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IIAB Networking

Anish Mangal edited this page Mar 13, 2019 · 67 revisions

Internet-in-a-Box (IIAB) Networking

IIAB has three possible modes of operation:

  • Appliance - allows your server to behave like any other computer in the network, exposing the configured services. Can have a single network interface (we refer to this as the 'WAN', whether or not it can reach the Internet).
  • Gateway - allows for creating a local area network, including dhcpd, content filtering using Squid, DansGuardian and traffic shaping. Requires two or more network interfaces ('WAN' side and 'LAN' side).
  • LAN Controller - allows for creating a local area network, only configures DNS and dhcpd services. Can have a single network interface (we refer to this as the 'LAN').

The install by default finds the WAN device, defaulting to the "Appliance" mode. The install will try to find other devices for use with the LAN and if found defaults to "Gateway" mode. You need to make some adjustments to be able to use "LAN Controller" as it will use all available network interfaces.

IP Addresses

The IP address of the WAN device will normally be assigned by whatever device manages your network, though it is possible to set a fixed address. The LAN in both Gateway and LAN Controller modes is a bridge with one or more devices and always has the IP address 172.18.96.1, a legacy of the practice established by OLPC. Remember, as some are confused by this, that 172.18.96.1 (AKA box.lan, or simply box) is not visible on the WAN, but only on the LAN, and will be used by all devices in the bridge whether wireless or wired.

List of open ports / services

Many of the port numbers below can be changed when installing IIAB. If you need to do this, look over the default ports in default_vars.yml, and then override those that are necessary within /etc/iiab/local_vars.yml

IIAB's firewall (iptables) opens most but not all of these ports on the WAN side, when services_externally_visible: True which is the default. Regardless, these ports are generally open on the LAN side.

If necessary, you can modify the iiab-gen-iptables command (part of Ansible's network role, which can be run with "cd /opt/iiab/iiab" and then either "./runrole network" or "./iiab-network").

Protocol Port Service
TCP 22 sshd
TCP 80 web server
TCP 631 cups (printing)
TCP 873 xinetd (xs-rsync, for legacy XOs)
TCP 1880 nodered
TCP 1883 mosquitto
TCP 3000 kiwix-serve
TCP 3128 squid / dansguardian
TCP 3130 squid
TCP 4369, 5222, 5223, 5280, 47893 ejabberd OR ejabberd-xs
TCP 5060, 5160, 5161, 10000-20000 pbx (Asterisk & FreePBX)
UDP 5353 avahi, mDNS, bonjour
TCP 8006 kalite-serve-fr
TCP 8007 kalite-serve-es
TCP 8008 kalite-serve (English & others)
TCP 8009 kolibri
TCP 8010 calibre-serve (if avoiding idmgr/8080)
TCP 8080 calibre-serve OR idmgr (for legacy XOs)
TCP 8083 calibre-web
TCP 8089 sugarizer
TCP 9091, 51413 transmission (BitTorrent downloader)
TCP 27018 mongodb (if used by Sugarizer)
UDP 30000 minetest (open source Minecraft clone)

DNS

DNS (name resolution) for LAN clients is generally provided by the dnsmasq service, unless you override that in favor of named (BIND) in /etc/iiab/local_vars.yml

However some Linux distributions do not function well with dnsmasq's default service. Several of these systemd unit files have a timing problem. As a result, IIAB uses the iiab-dnsmasq service instead — to start dnsmasq at the correct time during boot. IIAB disables the OS's stock dnsmasq unit file across all distros to be safe.

Finally after your IIAB install is complete, you can monitor dnsmasq as follows:

systemctl status dnsmasq

CLARIFICATION:

  1. dnsmasq is disabled when IIAB is in Appliance mode.
  2. dnsmasq provides both DHCP and DNS server functionality when IIAB isn't in Appliance mode.

NOTE: While LAN clients use dnsmasq, IIAB boxes use one of the following to get their own DNS from upstream:

systemctl status dhcpcd              # e.g. on Raspbian
systemctl status systemd-networkd    # e.g. on Debian 9 Stretch
systemctl status systemd-resolved    # e.g. on Debian 10 Buster, Ubuntu 18.04 (see also netplan.io, replacing ifupdown)

Common Customizations

(1) If your IIAB (Internet-in-a-Box) contains multiple Wi-Fi interfaces, put the following into /etc/iiab/local_vars.yml to ask IIAB not to use the wlan0 interface:

  • reserved_wifi: wlan0

If "./iiab-install" has already completed, just run the following commands to (re)configure networking:

cd /opt/iiab/iiab/
./iiab-network     (or "./runrole network")

Context: IIAB code defaults to the highest numbered when setting up a Wi-Fi hotspot, e.g. IIAB would normally use wlan1 anyway, if it found both {wlan0, wlan1}. So in this case "reserved_wifi: wlan0" just avoids ambiguity, explicitly confirming that wlan0 should remain unused by IIAB. More details at: #531

(2) Many of us edit /etc/iiab/local_vars.yml so it contains the following 2 lines:

  • services_externally_visible: True     (Opens ports over WAN/Ethernet for kiwix-serve [3000], KA Lite [8008] and calibre-server [8010 or 8080] as campuses/SOHO/families often need. See the "services_externally_visible" section of xs-gen-iptables if more ports are needed.)
  • iiab_gateway_enabled: False     (Blocks all users connecting over LAN/Wi-Fi from reaching the Internet, while still permitting them access to local content)

Note both above became defaults in mid-2017. If making changes to /etc/iiab/local_vars.yml, remember the general rule is to then run "cd /opt/iiab/iiab" followed by "./iiab-install --reinstall" (formerly "./runansible") — which can take one or more hours on Raspberry Pi 3 — if this is your 1st time running the (Ansible-based) install process.

Or, the essential 1+6 "post-install" roles of Ansible's 9 overall roles can be run far faster from Admin Console (http://box/admin) -> Configure menu -> Install Configured Options button. Then monitor the progress (~20 min on RPi3) in Utilities menu -> Display Job Status. This is very similar to "./iiab-install --debug".

Read more about local_vars.yml within IIAB Architecture and our Frequently Asked Questions under "What is local_vars.yml and how do I customize it?"

Please also read "Any other networking tips?" within FAQ.IIAB.IO

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