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import collections
import re
import sys
import warnings
from bs4.dammit import EntitySubstitution
PY3K = (sys.version_info[0] > 2)
whitespace_re = re.compile("\s+")
def _alias(attr):
"""Alias one attribute name to another for backward compatibility"""
def alias(self):
return getattr(self, attr)
def alias(self):
return setattr(self, attr)
return alias
class NamespacedAttribute(str):
def __new__(cls, prefix, name, namespace=None):
if name is None:
obj = str.__new__(cls, prefix)
obj = str.__new__(cls, prefix + ":" + name)
obj.prefix = prefix = name
obj.namespace = namespace
return obj
class AttributeValueWithCharsetSubstitution(str):
"""A stand-in object for a character encoding specified in HTML."""
class CharsetMetaAttributeValue(AttributeValueWithCharsetSubstitution):
"""A generic stand-in for the value of a meta tag's 'charset' attribute.
When Beautiful Soup parses the markup '<meta charset="utf8">', the
value of the 'charset' attribute will be one of these objects.
def __new__(cls, original_value):
obj = str.__new__(cls, original_value)
obj.original_value = original_value
return obj
def encode(self, encoding):
return encoding
class ContentMetaAttributeValue(AttributeValueWithCharsetSubstitution):
"""A generic stand-in for the value of a meta tag's 'content' attribute.
When Beautiful Soup parses the markup:
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf8">
The value of the 'content' attribute will be one of these objects.
CHARSET_RE = re.compile("((^|;)\s*charset=)([^;]*)", re.M)
def __new__(cls, original_value):
match =
if match is None:
# No substitution necessary.
return str.__new__(str, original_value)
obj = str.__new__(cls, original_value)
obj.original_value = original_value
return obj
def encode(self, encoding):
def rewrite(match):
return + encoding
return self.CHARSET_RE.sub(rewrite, self.original_value)
class PageElement(object):
"""Contains the navigational information for some part of the page
(either a tag or a piece of text)"""
# There are five possible values for the "formatter" argument passed in
# to methods like encode() and prettify():
# "html" - All Unicode characters with corresponding HTML entities
# are converted to those entities on output.
# "minimal" - Bare ampersands and angle brackets are converted to
# XML entities: &amp; &lt; &gt;
# None - The null formatter. Unicode characters are never
# converted to entities. This is not recommended, but it's
# faster than "minimal".
# A function - This function will be called on every string that
# needs to undergo entity substition
"html" : EntitySubstitution.substitute_html,
"minimal" : EntitySubstitution.substitute_xml,
None : None
def format_string(self, s, formatter='minimal'):
"""Format the given string using the given formatter."""
if not isinstance(formatter, collections.Callable):
formatter = self.FORMATTERS.get(
formatter, EntitySubstitution.substitute_xml)
if formatter is None:
output = s
output = formatter(s)
return output
def setup(self, parent=None, previous_element=None):
"""Sets up the initial relations between this element and
other elements."""
self.parent = parent
self.previous_element = previous_element
if previous_element is not None:
self.previous_element.next_element = self
self.next_element = None
self.previous_sibling = None
self.next_sibling = None
if self.parent is not None and self.parent.contents:
self.previous_sibling = self.parent.contents[-1]
self.previous_sibling.next_sibling = self
nextSibling = _alias("next_sibling") # BS3
previousSibling = _alias("previous_sibling") # BS3
def replace_with(self, replace_with):
if replace_with is self:
if replace_with is self.parent:
raise ValueError("Cannot replace a Tag with its parent.")
old_parent = self.parent
my_index = self.parent.index(self)
old_parent.insert(my_index, replace_with)
return self
replaceWith = replace_with # BS3
def unwrap(self):
my_parent = self.parent
my_index = self.parent.index(self)
for child in reversed(self.contents[:]):
my_parent.insert(my_index, child)
return self
replace_with_children = unwrap
replaceWithChildren = unwrap # BS3
def wrap(self, wrap_inside):
me = self.replace_with(wrap_inside)
return wrap_inside
def extract(self):
"""Destructively rips this element out of the tree."""
if self.parent is not None:
del self.parent.contents[self.parent.index(self)]
#Find the two elements that would be next to each other if
#this element (and any children) hadn't been parsed. Connect
#the two.
last_child = self._last_descendant()
next_element = last_child.next_element
if self.previous_element is not None:
self.previous_element.next_element = next_element
if next_element is not None:
next_element.previous_element = self.previous_element
self.previous_element = None
last_child.next_element = None
self.parent = None
if self.previous_sibling is not None:
self.previous_sibling.next_sibling = self.next_sibling
if self.next_sibling is not None:
self.next_sibling.previous_sibling = self.previous_sibling
self.previous_sibling = self.next_sibling = None
return self
def _last_descendant(self):
"Finds the last element beneath this object to be parsed."
last_child = self
while hasattr(last_child, 'contents') and last_child.contents:
last_child = last_child.contents[-1]
return last_child
# BS3: Not part of the API!
_lastRecursiveChild = _last_descendant
def insert(self, position, new_child):
if new_child is self:
raise ValueError("Cannot insert a tag into itself.")
if (isinstance(new_child, str)
and not isinstance(new_child, NavigableString)):
new_child = NavigableString(new_child)
position = min(position, len(self.contents))
if hasattr(new_child, 'parent') and new_child.parent is not None:
# We're 'inserting' an element that's already one
# of this object's children.
if new_child.parent is self:
current_index = self.index(new_child)
if current_index < position:
# We're moving this element further down the list
# of this object's children. That means that when
# we extract this element, our target index will
# jump down one.
position -= 1
new_child.parent = self
previous_child = None
if position == 0:
new_child.previous_sibling = None
new_child.previous_element = self
previous_child = self.contents[position - 1]
new_child.previous_sibling = previous_child
new_child.previous_sibling.next_sibling = new_child
new_child.previous_element = previous_child._last_descendant()
if new_child.previous_element is not None:
new_child.previous_element.next_element = new_child
new_childs_last_element = new_child._last_descendant()
if position >= len(self.contents):
new_child.next_sibling = None
parent = self
parents_next_sibling = None
while parents_next_sibling is None and parent is not None:
parents_next_sibling = parent.next_sibling
parent = parent.parent
if parents_next_sibling is not None:
# We found the element that comes next in the document.
if parents_next_sibling is not None:
new_childs_last_element.next_element = parents_next_sibling
# The last element of this tag is the last element in
# the document.
new_childs_last_element.next_element = None
next_child = self.contents[position]
new_child.next_sibling = next_child
if new_child.next_sibling is not None:
new_child.next_sibling.previous_sibling = new_child
new_childs_last_element.next_element = next_child
if new_childs_last_element.next_element is not None:
new_childs_last_element.next_element.previous_element = new_childs_last_element
self.contents.insert(position, new_child)
def append(self, tag):
"""Appends the given tag to the contents of this tag."""
self.insert(len(self.contents), tag)
def insert_before(self, predecessor):
"""Makes the given element the immediate predecessor of this one.
The two elements will have the same parent, and the given element
will be immediately before this one.
if self is predecessor:
raise ValueError("Can't insert an element before itself.")
parent = self.parent
if parent is None:
raise ValueError(
"Element has no parent, so 'before' has no meaning.")
# Extract first so that the index won't be screwed up if they
# are siblings.
if isinstance(predecessor, PageElement):
index = parent.index(self)
parent.insert(index, predecessor)
def insert_after(self, successor):
"""Makes the given element the immediate successor of this one.
The two elements will have the same parent, and the given element
will be immediately after this one.
if self is successor:
raise ValueError("Can't insert an element after itself.")
parent = self.parent
if parent is None:
raise ValueError(
"Element has no parent, so 'after' has no meaning.")
# Extract first so that the index won't be screwed up if they
# are siblings.
if isinstance(successor, PageElement):
index = parent.index(self)
parent.insert(index+1, successor)
def find_next(self, name=None, attrs={}, text=None, **kwargs):
"""Returns the first item that matches the given criteria and
appears after this Tag in the document."""
return self._find_one(self.find_all_next, name, attrs, text, **kwargs)
findNext = find_next # BS3
def find_all_next(self, name=None, attrs={}, text=None, limit=None,
"""Returns all items that match the given criteria and appear
after this Tag in the document."""
return self._find_all(name, attrs, text, limit, self.next_elements,
findAllNext = find_all_next # BS3
def find_next_sibling(self, name=None, attrs={}, text=None, **kwargs):
"""Returns the closest sibling to this Tag that matches the
given criteria and appears after this Tag in the document."""
return self._find_one(self.find_next_siblings, name, attrs, text,
findNextSibling = find_next_sibling # BS3
def find_next_siblings(self, name=None, attrs={}, text=None, limit=None,
"""Returns the siblings of this Tag that match the given
criteria and appear after this Tag in the document."""
return self._find_all(name, attrs, text, limit,
self.next_siblings, **kwargs)
findNextSiblings = find_next_siblings # BS3
fetchNextSiblings = find_next_siblings # BS2
def find_previous(self, name=None, attrs={}, text=None, **kwargs):
"""Returns the first item that matches the given criteria and
appears before this Tag in the document."""
return self._find_one(
self.find_all_previous, name, attrs, text, **kwargs)
findPrevious = find_previous # BS3
def find_all_previous(self, name=None, attrs={}, text=None, limit=None,
"""Returns all items that match the given criteria and appear
before this Tag in the document."""
return self._find_all(name, attrs, text, limit, self.previous_elements,
findAllPrevious = find_all_previous # BS3
fetchPrevious = find_all_previous # BS2
def find_previous_sibling(self, name=None, attrs={}, text=None, **kwargs):
"""Returns the closest sibling to this Tag that matches the
given criteria and appears before this Tag in the document."""
return self._find_one(self.find_previous_siblings, name, attrs, text,
findPreviousSibling = find_previous_sibling # BS3
def find_previous_siblings(self, name=None, attrs={}, text=None,
limit=None, **kwargs):
"""Returns the siblings of this Tag that match the given
criteria and appear before this Tag in the document."""
return self._find_all(name, attrs, text, limit,
self.previous_siblings, **kwargs)
findPreviousSiblings = find_previous_siblings # BS3
fetchPreviousSiblings = find_previous_siblings # BS2
def find_parent(self, name=None, attrs={}, **kwargs):
"""Returns the closest parent of this Tag that matches the given
# NOTE: We can't use _find_one because findParents takes a different
# set of arguments.
r = None
l = self.find_parents(name, attrs, 1)
if l:
r = l[0]
return r
findParent = find_parent # BS3
def find_parents(self, name=None, attrs={}, limit=None, **kwargs):
"""Returns the parents of this Tag that match the given
return self._find_all(name, attrs, None, limit, self.parents,
findParents = find_parents # BS3
fetchParents = find_parents # BS2
def next(self):
return self.next_element
def previous(self):
return self.previous_element
#These methods do the real heavy lifting.
def _find_one(self, method, name, attrs, text, **kwargs):
r = None
l = method(name, attrs, text, 1, **kwargs)
if l:
r = l[0]
return r
def _find_all(self, name, attrs, text, limit, generator, **kwargs):
"Iterates over a generator looking for things that match."
if isinstance(name, SoupStrainer):
strainer = name
elif text is None and not limit and not attrs and not kwargs:
# Optimization to find all tags.
if name is True or name is None:
return [element for element in generator
if isinstance(element, Tag)]
# Optimization to find all tags with a given name.
elif isinstance(name, str):
return [element for element in generator
if isinstance(element, Tag) and == name]
strainer = SoupStrainer(name, attrs, text, **kwargs)
# Build a SoupStrainer
strainer = SoupStrainer(name, attrs, text, **kwargs)
results = ResultSet(strainer)
while True:
i = next(generator)
except StopIteration:
if i:
found =
if found:
if limit and len(results) >= limit:
return results
#These generators can be used to navigate starting from both
#NavigableStrings and Tags.
def next_elements(self):
i = self.next_element
while i is not None:
yield i
i = i.next_element
def next_siblings(self):
i = self.next_sibling
while i is not None:
yield i
i = i.next_sibling
def previous_elements(self):
i = self.previous_element
while i is not None:
yield i
i = i.previous_element
def previous_siblings(self):
i = self.previous_sibling
while i is not None:
yield i
i = i.previous_sibling
def parents(self):
i = self.parent
while i is not None:
yield i
i = i.parent
# Methods for supporting CSS selectors.
tag_name_re = re.compile('^[a-z0-9]+$')
# /^(\w+)\[(\w+)([=~\|\^\$\*]?)=?"?([^\]"]*)"?\]$/
# \---/ \---/\-------------/ \-------/
# | | | |
# | | | The value
# | | ~,|,^,$,* or =
# | Attribute
# Tag
attribselect_re = re.compile(
r'^(?P<tag>\w+)?\[(?P<attribute>\w+)(?P<operator>[=~\|\^\$\*]?)' +
def _attr_value_as_string(self, value, default=None):
"""Force an attribute value into a string representation.
A multi-valued attribute will be converted into a
space-separated stirng.
value = self.get(value, default)
if isinstance(value, list) or isinstance(value, tuple):
value =" ".join(value)
return value
def _attribute_checker(self, operator, attribute, value=''):
"""Create a function that performs a CSS selector operation.
Takes an operator, attribute and optional value. Returns a
function that will return True for elements that match that
if operator == '=':
# string representation of `attribute` is equal to `value`
return lambda el: el._attr_value_as_string(attribute) == value
elif operator == '~':
# space-separated list representation of `attribute`
# contains `value`
def _includes_value(element):
attribute_value = element.get(attribute, [])
if not isinstance(attribute_value, list):
attribute_value = attribute_value.split()
return value in attribute_value
return _includes_value
elif operator == '^':
# string representation of `attribute` starts with `value`
return lambda el: el._attr_value_as_string(
attribute, '').startswith(value)
elif operator == '$':
# string represenation of `attribute` ends with `value`
return lambda el: el._attr_value_as_string(
attribute, '').endswith(value)
elif operator == '*':
# string representation of `attribute` contains `value`
return lambda el: value in el._attr_value_as_string(attribute, '')
elif operator == '|':
# string representation of `attribute` is either exactly
# `value` or starts with `value` and then a dash.
def _is_or_starts_with_dash(element):
attribute_value = element._attr_value_as_string(attribute, '')
return (attribute_value == value or attribute_value.startswith(
value + '-'))
return _is_or_starts_with_dash
return lambda el: el.has_attr(attribute)
def select(self, selector):
"""Perform a CSS selection operation on the current element."""
tokens = selector.split()
current_context = [self]
for index, token in enumerate(tokens):
if tokens[index - 1] == '>':
# already found direct descendants in last step. skip this
# step.
m = self.attribselect_re.match(token)
if m is not None:
# Attribute selector
tag, attribute, operator, value = m.groups()
if not tag:
tag = True
checker = self._attribute_checker(operator, attribute, value)
found = []
for context in current_context:
[el for el in context.find_all(tag) if checker(el)])
current_context = found
if '#' in token:
# ID selector
tag, id = token.split('#', 1)
if tag == "":
tag = True
el = current_context[0].find(tag, {'id': id})
if el is None:
return [] # No match
current_context = [el]
if '.' in token:
# Class selector
tag_name, klass = token.split('.', 1)
if not tag_name:
tag_name = True
classes = set(klass.split('.'))
found = []
def classes_match(tag):
if tag_name is not True and != tag_name:
return False
if not tag.has_attr('class'):
return False
return classes.issubset(tag['class'])
for context in current_context:
current_context = found
if token == '*':
# Star selector
found = []
for context in current_context:
current_context = found
if token == '>':
# Child selector
tag = tokens[index + 1]
if not tag:
tag = True
found = []
for context in current_context:
found.extend(context.find_all(tag, recursive=False))
current_context = found
# Here we should just have a regular tag
if not self.tag_name_re.match(token):
return []
found = []
for context in current_context:
current_context = found
return current_context
# Old non-property versions of the generators, for backwards
# compatibility with BS3.
def nextGenerator(self):
return self.next_elements
def nextSiblingGenerator(self):
return self.next_siblings
def previousGenerator(self):
return self.previous_elements
def previousSiblingGenerator(self):
return self.previous_siblings
def parentGenerator(self):
return self.parents
class NavigableString(str, PageElement):
def __new__(cls, value):
"""Create a new NavigableString.
When unpickling a NavigableString, this method is called with
the string in DEFAULT_OUTPUT_ENCODING. That encoding needs to be
passed in to the superclass's __new__ or the superclass won't know
how to handle non-ASCII characters.
if isinstance(value, str):
return str.__new__(cls, value)
return str.__new__(cls, value, DEFAULT_OUTPUT_ENCODING)
def __getnewargs__(self):
return (str(self),)
def __getattr__(self, attr):
"""text.string gives you text. This is for backwards
compatibility for Navigable*String, but for CData* it lets you
get the string without the CData wrapper."""
if attr == 'string':
return self
raise AttributeError(
"'%s' object has no attribute '%s'" % (
self.__class__.__name__, attr))
def output_ready(self, formatter="minimal"):
output = self.format_string(self, formatter)
return self.PREFIX + output + self.SUFFIX
class PreformattedString(NavigableString):
"""A NavigableString not subject to the normal formatting rules.
The string will be passed into the formatter (to trigger side effects),
but the return value will be ignored.
def output_ready(self, formatter="minimal"):
"""CData strings are passed into the formatter.
But the return value is ignored."""
self.format_string(self, formatter)
return self.PREFIX + self + self.SUFFIX
class CData(PreformattedString):
SUFFIX = ']]>'
class ProcessingInstruction(PreformattedString):
PREFIX = '<?'
SUFFIX = '?>'
class Comment(PreformattedString):
PREFIX = '<!--'
SUFFIX = '-->'
class Declaration(PreformattedString):
PREFIX = '<!'
SUFFIX = '!>'
class Doctype(PreformattedString):
def for_name_and_ids(cls, name, pub_id, system_id):
value = name
if pub_id is not None:
value += ' PUBLIC "%s"' % pub_id
if system_id is not None:
value += ' "%s"' % system_id
elif system_id is not None:
value += ' SYSTEM "%s"' % system_id
return Doctype(value)
SUFFIX = '>\n'
class Tag(PageElement):
"""Represents a found HTML tag with its attributes and contents."""
def __init__(self, parser=None, builder=None, name=None, namespace=None,
prefix=None, attrs=None, parent=None, previous=None):
"Basic constructor."
if parser is None:
self.parser_class = None
# We don't actually store the parser object: that lets extracted
# chunks be garbage-collected.
self.parser_class = parser.__class__
if name is None:
raise ValueError("No value provided for new tag's name.") = name
self.namespace = namespace
self.prefix = prefix
if attrs is None:
attrs = {}
elif builder.cdata_list_attributes:
attrs = builder._replace_cdata_list_attribute_values(, attrs)
attrs = dict(attrs)
self.attrs = attrs
self.contents = []
self.setup(parent, previous)
self.hidden = False
# Set up any substitutions, such as the charset in a META tag.
if builder is not None:
self.can_be_empty_element = builder.can_be_empty_element(name)
self.can_be_empty_element = False
parserClass = _alias("parser_class") # BS3
def is_empty_element(self):
"""Is this tag an empty-element tag? (aka a self-closing tag)
A tag that has contents is never an empty-element tag.
A tag that has no contents may or may not be an empty-element
tag. It depends on the builder used to create the tag. If the
builder has a designated list of empty-element tags, then only
a tag whose name shows up in that list is considered an
empty-element tag.
If the builder has no designated list of empty-element tags,
then any tag with no contents is an empty-element tag.
return len(self.contents) == 0 and self.can_be_empty_element
isSelfClosing = is_empty_element # BS3
def string(self):
"""Convenience property to get the single string within this tag.
:Return: If this tag has a single string child, return value
is that string. If this tag has no children, or more than one
child, return value is None. If this tag has one child tag,
return value is the 'string' attribute of the child tag,
if len(self.contents) != 1:
return None
child = self.contents[0]
if isinstance(child, NavigableString):
return child
return child.string
def string(self, string):
def _all_strings(self, strip=False):
"""Yield all child strings, possibly stripping them."""
for descendant in self.descendants:
if not isinstance(descendant, NavigableString):
if strip:
descendant = descendant.strip()
if len(descendant) == 0:
yield descendant
strings = property(_all_strings)
def stripped_strings(self):
for string in self._all_strings(True):
yield string
def get_text(self, separator="", strip=False):
Get all child strings, concatenated using the given separator.
return separator.join([s for s in self._all_strings(strip)])
getText = get_text
text = property(get_text)
def decompose(self):
"""Recursively destroys the contents of this tree."""
i = self
while i is not None:
next = i.next_element
i = next
def clear(self, decompose=False):
Extract all children. If decompose is True, decompose instead.
if decompose:
for element in self.contents[:]:
if isinstance(element, Tag):
for element in self.contents[:]:
def index(self, element):
Find the index of a child by identity, not value. Avoids issues with
tag.contents.index(element) getting the index of equal elements.
for i, child in enumerate(self.contents):
if child is element:
return i
raise ValueError("Tag.index: element not in tag")
def get(self, key, default=None):
"""Returns the value of the 'key' attribute for the tag, or
the value given for 'default' if it doesn't have that
return self.attrs.get(key, default)
def has_attr(self, key):
return key in self.attrs
def __hash__(self):
return str(self).__hash__()
def __getitem__(self, key):
"""tag[key] returns the value of the 'key' attribute for the tag,
and throws an exception if it's not there."""
return self.attrs[key]
def __iter__(self):
"Iterating over a tag iterates over its contents."
return iter(self.contents)
def __len__(self):
"The length of a tag is the length of its list of contents."
return len(self.contents)
def __contains__(self, x):
return x in self.contents
def __bool__(self):
"A tag is non-None even if it has no contents."
return True
def __setitem__(self, key, value):
"""Setting tag[key] sets the value of the 'key' attribute for the
self.attrs[key] = value
def __delitem__(self, key):
"Deleting tag[key] deletes all 'key' attributes for the tag."
self.attrs.pop(key, None)
def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Calling a tag like a function is the same as calling its
find_all() method. Eg. tag('a') returns a list of all the A tags
found within this tag."""
return self.find_all(*args, **kwargs)
def __getattr__(self, tag):
#print "Getattr %s.%s" % (self.__class__, tag)
if len(tag) > 3 and tag.endswith('Tag'):
# BS3: soup.aTag -> "soup.find("a")
tag_name = tag[:-3]
'.%sTag is deprecated, use .find("%s") instead.' % (
tag_name, tag_name))
return self.find(tag_name)
# We special case contents to avoid recursion.
elif not tag.startswith("__") and not tag=="contents":
return self.find(tag)
raise AttributeError(
"'%s' object has no attribute '%s'" % (self.__class__, tag))
def __eq__(self, other):
"""Returns true iff this tag has the same name, the same attributes,
and the same contents (recursively) as the given tag."""
if self is other:
return True
if (not hasattr(other, 'name') or
not hasattr(other, 'attrs') or
not hasattr(other, 'contents') or != or
self.attrs != other.attrs or
len(self) != len(other)):
return False
for i, my_child in enumerate(self.contents):
if my_child != other.contents[i]:
return False
return True
def __ne__(self, other):
"""Returns true iff this tag is not identical to the other tag,
as defined in __eq__."""
return not self == other
def __repr__(self, encoding=DEFAULT_OUTPUT_ENCODING):
"""Renders this tag as a string."""
return self.encode(encoding)
def __unicode__(self):
return self.decode()
def __str__(self):
return self.encode()
if PY3K:
__str__ = __repr__ = __unicode__
def encode(self, encoding=DEFAULT_OUTPUT_ENCODING,
indent_level=None, formatter="minimal",
# Turn the data structure into Unicode, then encode the
# Unicode.
u = self.decode(indent_level, encoding, formatter)
return u.encode(encoding, errors)
def decode(self, indent_level=None,
"""Returns a Unicode representation of this tag and its contents.
:param eventual_encoding: The tag is destined to be
encoded into this encoding. This method is _not_
responsible for performing that encoding. This information
is passed in so that it can be substituted in if the
document contains a <META> tag that mentions the document's
attrs = []
if self.attrs:
for key, val in sorted(self.attrs.items()):
if val is None:
decoded = key
if isinstance(val, list) or isinstance(val, tuple):
val = ' '.join(val)
elif not isinstance(val, str):
val = str(val)
elif (
isinstance(val, AttributeValueWithCharsetSubstitution)
and eventual_encoding is not None):
val = val.encode(eventual_encoding)
text = self.format_string(val, formatter)
decoded = (
str(key) + '='
+ EntitySubstitution.quoted_attribute_value(text))
close = ''
closeTag = ''
prefix = ''
if self.prefix:
prefix = self.prefix + ":"
if self.is_empty_element:
close = '/'
closeTag = '</%s%s>' % (prefix,
pretty_print = (indent_level is not None)
if pretty_print:
space = (' ' * (indent_level - 1))
indent_contents = indent_level + 1
space = ''
indent_contents = None
contents = self.decode_contents(
indent_contents, eventual_encoding, formatter)
if self.hidden:
# This is the 'document root' object.
s = contents
s = []
attribute_string = ''
if attrs:
attribute_string = ' ' + ' '.join(attrs)
if pretty_print:
s.append('<%s%s%s%s>' % (
prefix,, attribute_string, close))
if pretty_print:
if pretty_print and contents and contents[-1] != "\n":
if pretty_print and closeTag:
if pretty_print and closeTag and self.next_sibling:
s = ''.join(s)
return s
def prettify(self, encoding=None, formatter="minimal"):
if encoding is None:
return self.decode(True, formatter=formatter)
return self.encode(encoding, True, formatter=formatter)
def decode_contents(self, indent_level=None,
"""Renders the contents of this tag as a Unicode string.
:param eventual_encoding: The tag is destined to be
encoded into this encoding. This method is _not_
responsible for performing that encoding. This information
is passed in so that it can be substituted in if the
document contains a <META> tag that mentions the document's
pretty_print = (indent_level is not None)
s = []
for c in self:
text = None
if isinstance(c, NavigableString):
text = c.output_ready(formatter)
elif isinstance(c, Tag):
s.append(c.decode(indent_level, eventual_encoding,
if text and indent_level:
text = text.strip()
if text:
if pretty_print:
s.append(" " * (indent_level - 1))
if pretty_print:
return ''.join(s)
def encode_contents(
self, indent_level=None, encoding=DEFAULT_OUTPUT_ENCODING,
"""Renders the contents of this tag as a bytestring."""
contents = self.decode_contents(indent_level, encoding, formatter)
return contents.encode(encoding)
# Old method for BS3 compatibility
def renderContents(self, encoding=DEFAULT_OUTPUT_ENCODING,
prettyPrint=False, indentLevel=0):
if not prettyPrint:
indentLevel = None
return self.encode_contents(
indent_level=indentLevel, encoding=encoding)
#Soup methods
def find(self, name=None, attrs={}, recursive=True, text=None,
"""Return only the first child of this Tag matching the given
r = None
l = self.find_all(name, attrs, recursive, text, 1, **kwargs)
if l:
r = l[0]
return r
findChild = find
def find_all(self, name=None, attrs={}, recursive=True, text=None,
limit=None, **kwargs):
"""Extracts a list of Tag objects that match the given
criteria. You can specify the name of the Tag and any
attributes you want the Tag to have.
The value of a key-value pair in the 'attrs' map can be a
string, a list of strings, a regular expression object, or a
callable that takes a string and returns whether or not the
string matches for some custom definition of 'matches'. The
same is true of the tag name."""
generator = self.descendants
if not recursive:
generator = self.children
return self._find_all(name, attrs, text, limit, generator, **kwargs)
findAll = find_all # BS3
findChildren = find_all # BS2
#Generator methods
def children(self):
# return iter() to make the purpose of the method clear
return iter(self.contents) # XXX This seems to be untested.
def descendants(self):
if not len(self.contents):
stopNode = self._last_descendant().next_element
current = self.contents[0]
while current is not stopNode:
yield current
current = current.next_element
# Old names for backwards compatibility
def childGenerator(self):
return self.children
def recursiveChildGenerator(self):
return self.descendants
# This was kind of misleading because has_key() (attributes) was
# different from __in__ (contents). has_key() is gone in Python 3,
# anyway.
has_key = has_attr
# Next, a couple classes to represent queries and their results.
class SoupStrainer(object):
"""Encapsulates a number of ways of matching a markup element (tag or
def __init__(self, name=None, attrs={}, text=None, **kwargs): = self._normalize_search_value(name)
if not isinstance(attrs, dict):
# Treat a non-dict value for attrs as a search for the 'class'
# attribute.
kwargs['class'] = attrs
attrs = None
if 'class_' in kwargs:
# Treat class_="foo" as a search for the 'class'
# attribute, overriding any non-dict value for attrs.
kwargs['class'] = kwargs['class_']
del kwargs['class_']
if kwargs:
if attrs:
attrs = attrs.copy()
attrs = kwargs
normalized_attrs = {}
for key, value in list(attrs.items()):
normalized_attrs[key] = self._normalize_search_value(value)
self.attrs = normalized_attrs
self.text = self._normalize_search_value(text)
def _normalize_search_value(self, value):
# Leave it alone if it's a Unicode string, a callable, a
# regular expression, a boolean, or None.
if (isinstance(value, str) or isinstance(value, collections.Callable) or hasattr(value, 'match')
or isinstance(value, bool) or value is None):
return value
# If it's a bytestring, convert it to Unicode, treating it as UTF-8.
if isinstance(value, bytes):
return value.decode("utf8")
# If it's listlike, convert it into a list of strings.
if hasattr(value, '__iter__'):
new_value = []
for v in value:
if (hasattr(v, '__iter__') and not isinstance(v, bytes)
and not isinstance(v, str)):
# This is almost certainly the user's mistake. In the
# interests of avoiding infinite loops, we'll let
# it through as-is rather than doing a recursive call.
return new_value
# Otherwise, convert it into a Unicode string.
# The unicode(str()) thing is so this will do the same thing on Python 2
# and Python 3.
return str(str(value))
def __str__(self):
if self.text:
return self.text
return "%s|%s" % (, self.attrs)
def search_tag(self, markup_name=None, markup_attrs={}):
found = None
markup = None
if isinstance(markup_name, Tag):
markup = markup_name
markup_attrs = markup
call_function_with_tag_data = (
isinstance(, collections.Callable)
and not isinstance(markup_name, Tag))
if ((not
or call_function_with_tag_data
or (markup and self._matches(markup,
or (not markup and self._matches(markup_name,
if call_function_with_tag_data:
match =, markup_attrs)
match = True
markup_attr_map = None
for attr, match_against in list(self.attrs.items()):
if not markup_attr_map:
if hasattr(markup_attrs, 'get'):
markup_attr_map = markup_attrs
markup_attr_map = {}
for k, v in markup_attrs:
markup_attr_map[k] = v
attr_value = markup_attr_map.get(attr)
if not self._matches(attr_value, match_against):
match = False
if match:
if markup:
found = markup
found = markup_name
if found and self.text and not self._matches(found.string, self.text):
found = None
return found
searchTag = search_tag
def search(self, markup):
# print 'looking for %s in %s' % (self, markup)
found = None
# If given a list of items, scan it for a text element that
# matches.
if hasattr(markup, '__iter__') and not isinstance(markup, (Tag, str)):
for element in markup:
if isinstance(element, NavigableString) \
found = element
# If it's a Tag, make sure its name or attributes match.
# Don't bother with Tags if we're searching for text.
elif isinstance(markup, Tag):
if not self.text or or self.attrs:
found = self.search_tag(markup)
# If it's text, make sure the text matches.
elif isinstance(markup, NavigableString) or \
isinstance(markup, str):
if not and not self.attrs and self._matches(markup, self.text):
found = markup
raise Exception(
"I don't know how to match against a %s" % markup.__class__)
return found
def _matches(self, markup, match_against):
# print u"Matching %s against %s" % (markup, match_against)
result = False
if isinstance(markup, list) or isinstance(markup, tuple):
# This should only happen when searching a multi-valued attribute
# like 'class'.
if (isinstance(match_against, str)
and ' ' in match_against):
# A bit of a special case. If they try to match "foo
# bar" on a multivalue attribute's value, only accept
# the literal value "foo bar"
# XXX This is going to be pretty slow because we keep
# splitting match_against. But it shouldn't come up
# too often.
return (whitespace_re.split(match_against) == markup)
for item in markup:
if self._matches(item, match_against):
return True
return False
if match_against is True:
# True matches any non-None value.
return markup is not None
if isinstance(match_against, collections.Callable):
return match_against(markup)
# Custom callables take the tag as an argument, but all
# other ways of matching match the tag name as a string.
if isinstance(markup, Tag):
markup =
# Ensure that `markup` is either a Unicode string, or None.
markup = self._normalize_search_value(markup)
if markup is None:
# None matches None, False, an empty string, an empty list, and so on.
return not match_against
if isinstance(match_against, str):
# Exact string match
return markup == match_against
if hasattr(match_against, 'match'):
# Regexp match
if hasattr(match_against, '__iter__'):
# The markup must be an exact match against something
# in the iterable.
return markup in match_against
class ResultSet(list):
"""A ResultSet is just a list that keeps track of the SoupStrainer
that created it."""
def __init__(self, source):
self.source = source