Build and run Containers
Irae Hueck Costa
Latest commit a28291c Nov 7, 2018

README

[ http://plash.io/ ] [ https://travis-ci.org/ihucos/plash ]

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containerized  Processes


###
# What is plash?
###

Plash is an implementation of containers, you can build and run containers. It
uses the same underlying interfaces as other container software.


###
# Incomplete feature list
###

- Unprivileged users are first-class citizens.
- No daemons and no self baked privileged helpers.
- It's portable and runs in many platforms like CI environments, itself or
  other container software.
- Nested containers.
- Create custom build commands with python3
- Designed for ergonomic command-line interface and scripting.
- Integrates well with existing tools - "Do One Thing and Do It Well".


###
# Getting started
###

$ pip3 install plash
$ plash --from alpine --apk xeyes -- xeyes
$ plash --from-github ihucos/python --pip3 dotfiles -- dotfiles --sync
$ plash --help


###
# Documentation
###

Reference documentation and tutorial: http://plash.io/

Examples:
- https://github.com/ihucos/plash-travis-example         Run plash in travis CI
- https://github.com/ihucos/plash-python-example/        Example of OS-Level isolation of python packages
- https://github.com/ihucos/plashmisc                    Custom build file commands (macros)
- https://git.io/fAdM0 and https://git.io/fAdMg          Run docker inside plash
- https://github.com/ihucos/noapt                        Use Ubuntu packages in other Linux distributions
- https://github.com/ihucos/megaman                      Use Arch Linux packages in other Linux distributions.
- https://github.com/ihucos/plash-plash                  Example of running plash in plash


###
# Backwards Compatibility
###

One aim of plash is to have strong backwards compatibility. Breaking changes
would have to be published under a different program name. It's unusual to
launch a complex software with limited real world usage already claiming
backward compatibility, this promise will not be fully kept in the beginning.
As real bugs and design issues surface they will be fixed properly introducing
breaking changes. Subtle things like exit status numbers may also change at
this point.


###
# Plashfiles
###

Plashfiles are executable build files featuring an extendable, lightweight
configuration management language. There may be many use cases like packaging
scripts or bigger programs in a portable way. Here is an example:

$ cat $HOME/bin/gtk-hello-world
#!/usr/bin/env plash-exec
--from archlinux
--pacman gtk3 python-gobject
--layer
--entrypoint-script 
#!/usr/bin/env python
import gi
gi.require_version('Gtk', '3.0')
from gi.repository import Gtk
Gtk.init(None)
Hello = Gtk.MessageDialog(message_type=Gtk.MessageType.INFO,
                          buttons=Gtk.ButtonsType.OK,
                          text="Hello world!",
                          secondary_text="This is running inside a plash container.")
Hello.run()


###
# Some Recipes
###

# export an image to docker
$ plash export-tar --from alpine | docker import -

# run an image from docker
$ plash --from-docker busybox

# run plash inside docker
$ docker run --privileged --volume /var/lib/plash --volume /tmp -ti python bash
root@5750a18ea217:/# pip3 install plash > /dev/null
root@5750a18ea217:/# plash test
0_quickfail          PASS
basic-call-test      PASS
error-messages       PASS
macros/defpm         PASS
macros/eval-file     PASS
macros/eval-stdin    PASS
...

# run plash inside plash
$ plash --from-github ihucos/python --apk unionfs-fuse --layer --pip3 plash 
localhost:/home/resu# plash test
0_quickfail          PASS
...

# use an image from https://images.linuxcontainers.org 
$ plash --from-lxc archlinux
$ plash --from archlinux  # actually --from fallbacks to --from-lxc

# use an image from the web
$ plash --from-url http://example.com/rootfs.tar

# run a plash build file
$ plash --eval-file ./mybuildfile

# see how much space an image is taking
$ plash with-mount --from alpine -- du -sh

# delete an image
$ plash rm --from ubuntu

# Delete some older containers
$ plash shrink

# cleanup internal state (like tmp dirs)
$ plash clean

Check out the tutorial: http://plash.io/


###
# Conceptual differences
###

Plash is actually conceptionally different to existing containers. Plash
containers are more lightweight, in fact they are just processes. Let's take a
look at this:

Thread < Process < Container < Full Virtualisation < Dedicated Hardware
            ^
            └─ plash is here

Plash does not start containers, it starts processes. This architecture
leverages the fact, that processes are a very well established interface. In
order to list your containers, you use `ps` or `top`, to kill a "container" you
can use `kill` and so on. To manage multiple instances, you can utilize
something like `supervisord`, there is no need to reinvent and relearn things
"the container way". Although containerized processes behave like - or in fact
are - processes, they get the advantages of containers. Which is mainly the
perception of running in a dedicated operating system of choice. Still some
resources like the home folder and the network stack are shared. If a more
heavy isolation is needed, other existing tools can provide this functionality,
including for example other containerization platforms.


###
# Requirements
###

Note: in this sectiont the focus is on usability, not immaculate accuracy.

For unprivileged use:
  - newuidmap/newgidmap
  - unionfs-fuse if not Ubuntu
  - Kernel >= 4.18 or Ubuntu
  - Support for user and mount namespaces

For privileged use:
  - Support for mount namespaces

Failsafe mode:
  - root access
  - chroot system call
  - a `mount` binary
  - Linux kernel or unionfs-fuse

  Warning: The failsafe mode does not clean up mountpoints. It is designed to
  run inside another short lived container/machine/mount namespace. Enable with
  `export PLASH_NO_UNSHARE=1`


###
# Environment variables
###

- PLASH_DATA
  Select a different directory for the build data. Default is "~/.plashdata" or
  "/var/lib/plash" if root.

- PLASH_DEBUG
  If enabled, raises exceptions more often.

- PLASH_EXPORT
  Tells plash which environment variables to export into containers. Separate
  multiple variables with a ":".

- PLASH_INIT_UNION_TASTE
  Tells `plash init` which union filesystem to use for the build data. The
  default is "unionfs-fuse", the other alternative is "overlay".

- PLASH_NO_UNSHARE
  The failsafe mode. It disables the attempt to create the mountpoints inside a
  fresh mount namespace. Setting this environment variable will pollute your
  current mount namespace. When run as a non-root user, this option has no
  effect. Only use this inside a throw-away mount namespace like another
  container.


###
# Choosing an union filesystem
###

By default after you run `plash init`, the build directory will be configured
with the "unionfs-fuse" filesystem. If you want to use "overlay" instead, run
the following command: `echo overlay | plash data tee config/union_taste`

The difference is that "unionfs-fuse" is slower but more flexible, it works with
fuse. Overlay on the other hand is faster but in most cases requires root
access or an ubuntu system. If you can, go with "overlay".

Note that "overlay" and "unionfs-fuse" may not be compatible to each other, so
you have to decide for one of them right after initializing a build directory.
It's like choosing the first Pokemon.


###
# Development Guidelines
###

- Keep the script character.
- Don't fall in love with the code, embrace its absence.
- All dependencies will get unmaintained at some point.
- Use honest thin wrappers, documented leaky abstractions are better then difficult promises.
- Don't be a monolith but don't try too hard not to be one.
- Don't complain or warn via stderr, do it or don't do it.
- Only be as smart as necessary and keep it simple and stupid (KISS).
- Still be able to run this in five years without any maintenance work.
- Find out what this program is and especially what it not is.
- Say no to features, say yes to solved used cases.
- Postpone compromises.
- Be as vanilla as you can be
- Be humble, don't oversell your abstraction layer.
- Work toward a timeless, finished product that will require no maintainance.
- Don't differentiate root from non-root users (this is a TODO)
- The right guidelines for the right situation.


###
# Caveats
###

- Plash processes have the same operating system access rights than the process
  that started it. There is no security relevant isolation feature. Exactly as
  with running programs "normally", don't run programs you do not trust with
  plash and try to avoid using plash with the root user.

- Sometimes there are issues with apt-get failing that still need to be ironed
  out, sometimes it's due to an older kernel, sometimes due the lxc ubuntu
  build and I suppose it could also be related to unionfs-fuse in certain
  cases. Currently I don't see a single solution for this, this problems will
  have to be managed and fixed bit by bit. Other package managers seem to be
  more robust.

- Plash only runs inside Docker containers started with the `--privileged`
  flag, see GitHub issue #51 for details. 


###
# FAQ
###

* Can I contribute?
Please! Write me an mail mail@irae.me, open an issue, do a pull request or ask
me out for a friendly chat about plash in Berlin.

* Who are you?
A Django/Python software-developer. Since this is an open source project I hope
this software grows organically and collaboratively.

* Why write a containerization software?
Technical idealism. I wanted a better technical solution for a problem. In my
personal opinion Docker is revolutionary but has some shortcomings: awkward
interface, reinvention of established software or interfaces, bundling, vendor
lock in and overengineering. In a way it kills it's idea by trying too hard to
build a huge company on top of it. Plash thrives not to be more than a useful
tool with one task: Building and running containerized processes. Ultimately I
wanted something I can if necessary maintain by myself.

* Are there plans to commercialise this?
No, there isn't. At the same time I don't want to risk disappointing anyone and
am not making any absolute guarantees.

* What is the Licence?
plash is licensed under the MIT Licence.

* How does the code look?
One python3 library without dependencies and one standalone script per
subcommand. Counting the whole repository, it's just less than 5000 lines. The
plan is to slowly rewrite part by part in C. But first I must learn C properly
:-)

* How does plash compare to Docker?
There are no efforts to implement features like image distribution, process
management, or orchestration in plash. Instead plash works nicely with docker
or other software in the ecosystem. You can use plash to run docker in your
system or run your plash containers inside docker. If you for exampling are
using docker but want to have containers inside your docker container, you
could use plash. You can also access docker images from plash or export plash
images to docker. Another use case is to build docker images inside docker
containers.  They are two software with completely different philosophies.
Docker is kind of a big framework that tries to solve all your container
related problems. Plash on the other hand tries to be a flexible minimalistic
command line tool that is only concerned with the essential needs of using
containers. Both approaches are totally valid and very different. Comparing the
code base between the two projects is also difficult.

* Can I run this in production?
You can. It probably still has some warts, what I can guarantee is to
enthusiastically support this software and all issues that may come with it and
focus on backward compatibility.

* Is plash secure?
Plash does not use any daemons or have its own setuid helper binaries. Note
that plash does not try to isolate containers (which are just normal
processes). That means that running a program inside plash is not a security
feature. Running any container software introduces more entities to trust, that
is the root file system image with its additional linux distribution and its
own package manager. Using a program from alpine edge could be considered less
secure than a package from debian stable or vice versa. Also note that keeping
containers updated is more difficult than keeping "normal" system software
updated. Furthermore note that programs could be not used to run inside
semi-isolated containers and behave oddly. Plash uses unmodified lxc images and
checks their signatures with gpgv (if in PATH). Using plash as root should be
avoided and should not be necessary for most use cases.  Until now plash was
written by one person and of course I could be wrong about something. But
generally speaking it really should be good enough.