This package provides a simple API for creating and handling errors which are identified by codes.
The correct import path of this package is
Many times, a library, service, or any other kind of implementation needs to deal with third party packages and it may need to identify errors for:
- Perform some operation before returning it to the caller, for example doing some kind of rollback operations.
- Localize the error.
Meanwhile those 2 needs could be implemented with error values (defining them as global variables of the package) or specific types, both of them aren't ideal because:
- Package variables values cannot be modified on each error instance, so they cannot to be endowed with specific information which is useful for the developers and operations teams for identifying the source of the problem.
- Package variables aren't immutable, so their values, although unlikely, could be erroneous overridden.
- Specific types don't have the 2 previous problems, however when a considerable list of different errors is needed, quite a few boilerplate is required for creating them and the package documentation gets polluted.
- Specific types must implement the same behavior over and over or use a base type which must be embedded in all the types to have the same logic. This could be fine in single package, but when you want to have the same mechanism on a bunch of packages (think in medium/large implementations done by any company whose code base is written in Go) is less than desirable to spread between teams.
- When using any of them and the errors are transmitted over the wire (this problem arises when the dependency is a remote service), then the client must identify those errors in order to reconstruct the error to use the same value (when using package variables) or type (when using specific types) for allowing the caller to be able to identify the error.
The 2 mentioned issues can be solved by errors which are identified by codes and without the need of using package variables nor specific error types, just using a minimal and simple public API exposed by this package. Nonetheless this package doesn't attempt to fit to all the use cases, it fits to several of the uses cases which were found in my experience, but they are not all. Hence, before using it, assess if it can bring the mentioned benefits to your implementation (for example a minimal library may have enough just returning standard errors or using a couple of package variables error values variables or specific types).
Errors are for users, but they must be useful for operations, too. In order to achieve both, the error type of this package is endowed with several information.
- A code and a static message. Both information is useful for users and operations, because each code should be quite specific and self descriptive for providing a synthesized information about the error which has happened. Having a specific error code is also good to have each error properly documented, so it can provide more detailed information about the error when its synthesized information isn't enough.
- An unique ID. Each error instance has an unique ID. For users, it's useful because they could report it to the support team, a part of the code. Such ID could be helpful to provide a customized feedback/response when needed and for the operations team, could use the ID to correlate errors, when they are registered/tracked in different operational systems or, for any reason, in the same one several times.
- Metadata. Despite that the code, and its associated message, should be precise, the operations team needs more information about what happened when the error has happened in some circumstances which aren't clear, for example the input parameter values, variable values, etc. Developers should have a way to provide such important context information when creating the errors and that's what, in this package, is called metadata.
- The call stack. Call stacks are ugly, but they provide the trace where the error was originated and such information is very useful for the operations team and maintainers, when the error has happened in unclear circumstances.
- Original error. The most of the times, third party packages are used and, obviously, those package don't probably use errors created by this package, hence they don't have all the information, or a lest in the same way. Your implementation has committed to return error with codes, but the original error must be preserved because it may have additional information which may be useful for the operations team and maintainers.
In summary, from the point of view of users, the error should be precise and concise, without having any useless information and avoiding to leak important information about the system; on the other hand, the operations team and maintainers need much more information about the errors in order of being able to understand the cause of the error.
Errors are standard errors
This package doesn't intentionally export the error type, because:
- Functions' signatures, which return errors, should always return a standard error.
- Type assertion for finding out errors information is less than ideal in comparison on having an API.
Hence, this package export some functions to get information about the error, however it only intentionally allows to get a part of it, because the information destined for operations is only thought to be exposed through systems for such purpose, for example logging.
MIT, read the license file for more information.