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  • Generate H.264/AAC encoded MPEG-TS file from Raspberry Pi Camera (v1/v2) and optionally USB microphone or Wolfson Audio Card
  • Generate HTTP Live Streaming files with optional encryption
  • Add timestamp
  • Display Unicode text with arbitrary font

Performance (Latency)

Time from real motion to playback on Strobe Media Player over RTMP:

Video bitrate Minimum latency
300 Kbps 0.3 sec
500 Kbps 0.6 sec
1 Mbps 0.8 sec
2 Mbps 1.0 sec
3 Mbps 1.3 sec

In HTTP Live Streaming (HLS), the latency will never go below 3-4 seconds. This limitation stems from the design of HLS.

The above results were tested with:

  • Video: 1280x720, 30 fps, GOP size 30
  • Audio: 48 Khz mono, 40 Kbps
  • RTMP Server: node-rtsp-rtmp-server
  • Client: Flash Player 14,0,0,145 on Firefox 31.0 for Mac, using test/strobe_media_playback.html
  • Network: Wi-Fi network created by a USB dongle attached to Raspberry Pi

Required hardware

  • Raspberry Pi
  • Raspberry Pi Camera Board v1 or v2
  • (optionally) USB microphone or Wolfson Audio Card

Supported operating systems

  • Raspbian
  • Arch Linux


Binary release is available at

Also, out-of-the-box SD card image for live streaming (picam + Raspbian + live streaming server) is available at

If you want to build picam yourself, see

Using a binary release

The fastest way to use picam is to use a binary release. To set up and use it, run the following commands on your Raspberry Pi (Raspbian). It will set up picam in ~/picam/.

# If you have not enabled camera, enable it with raspi-config then reboot
sudo raspi-config

# Install dependencies
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install libharfbuzz0b libfontconfig1

# Create directories and symbolic links
cat > <<'EOF'

mkdir -p $SHM_DIR/rec
mkdir -p $SHM_DIR/hooks
mkdir -p $SHM_DIR/state
mkdir -p $DEST_DIR/archive

ln -sfn $DEST_DIR/archive $SHM_DIR/rec/archive
ln -sfn $SHM_DIR/rec $DEST_DIR/rec
ln -sfn $SHM_DIR/hooks $DEST_DIR/hooks
ln -sfn $SHM_DIR/state $DEST_DIR/state

chmod +x

# Optionally, increase microphone volume with alsamixer

# Install picam binary
tar xvf picam-1.4.11-binary.tar.xz
cp picam-1.4.11-binary/picam ~/picam/

# Run picam
cd ~/picam
./picam --alsadev hw:1,0


For High Quality Camera users

Please make sure that at least 160 MB is assigned to GPU.

Create symbolic links (optional, but strongly recommended)

You can take advantage of RAM drive (/run/shm/) and reduce access to SD card. It also provides better quality of recording.

First, stop picam if it is running. Create rec, hooks, and state directories in /run/shm/, then change directories with the same name in picam to symbolic links. Create another symbolic link from /run/shm/rec/archive to somewhere on SD card.


| ...
|-- archive
|-- hooks -> /run/shm/hooks
|-- rec -> /run/shm/rec
`-- state -> /run/shm/state

|-- hooks
|-- rec
|   |-- archive -> /home/pi/picam/archive
|   `-- tmp (automatically created by picam)
`-- state

Finding ALSA device name

First, find ALSA device name of your microphone.

$ arecord -l
**** List of CAPTURE Hardware Devices ****
card 1: Device [USB PnP Sound Device], device 0: USB Audio [USB Audio]
  Subdevices: 1/1
  Subdevice #0: subdevice #0

ALSA device name is consisted of hw:<card>,<device>. In the above example, the ALSA device name is hw:1,0.

If you got no soundcards found error, try sudo arecord -l. If that output looks good, you might want to add your user to audio group.

$ sudo usermod -a -G audio $USER
(once logout, then login)
$ groups
wheel audio pi  <-- (make sure that 'audio' is in the list)
$ arecord -l
**** List of CAPTURE Hardware Devices ****
card 1: Device [USB PnP Sound Device], device 0: USB Audio [USB Audio]
  Subdevices: 1/1
  Subdevice #0: subdevice #0

Starting picam

Run picam with your ALSA device name.

$ ./picam --alsadev hw:1,0
configuring devices
capturing started


To start recording, create a file named hooks/start_record while picam command is running.

$ touch hooks/start_record

You will see smth like disk_usage=23% start rec to rec/archive/2017-08-05_16-41-52.ts in the picam command output.

To stop recording, create a file named hooks/stop_record.

$ touch hooks/stop_record

You will see stop rec in the picam command output.

The recorded MPEG-TS file is in rec/archive/ directory.

To convert MPEG-TS to MP4, run:

ffmpeg -i test.ts -c:v copy -c:a copy -bsf:a aac_adtstoasc test.mp4
# or
avconv -i test.ts -c:v copy -c:a copy -bsf:a aac_adtstoasc test.mp4


To mute microphone temporarily, create a file named hooks/mute.

$ touch hooks/mute

To unmute microphone, create a file named hooks/unmute.

$ touch hooks/unmute

Command options

picam version 1.4.11
Usage: picam [options]

  -w, --width <num>   Width in pixels (default: 1280)
  -h, --height <num>  Height in pixels (default: 720)
  -v, --videobitrate <num>  Video bit rate (default: 2000000)
                      Set 0 to disable rate control
  -f, --fps <num>     Frame rate (default: 30.0)
  -g, --gopsize <num>  GOP size (default: same value as fps)
  --vfr               Enable variable frame rate. GOP size will be
                      dynamically controlled.
  --minfps <num>      Minimum frames per second. Implies --vfr.
                      It might not work if width / height >= 1.45.
  --maxfps <num>      Maximum frames per second. Implies --vfr.
                      It might not work if width / height >= 1.45.
  --rotation <num>    Image rotation in clockwise degrees
                      (0, 90, 180, 270)
  --hflip             Flip image horizontally
  --vflip             Flip image vertically
  --avcprofile <str>  Set AVC/H.264 profile to one of:
                      (default: constrained_baseline)
  --avclevel <value>  Set AVC/H.264 level (default: 3.1)
  --qpmin <num>       Minimum quantization level (0..51)
  --qpmax <num>       Maximum quantization level (0..51)
  --qpinit <num>      Initial quantization level
  --dquant <num>      Slice DQuant level
  -c, --channels <num>  Audio channels (1=mono, 2=stereo)
                      Default is mono. If it fails, stereo is used.
  -r, --samplerate <num>  Audio sample rate (default: 48000)
  -a, --audiobitrate <num>  Audio bit rate (default: 40000)
  --alsadev <dev>     ALSA microphone device (default: hw:0,0)
  --volume <num>      Amplify audio by multiplying the volume by <num>
                      (default: 1.0)
  --noaudio           Disable audio capturing
  --audiopreview      Enable audio preview
  --audiopreviewdev <dev>  Audio preview output device (default: plughw:0,0)
 [HTTP Live Streaming (HLS)]
  -o, --hlsdir <dir>  Generate HTTP Live Streaming files in <dir>
  --hlsnumberofsegments <num>  Set the number of segments in the m3u8 playlist (default: 3)
  --hlskeyframespersegment <num>  Set the number of keyframes per video segment (default: 1)
  --hlsenc            Enable HLS encryption
  --hlsenckeyuri <uri>  Set HLS encryption key URI (default: stream.key)
  --hlsenckey <hex>   Set HLS encryption key in hex string
                      (default: 75b0a81de17487c88a47507a7e1fdf73)
  --hlsenciv <hex>    Set HLS encryption IV in hex string
                      (default: 000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f)
 [output for node-rtsp-rtmp-server]
  --rtspout           Enable output for node-rtsp-rtmp-server
  --rtspvideocontrol <path>  Set video control socket path
                      (default: /tmp/node_rtsp_rtmp_videoControl)
  --rtspaudiocontrol <path>  Set audio control socket path
                      (default: /tmp/node_rtsp_rtmp_audioControl)
  --rtspvideodata <path>  Set video data socket path
                      (default: /tmp/node_rtsp_rtmp_videoData)
  --rtspaudiodata <path>  Set audio data socket path
                      (default: /tmp/node_rtsp_rtmp_audioData)
 [MPEG-TS output via TCP]
  --tcpout <url>      Enable TCP output to <url>
                      (e.g. --tcpout tcp://
  --autoex            Enable automatic control of camera exposure between
                      daylight and night modes. This forces --vfr enabled.
  --autoexthreshold <num>  When average value of Y (brightness) for
                      10 milliseconds of captured image falls below <num>,
                      camera exposure will change to night mode. Otherwise
                      camera exposure is in daylight mode. Implies --autoex.
                      (default: 5.0)
                      If --verbose option is enabled as well, average value of
                      Y is printed like y=28.0.
  --ex <value>        Set camera exposure. Implies --vfr. <value> is one of:
                        off auto night nightpreview backlight spotlight sports
                        snow beach verylong fixedfps antishake fireworks
                        largeaperture smallaperture
  --wb <value>        Set white balance. <value> is one of:
                        off: Disable white balance control
                        auto: Automatic white balance control (default)
                        sun: The sun provides the light source
                        cloudy: The sun provides the light source through clouds
                        shade: Light source is the sun and scene is in the shade
                        tungsten: Light source is tungsten
                        fluorescent: Light source is fluorescent
                        incandescent: Light source is incandescent
                        flash: Light source is a flash
                        horizon: Light source is the sun on the horizon
                        greyworld: AWB for NoIR camera
  --wbred <num>       Red gain. Implies "--wb off". (0.0 .. 8.0)
  --wbblue <num>      Blue gain. Implies "--wb off". (0.0 .. 8.0)
  --metering <value>  Set metering type. <value> is one of:
                        average: Center weight average metering (default)
                        spot: Spot (partial) metering
                        matrix: Matrix or evaluative metering
                        backlit: Assume a backlit image
  --evcomp <num>      Set Exposure Value compensation (-24..24) (default: 0)
  --shutter <num>     Set shutter speed in microseconds (default: auto).
                      Implies --vfr.
  --iso <num>         Set ISO sensitivity (100..800) (default: auto)
  --roi <x,y,w,h>     Set region of interest (crop rect) in ratio (0.0-1.0)
                      (default: 0,0,1,1)
  -p, --preview       Display fullscreen preview
  --previewrect <x,y,width,height>
                      Display preview window at specified position
  --opacity           Preview window opacity
                      (0=transparent..255=opaque; default=255)
  --blank[=0xAARRGGBB]  Set the video background color to black (or optional ARGB value)
  --query             Query camera capabilities then exit
  --mode             Specify the camera sensor mode (values depend on the camera hardware)
 [timestamp] (may be a bit heavy on Raspberry Pi 1)
  --time              Enable timestamp
  --timeformat <spec>  Timestamp format (see "man strftime" for spec)
                       (default: "%a %b %d %l:%M:%S %p")
  --timelayout <spec>  Timestamp position (relative mode)
                       layout is comma-separated list of:
                        top middle bottom  left center right
                       (default: bottom,right)
  --timehorizmargin <px>  Horizontal margin from edge (default: 10).
                          Effective only if --timelayout is used.
  --timevertmargin <px>  Vertical margin from edge (default: 10).
                         Effective only if --timelayout is used.
  --timepos <x,y>     Timestamp position (absolute mode)
  --timefontname <name>  Timestamp font name (default: FreeMono:style=Bold)
  --timefontfile <file>  Timestamp font file. This invalidates --timefontname.
  --timefontface <num>  Timestamp font face index (default: 0).
                        Effective only if --timefontfile is used.
  --timept <pt>       Text size in points (default: 14.0)
  --timedpi <num>     DPI for calculating text size (default: 96)
  --timecolor <hex>   Text color (default: ffffff)
  --timestrokecolor <hex>  Text stroke color (default: 000000)
                      Note that texts are rendered in grayscale.
  --timestrokewidth <pt>  Text stroke border radius (default: 1.3).
                          To disable stroking borders, set this value to 0.
  --timespacing <px>  Additional letter spacing (default: 0)
  --recordbuf <num>   Start recording from <num> keyframes ago
                      (must be >= 1; default: 5)
  --statedir <dir>    Set state dir (default: state)
  --hooksdir <dir>    Set hooks dir (default: hooks)
  -q, --quiet         Suppress all output except errors
  --verbose           Enable verbose output
  --version           Print program version
  --help              Print this help

White balance

Camera white balance can be set either via command line option (e.g. --wb sun) or hooks. To change the white balance while picam is running, create hooks/wb_<value>, where <value> is the name of white balance.

For example, the following command will dynamically change the white balance to sun.

$ touch hooks/wb_sun

Available white balance modes are: off, auto, sun, cloudy, shade, tungsten, fluorescent, incandescent, flash, and horizon.

Exposure Control

Camera exposure control can be set either via command line option (e.g. --ex night) or hooks. To change the exposure control while picam is running, start picam with --vfr or --ex option, then create hooks/ex_<value>, where <value> is the name of exposure control.

For example, the following command will dynamically change the exposure control to night.

$ touch hooks/ex_night

For the list of available exposure control values, see picam --help.

Value Description
off Disable exposure control
auto Automatic exposure
night Exposure at night
nightpreview Shorter exposure than night
backlight Exposure with backlight illuminating the subject
spotlight Exposure with a spotlight illuminating the subject
sports Exposure for sports
snow Exposure for the subject in snow
beach Exposure for the subject at a beach
verylong Long exposure
fixedfps Constrain FPS to a fixed value
antishake Antishake mode
fireworks Optimized for fireworks
largeaperture Exposure when using a large aperture on the camera
smallaperture Exposure when using a small aperture on the camera


recordbuf is a parameter which controls how many past keyframes should be included at the start of a recording. For example, recordbuf=1 means that a recording will start from the last keyframe, and recordbuf=2 means that a recording will start from the second last keyframe relative to when hooks/start_record is created. The minimum value of recordbuf is 1.

Global and per-recording recordbuf

Added in version 1.4.0

There are two types of recordbuf; global and per-recording. Global recordbuf is the default value for all recordings. Per-recording recordbuf only applies to the current recording. Per-recording recordbuf must be less than or equal to global recordbuf.

Setting global recordbuf

Global recordbuf can be specified by either --recordbuf option or hooks/set_recordbuf.

# Set global recordbuf to 30
echo 30 > hooks/set_recordbuf
Setting per-recording recordbuf

Per-recording recordbuf has a default value which is the same value as global recordbuf. Per-recording recordbuf can be specified via hooks/start_record.

# Start recording with per-recording recordbuf set to 2
$ echo recordbuf=2 > hooks/start_record

Overlaying text (subtitle)

Added in version 1.4.0

picam can display text with correct ligatures and kerning, with a font of your choice. To display a text, create hooks/subtitle.

$ echo 'text=Houston, we have a problem' > hooks/subtitle

Subtitle example image

Each line of hooks/subtitle must be in the format of key=value. Lines starting with # will be ignored. Supported keys are:

Key Description Default value
text UTF-8 encoded text. \n will be treated as a line break. (none)
font_name Font name which can be recognized by Fontconfig sans
font_file Path to font file. If this is specified, font_name will not be used. (none)
face_index Font face index. Effective only if font_file is specified. 0
pt Text size in points 28.0
dpi DPI for calculating text size 96
duration Number of seconds the text appears on the screen. If this is set to 0, the text will be displayed indefinitely. 7.0
layout_align Layout alignment of the text box on the screen. Comma-separated list of: top middle bottom left center right bottom,center
horizontal_margin Horizontal margin from the nearest edge in pixels. Does nothing when pos is specified or layout_align has "center". 0
vertical_margin Vertical margin from the nearest edge in pixels. Does nothing when pos is specified or layout_align has "middle". 35
pos Absolute position of the text box on the screen. This invalidates layout_align settings. (none)
text_align Text alignment inside the positioned box (left, center, right) center
line_height Line spacing is multiplied by this number 1.0
tab_scale Tab width is multiplied by this number 1.0
letter_spacing Additional letter spacing in pixels 0
color Text color in hex color code. Rendered in grayscale. ffffff
stroke_color Text stroke (outline) color in hex color code. Rendered in grayscale. 000000
stroke_width Text stroke (outline) border radius in points 1.0
in_preview Visibility of the text in the preview 1
in_video Visibility of the text in the encoded video 1

NOTE: On the first generation models of Raspberry Pi (before Pi 2), subtitles cause CPU usage high and the video frame rate may drop below 30 fps.

$ cat example1
text=What goes up\nmust come down\nfinally floor AV Wa
$ cat example1 > hooks/subtitle

Subtitle example 1

$ cat example2
$ cat example2 > hooks/subtitle

Subtitle example 2

$ cat example3
$ cat example3 > hooks/subtitle

Subtitle example 3

$ cat example4
$ cat example4 > hooks/subtitle

Subtitle example 4

Changing the filename for recording

Added in version 1.4.0

To change the directory and/or filename for the recorded file, specify dir and/or filename parameters in hooks/start_record.

# Start recording to /tmp/myout.ts
$ echo -e "dir=/tmp\nfilename=myout.ts" > hooks/start_record

Determine the length of a recorded file

Added in version 1.4.0

The file state/recorded_filename has some info about the recording.

$ cat state/2015-11-19_01-18-09.ts

You can remove state/*.ts files if you do not need them.

HTTP Live Streaming (HLS)

HTTP Live Streaming is disabled by default. To enable HTTP Live Streaming and generate files in /run/shm/hls, run:

$ ./picam -o /run/shm/hls

Serving HLS

Set up nginx (ignore "Additional - Install PHP" step), then open /etc/nginx/sites-available/default with a text editor and add the following code inside server { ... } block.

	location /hls/ {
		root /run/shm;

Restart the nginx server with sudo service nginx restart then run picam with -o /run/shm/hls option. The HLS will be available at http://YOUR-PI-IP/hls/index.m3u8

Enabling encryption

Optionally you can enable encryption for HTTP Live Streaming. We will use the following settings as an example.

  • HTTP Live Streaming output directory: /run/shm/hls/
  • Encryption key: 0xf0f1f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9fafbfcfdfeff
  • Encryption IV: 0x000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f
  • Encryption key file: enc.key

First you have to create a file named enc.key which contains 16-byte encryption key. To create such file, run:

$ echo -n $'\xf0\xf1\xf2\xf3\xf4\xf5\xf6\xf7\xf8\xf9\xfa\xfb\xfc\xfd\xfe\xff' > enc.key

Put enc.key in /run/shm/hls/ directory. Then, run picam with the following options:

$ ./picam -o /run/shm/hls --hlsenc --hlsenckeyuri enc.key \
  --hlsenckey f0f1f2f3f4f5f6f7f8f9fafbfcfdfeff \
  --hlsenciv 000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f

You can watch the HTTP Live Streaming by accessing /run/shm/hls/index.m3u8 via HTTP or HTTPS with QuickTime Player.

Using picam in combination with nginx-rtmp-module

To use picam with nginx-rtmp-module, add the following lines to nginx.conf:

rtmp {
    server {
        listen 1935;
        chunk_size 4000;
        application webcam {
            live on;

            exec_static /path/to/ffmpeg -i tcp://
                                        -c:v copy -ar 44100 -ab 40000
                                        -f flv rtmp://localhost:1935/webcam/mystream;

Note that /path/to/ffmpeg should be replaced with the actual absolute path to ffmpeg command.

Start nginx server, then run:

$ ./picam --tcpout tcp://

You can access your live stream at rtmp://YOUR_RASPBERRYPI_IP/webcam/mystream.

Publishing to Ustream

To upload streams from picam to Ustream, run ffmpeg with the following options. RTMP_URL and STREAM_KEY can be obtained from Ustream's Channel settings → Broadcast settings → Encoder settings.

$ ffmpeg -i tcp:// -c:v copy -c:a aac -strict -2 -ar 44100 -ab 40000 -f flv RTMP_URL/STREAM_KEY

Encoder settings on Ustream

Then, run picam to start streaming.

$ picam --tcpout tcp://

Recommended hardware

USB microphone

Any cheap USB microphone should work as long as it is supported by ALSA. I have tested this program with the combination of:


LGPL v2.1, as some parts of FFmpeg source is included.



Audio/video recorder for Raspberry Pi with language agnostic API







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