*** ~470MB

JetPack 4.4

Repository Tag Size
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-base ~788MB
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-runtime ~1.87GB
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-runtime-cudnn ~2.67GB
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-deepstream ~6.69GB
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-devel ~4.04GB
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-devel-cudnn ~6.44GB
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-all ~8.07GB
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-samples ~3.05GB
--- --- ---
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-tf-2.2.0-nv20.7-min ~2.95GB
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-tf-2.1.0-nv20.4-min ~2.81GB
l4t 32.4.3-***-jetpack-4.4-tf-1.15.3-nv20.7-min ~2.64GB

JetPack 4.3

Repository Tag Size
l4t 32.3.1-***-jetpack-4.3-base ~768MB
l4t 32.3.1-***-jetpack-4.3-runtime ~1.5GB
l4t 32.3.1-***-jetpack-4.3-runtime-cudnn ~1.97GB
l4t 32.3.1-***-jetpack-4.3-deepstream ~3.9GB
l4t 32.3.1-***-jetpack-4.3-devel ~3.45GB
l4t 32.3.1-***-jetpack-4.3-devel-cudnn ~4.35GB
l4t 32.3.1-***-jetpack-4.3-all ~5.92GB
l4t 32.3.1-***-jetpack-4.3-samples ~2.63GB

JetPack 4.2.2

Repository Tag Size
l4t 32.2.1-***-jetpack-4.2.2-base ~470MB
l4t 32.2.1-***-jetpack-4.2.2-runtime ~1.23GB
l4t 32.2.1-***-jetpack-4.2.2-devel ~5.78GB

JetPack 4.2.1

Repository Tag Size
l4t 32.2-***-jetpack-4.2.1-base ~475MB
l4t 32.2-***-jetpack-4.2.1-runtime ~1.23GB
l4t 32.2-***-jetpack-4.2.1-devel ~5.8GB

JetPack 4.2

Repository Tag Size
l4t 32.1-***-jetpack-4.2-base ~489MB
l4t 32.1-***-jetpack-4.2-runtime ~1.2GB
l4t 32.1-***-jetpack-4.2-devel ~5.65GB
l4t 32.1-***-jetpack-4.2-samples ~2.3GB


Running CUDA containers on the Jetson platform







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