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Loops: while and for

We often have a need to perform similar actions many times in a row.

For example, when we need to output goods from a list one after another. Or just run the same code for each number from 1 to 10.

Loops are a way to repeat the same part of code multiple times.

The "while" loop

The while loop has the following syntax:

while (condition) {
  // code
  // so-called "loop body"
}

While the condition is true, the code from the loop body is executed.

For instance, the loop below outputs i while i < 3:

let i = 0;
while (i < 3) { // shows 0, then 1, then 2
  alert( i );
  i++;
}

A single execution of the loop body is called an iteration. The loop in the example above makes three iterations.

If there were no i++ in the example above, the loop would repeat (in theory) forever. In practice, the browser provides ways to stop such loops, and for server-side JavaScript we can kill the process.

Any expression or a variable can be a loop condition, not just a comparison. They are evaluated and converted to a boolean by while.

For instance, the shorter way to write while (i != 0) could be while (i):

let i = 3;
*!*
while (i) { // when i becomes 0, the condition becomes falsy, and the loop stops
*/!*
  alert( i );
  i--;
}
If the loop body has a single statement, we can omit the brackets `{…}`:

```js run
let i = 3;
*!*
while (i) alert(i--);
*/!*
```

The "do..while" loop

The condition check can be moved below the loop body using the do..while syntax:

do {
  // loop body
} while (condition);

The loop will first execute the body, then check the condition and, while it's truthy, execute it again and again.

For example:

let i = 0;
do {
  alert( i );
  i++;
} while (i < 3);

This form of syntax is rarely used except when you want the body of the loop to execute at least once regardless of the condition being truthy. Usually, the other form is preferred: while(…) {…}.

The "for" loop

The for loop is the most often used one.

It looks like this:

for (begin; condition; step) {
  // ... loop body ...
}

Let's learn the meaning of these parts by example. The loop below runs alert(i) for i from 0 up to (but not including) 3:

for (let i = 0; i < 3; i++) { // shows 0, then 1, then 2
  alert(i);
}

Let's examine the for statement part by part:

part
begin i = 0 Executes once upon entering the loop.
condition i < 3 Checked before every loop iteration, if fails the loop stops.
step i++ Executes after the body on each iteration, but before the condition check.
body alert(i) Runs again and again while the condition is truthy

The general loop algorithm works like this:

Run begin
→ (if condition → run body and run step)
→ (if condition → run body and run step)
→ (if condition → run body and run step)
→ ...

If you are new to loops, then maybe it would help if you go back to the example and reproduce how it runs step-by-step on a piece of paper.

Here's what exactly happens in our case:

// for (let i = 0; i < 3; i++) alert(i)

// run begin
let i = 0
// if condition → run body and run step
if (i < 3) { alert(i); i++ }
// if condition → run body and run step
if (i < 3) { alert(i); i++ }
// if condition → run body and run step
if (i < 3) { alert(i); i++ }
// ...finish, because now i == 3
Here the "counter" variable `i` is declared right in the loop. That's called an "inline" variable declaration. Such variables are visible only inside the loop.

```js run
for (*!*let*/!* i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
  alert(i); // 0, 1, 2
}
alert(i); // error, no such variable
```

Instead of defining a variable, we can use an existing one:

```js run
let i = 0;

for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) { // use an existing variable
  alert(i); // 0, 1, 2
}

alert(i); // 3, visible, because declared outside of the loop
```

Skipping parts

Any part of for can be skipped.

For example, we can omit begin if we don't need to do anything at the loop start.

Like here:

let i = 0; // we have i already declared and assigned

for (; i < 3; i++) { // no need for "begin"
  alert( i ); // 0, 1, 2
}

We can also remove the step part:

let i = 0;

for (; i < 3;) {
  alert( i++ );
}

The loop became identical to while (i < 3).

We can actually remove everything, thus creating an infinite loop:

for (;;) {
  // repeats without limits
}

Please note that the two for semicolons ; must be present, otherwise it would be a syntax error.

Breaking the loop

Normally the loop exits when the condition becomes falsy.

But we can force the exit at any moment. There's a special break directive for that.

For example, the loop below asks the user for a series of numbers, but "breaks" when no number is entered:

let sum = 0;

while (true) {

  let value = +prompt("Enter a number", '');

*!*
  if (!value) break; // (*)
*/!*

  sum += value;

}
alert( 'Sum: ' + sum );

The break directive is activated at the line (*) if the user enters an empty line or cancels the input. It stops the loop immediately, passing the control to the first line after the loop. Namely, alert.

The combination "infinite loop + break as needed" is great for situations when the condition must be checked not in the beginning/end of the loop, but in the middle, or even in several places of the body.

Continue to the next iteration [#continue]

The continue directive is a "lighter version" of break. It doesn't stop the whole loop. Instead it stops the current iteration and forces the loop to start a new one (if the condition allows).

We can use it if we're done on the current iteration and would like to move on to the next.

The loop below uses continue to output only odd values:

for (let i = 0; i < 10; i++) {

  // if true, skip the remaining part of the body
  *!*if (i % 2 == 0) continue;*/!*

  alert(i); // 1, then 3, 5, 7, 9
}

For even values of i the continue directive stops body execution, passing the control to the next iteration of for (with the next number). So the alert is only called for odd values.

````smart header="The directive continue helps to decrease nesting level" A loop that shows odd values could look like this:

for (let i = 0; i < 10; i++) {

  if (i % 2) {
    alert( i );
  }

}

From a technical point of view it's identical to the example above. Surely, we can just wrap the code in the if block instead of continue.

But as a side-effect we got one more nesting level (the alert call inside the curly braces). If the code inside if is longer than a few lines, that may decrease the overall readability.


````warn header="No `break/continue` to the right side of '?'"
Please note that syntax constructs that are not expressions cannot be used with the ternary operator `?`. In particular, directives such as `break/continue` are disallowed there.

For example, if we take this code:

```js
if (i > 5) {
  alert(i);
} else {
  continue;
}
```

...And rewrite it using a question mark:


```js no-beautify
(i > 5) ? alert(i) : *!*continue*/!*; // continue not allowed here
```

...Then it stops working. The code like this will give a syntax error:


That's just another reason not to use a question mark operator `?` instead of `if`.

Labels for break/continue

Sometimes we need to break out from multiple nested loops at once.

For example, in the code below we loop over i and j prompting for coordinates (i, j) from (0,0) to (3,3):

for (let i = 0; i < 3; i++) {

  for (let j = 0; j < 3; j++) {

    let input = prompt(`Value at coords (${i},${j})`, '');

    // what if I want to exit from here to Done (below)?

  }
}

alert('Done!');

We need a way to stop the process if the user cancels the input.

The ordinary break after input would only break the inner loop. That's not sufficient. Labels come to the rescue.

A label is an identifier with a colon before a loop:

labelName: for (...) {
  ...
}

The break <labelName> statement in the loop breaks out to the label.

Like here:

*!*outer:*/!* for (let i = 0; i < 3; i++) {

  for (let j = 0; j < 3; j++) {

    let input = prompt(`Value at coords (${i},${j})`, '');

    // if an empty string or canceled, then break out of both loops
    if (!input) *!*break outer*/!*; // (*)

    // do something with the value...
  }
}
alert('Done!');

In the code above break outer looks upwards for the label named outer and breaks out of that loop.

So the control goes straight from (*) to alert('Done!').

We can also move the label onto a separate line:

outer:
for (let i = 0; i < 3; i++) { ... }

The continue directive can also be used with a label. In this case the execution jumps to the next iteration of the labeled loop.

Labels do not allow us to jump into an arbitrary place of code.

For example, it is impossible to do this:
```js
break label;  // jumps to label? No.

label: for (...)
```

The call to a `break/continue` is only possible from inside the loop, and the label must be somewhere upwards from the directive.

Summary

We covered 3 types of loops:

  • while -- The condition is checked before each iteration.
  • do..while -- The condition is checked after each iteration.
  • for (;;) -- The condition is checked before each iteration, additional settings available.

To make an "infinite" loop, usually the while(true) construct is used. Such a loop, just like any other, can be stopped with the break directive.

If we don't want to do anything on the current iteration and would like to forward to the next one, the continue directive does it.

break/continue support labels before the loop. A label is the only way for break/continue to escape the nesting and go to the outer loop.