But, we need a working environment to run our scripts, and, just because this book is online, the browser is a good choice. We'll keep the amount of browser-specific commands (like
alert) to a minimum, so that you don't spend time on them if you plan to concentrate on another environment like Node.JS. On the other hand, browser details are explained in detail in the next part of the tutorial.
So first, let's see how to attach a script to a webpage. For server-side environments, you can just execute it with a command like
"node my.js" for Node.JS.
The "script" tag
<!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <body> <p>Before the script...</p> *!* <script> alert( 'Hello, world!' ); </script> */!* <p>...After the script.</p> </body> </html>
You can run the example by clicking on the "Play" button in its right-top corner.
The modern markup
<script> tag has a few attributes that are rarely used nowadays, but we can find them in old code:
: The old standard HTML4 required a script to have a type. Usually it was
Comments before and after scripts.
: In really ancient books and guides, one may find comments inside
<script>, like this:
The script file is attached to HTML with the
/path/to/script.js is an absolute path to the file with the script (from the site root).
It is also possible to provide a path relative to the current page. For instance,
src="script.js" would mean a file
"script.js" in the current folder.
We can give a full URL as well, for instance:
To attach several scripts, use multiple tags:
<script src="/js/script1.js"></script> <script src="/js/script2.js"></script> …
As a rule, only the simplest scripts are put into HTML. More complex ones reside in separate files. The benefit of a separate file is that the browser will download it and then store it in its [cache](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_cache). After this, other pages that want the same script will take it from the cache instead of downloading it. So the file is actually downloaded only once. That saves traffic and makes pages faster.
src is set, the script content is ignored."
A single `<script>` tag can't have both the `src` attribute and the code inside.
This won't work:
<script *!*src*/!*="file.js"> alert(1); // the content is ignored, because src is set </script>
We must choose: either it's an external
<script src="…"> or a regular
<script> with code.
The example above can be split into two scripts to work:
<script src="file.js"></script> <script> alert(1); </script>