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# Copyright (c) 2001 Autonomous Zone Industries
# Copyright (c) 2002-2009 Zooko Wilcox-O'Hearn
# This file is part of pyutil; see README.rst for licensing terms.
An object that makes some of the attributes of your class persistent, pickling
them and lazily writing them to a file.
# from the Python Standard Library
import os
import cPickle as pickle
import warnings
# from the pyutil library
import fileutil
import nummedobj
import twistedutil
# from the Twisted library
from twisted.python import log
class PickleSaver(nummedobj.NummedObj):
This makes some of the attributes of your class persistent, saving
them in a pickle and saving them lazily.
The general idea: You are going to tell PickleSaver which of your
attributes ought to be persistently saved, and the name of a file to
save them in. Those attributes will get saved to disk, and when
your object is instantiated those attributes will get set to the
values loaded from the file.
Usage: inherit from PickleSaver and call PickleSaver.__init__() in your
constructor. You will pass arguments to PickleSaver.__init__()
telling it which attributes to save, which file to save them in, and
what values they should have if there is no value stored for them in
the file.
Note: do *not* assign values to your persistent attributes in your
constructor, because you might thus overwrite their persistent
Then whenever you change one of the persistent attributes, call
self.lazy_save() (it won't *really* save -- it'll just schedule a
save for DELAY minutes later.) If you update an attribute and
forget to call self.lazy_save() then the change will not be saved,
unless you later call self.lazy_save() before you shut down.
Data could be lost if the Python interpreter were to die
unexpectedly (for example, due to a segfault in a compiled machine
code module or due to the Python process being killed without
warning via SIGKILL) before the delay passes. However if the Python
interpreter shuts down cleanly (i.e., if it garbage collects and
invokes the __del__ methods of the collected objects), then the data
will be saved at that time (unless your class has the "not-collectable"
problem: -- search
in text for "uncollectable").
Note: you can pass DELAY=0 to make PickleSaver a not-so-lazy saver.
The advantage of laziness is that you don't touch the disk as
often -- touching disk is a performance cost.
To cleanly shutdown, invoke shutdown(). Further operations after that
will result in exceptions.
class ExtRes:
This is for holding things (external resources) that PickleSaver needs
to finalize after PickleSaver is killed. (post-mortem finalization)
In particular, this holds the names and values of all attributes
that have been changed, so that after the PickleSaver is
garbage-collected those values will be saved to the persistent file.
def __init__(self, fname, objname):
self.fname = fname
self.objname = objname
self.dirty = False # True iff the attrs have been changed and need to be saved to disk; When you change this flag from False to True, you schedule a save task for 10 minutes later. When the save task goes off it changes the flag from True to False.
self.savertask = None
self.valstr = None # the pickled (serialized, string) contents of the attributes that should be saved
def _save_to_disk(self):
if self.valstr is not None:
log.msg("%s._save_to_disk(): fname: %s" % (self.objname, self.fname,))
of = open(self.fname + ".tmp", "wb")
of = None
fileutil.rename(self.fname + ".tmp", self.fname)
log.msg("%s._save_to_disk(): now, having finished write(), os.path.isfile(%s): %s" % (self, self.fname, os.path.isfile(self.fname),))
self.valstr = None
self.dirty = False
self.savertask = None
def shutdown(self):
if self.dirty:
if self.savertask:
self.savertask = None
def __del__(self):
def __init__(self, fname, attrs, DELAY=60*60, savecb=None):
@param attrs: a dict whose keys are the names of all the attributes to be persistently stored and whose values are the initial default value that the attribute gets set to the first time it is ever used; After this first initialization, the value will be persistent so the initial default value will never be used again.
@param savecb: if not None, then it is a callable that will be called after each save completes (useful for unit tests) (savecb doesn't get called after a shutdown-save, only after a scheduled save)
warnings.warn("deprecated", DeprecationWarning)
self._attrnames = attrs.keys()
self._extres = PickleSaver.ExtRes(fname=fname, objname=self.__repr__())
self._savecb = savecb
for attrname, defaultval in attrs.items():
setattr(self, attrname, defaultval)
attrdict = pickle.loads(open(self._extres.fname, "rb").read())
for attrname, attrval in attrdict.items():
if not hasattr(self, attrname):
log.msg("WARNING: %s has no attribute named %s on load from disk, value: %s." % (self, attrname, attrval,))
setattr(self, attrname, attrval)
except (pickle.UnpicklingError, IOError, EOFError,), le:
attrdict = pickle.loads(open(self._extres.fname + ".tmp", "rb").read())
for attrname, attrval in attrdict.items():
if not hasattr(self, attrname):
log.msg("WARNING: %s has no attribute named %s on load from disk, value: %s." % (self, attrname, attrval,))
setattr(self, attrname, attrval)
except (pickle.UnpicklingError, IOError, EOFError,), le2:
log.msg("Got exception attempting to load attrs. (This is normal if this is the first time you've used this persistent %s object.) fname: %s, le: %s, le2: %s" % (self.__class__, self._extres.fname, le, le2,))
def _store_attrs_in_extres(self):
d = {}
for attrname in self._attrnames:
d[attrname] = getattr(self, attrname)
# log.msg("%s._store_attrs_in_extres: attrname: %s, val: %s" % (self, attrname, getattr(self, attrname),))
# pickle the attrs now, to ensure that there are no reference cycles
self._extres.valstr = pickle.dumps(d, True)
# log.msg("%s._store_attrs_in_extres: valstr: %s" % (self, self._extres.valstr,))
self._extres.dirty = True
def _save_to_disk(self):
log.msg("%s._save_to_disk()" % (self,))
if self._savecb:
def _lazy_save(self, delay=None):
""" @deprecated: use lazy_save() instead """
return self.lazy_save(delay)
def lazy_save(self, delay=None):
@param delay: how long from now before the data gets saved to disk, or `None' in order to use the default value provided in the constructor
if delay is None:
# copy the values into extres so that if `self' gets garbage-collected the values will be written to disk during post-mortem finalization. (This also marks it as dirty.)
newsavetask = twistedutil.callLater_weakly(delay, self._save_to_disk)
if self._extres.savertask:
if self._extres.savertask.callId.getTime() < newsavetask.callId.getTime():
self._extres.savertask = newsavetask
self._extres.savertask = newsavetask
def shutdown(self):
self.extres = None