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Recent changes in the INET Framework
INET 3.6.8 (October 2020) - stable
This release contains a compatibility fix to be able to build INET with
OMNeT++ 6.0 Preview 9. It requires OMNeT++ 5.3 or later.
NOTE: OMNeT++ 6.0 Preview 5-8 will NOT work with this releasre. Use INET 3.6.7
with those versions or rather upgrade your OMNeT++ installation.
INET 3.6.7 (November 2019) - stable
This release contains a compatibility fix to be able to build INET with
OMNeT++ 6.0 Preview 5. It requires OMNeT++ 5.3 or later.
INET 3.6.6 (August 2019) - stable
This release contains a bug fix for an issue where clang did not export
the typinfo symbols for classes on Windows. This caused link errors on
dependent projets. It requires OMNeT++ 5.3 or later.
- Added NetworkCommunicationFingerprintCalculator, to be able to generate
INET 4 compatible fingerprints that are based on network communication.
INET 3.6.5 (April 2019) - stable
This release contains minor bug fixes and compatibility fixes for the
OMNeT++ 5.4.1 release and for recent Linux distros. It requires
OMNeT++ 5.3 or later.
- Added missing measurement units for 0 values in NED and INI files
- NED files are now using fully qualified type names
- Added missing doParsimPacking/doParsimUnpacking in L3Address
- Fixed 'EtherMAC swallows frames when PAUSE is engaged (#391)'
- Fixed 'Cannot abort PAUSE (LFC) before timeout (#390)'
(author: Danushka Menikkumbura)
- Fixed ACK frame duration bug where the duration was incorrectly
rounded up in seconds instead of microseconds for data fragment ACKs.
- Bugfix: static variables were removed, but remained in header
- Set the DupTsn relative to the localDiffTSN
- Added constructors in AdvPrefix.
- Removed dependence on ObjectLocatorNode as it was removed in recent
versions of osgEarth
INET 3.6.4 (March 2018) - stable
This release contains minor bug fixes and compatibility fixes for the
OMNeT++ 5.3 Preview 4 release. It requires OMNeT++ 5.1 or later.
- Changed some module parameters from double to int.
- Corrected memory management issue in radio module.
- common: added intWithUnit() ned function.
Packet printer:
- made it compatible with the new message printer API in OMNeT++ 5.3
INET 3.6.3 (December 2017) - stable
This release contains minor bug fixes and compatibility fixes for the final
OMNeT++ 5.3 Preview 1 release. It requires OMNeT++ 5.1 or later.
- Fixed TCP/IP Checksum calculation with odd lengths.
- Fixed a retransmission bug where the transmission counter was not
advanced when the data was retransmitted due to timeout.
- Fixed a bug when fast recovery was active and the cumulative TSN
advanced, the miss indications were not increased.
- The counting of Gap Reports was fixed.
- Added a new test to test fast Retransmissions.
- The bandwidth was not correctly claculated, leading to incorrect channel allocation
- The PHY header was calculated wrong
- Fixed sensitivity bug in APSKScalarReceiver found by Tobias Thiel
INET 3.6.2 (October 2017) - stable
This release contains minor bug fixes and compatibility fixes for the final
OMNeT++ 5.2 release. It requires OMNeT++ 5.1 or later.
- Tcp: Fixed incorrect connection pointer in rexmitQueue.
- Edcaf: Fixed aifs calculation for customised aifsn.
- Visualization: parameter rename
- inet_featuretool: Removed warning when treating a missing feature in the state files as default.
- Updated showcases and tutorials.
- Various fixes to eliminate warnings on clang 4 and gcc 7.x.
INET 3.6.1 (July 2017) - stable
This release contains minor compatibility fixes. It requires OMNeT++ 5.1 or later.
- Minor compatibility fix to work with OMNeT++ 5.2 Preview 1
- Turned on the parallel build option in the IDE project file.
INET-3.6.0 (June 2017) - stable
This release contains some important new features, several bug fixes, and a few
minor enhancements. It requires OMNeT++ 5.1 or later.
Highlights in this release:
- On Windows, INET is no longer using the auto-import feature of the linker, because
it generated more than 65536 symbols. Dependent projects crashed because of this.
All INET APIs now should be prefixed with INET_API macro. (fixes #257)
- The makefile now generates separate precompiled header for debug and release mode.
This is required to be able to quicly switch between release and debug mode in the IDE.
- The IEEE 802.11 MAC model has been extended with several new components. The
implementation is entirely based on the standard IEEE 802.11™-2012 Part 11:
Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications.
The new architecture is designed to be modular to facilitate experimenting
with new policies, features and algorithms within the MAC layer. Users can
easily replace individual components with their own implementations. Policies,
which most likely to be experimented with, are extracted into their own modules.
The new model has the following replaceable built-in policies:
- ACK policy
- RTS/CTS policy
- Originator and recipient block ACK agreement policies
- MSDU aggregation policy
- Fragmentation policy
The new model also separates the following components:
- Coordination functions
- Channel access methods
- MAC data services
- Aggregation and deaggregation
- Fragmentation and defragmentation
- Block ACK agreements and reordering
- Frame exchange sequences
- Duplicate removal
- Rate selection
- Rate control
- Protection mechanisms
- Recovery procedure
- Contention
- Frame queues
There are several enhancements and new features to the previous version, the
most notable are frame exchange sequences, block acknowledgement, and MSDU
The new version was thoroughly tested against the old one using fingerprint
tests. The tests ensure that the new version doesn't introduce any regression.
In fact, the tests brought up a few problems in the old implementation that
were fixed in the new one.
- The power model has been extended with support for charge/current based models
as opposed to the existing energy/power based ones. A new energy management
component has also been added to separate monitoring and controlling of energy
consumers and generators from the rest of the model.
- New visualizers has been added to display packet drops and link breaks, data
contained in interface tables, routes stored in routing tables, queues filled
with packets, residual capacity of energy storages, and transport connections
between network nodes. The new visualizers are also added to the already existing
integrated ones. Note: many features that work with the 2D visualizers currently
don't work with the 3D OSG visualizers.
- Added new features for various tutorials and showcases.
INET-3.5.0 (February 2017) - stable
This release contains mostly bug fixes and compatibility changes. It requires
OMNeT++ 5.1. Earlier versions of OMNeT++ are *not* compatible.
Highlights in this release:
- The build process is now using precompiled headers. This can speed up the
build process considerably.
- Feature macros (WITH_*) that show the enablement of features are now placed
into a header file (src/inet/features.h) instead of passed on the command line.
The build process adds the WITH_OSG and WITH_OSGEARTH macro to the opp_defines.h
file when WITH_OSG/WITH_OSGEARTH is set to yes. This allows the IDE to properly
highlight/disable the appropriate code fragments.
- 64-bit build is now supported on Windows.
- Added a Plot figure (see InstrumentsExample).
- DHCP fixes.
- DHCP can now activated in a Router by setting hasDHCP=true
- Added new WirelessNetWith2DHCP example.
- Added two-ray interference model (TwoRayInterference) as a pathoss model.
- Added StreamReconfig support for SCTP (by Irene Ruengeler)
- Allow to specify the interface name in a parameter instead of
using a hardcoded interface name.
- Small fixes in SimpleEnergyStorage and during Antenna initialization
- Calling IPv6RoutingTable::getInterfaceByAddress(const L3Address& address) or
findGpsrOptionFromNetworkDatagram() function caused infinite recursion.
- Radio: Fixed FreeSpacePathLoss bug in the loss formula for alpha != 2 case,
reported by Benjamin Sliwa.
- SimpleVoIPServer now resolves destAddress at startTime (instead
of initialization)
- Ieee8021dRelay: fixed a null pointer crash
- StaticConcentricMobility: fixed a rounding issue
- ICMP: fixed "icmp error answer to a fragmented udp packet" problem
- ICMP: fixing bug #64: Buffer Overflow Error
- AODV: no longer causes assertion failure when RREP-ACK arrived after a timeout
INET-3.4.0 (June 2016) - stable
This INET release requires OMNeT++ 5.0. This is due to the new visualization
feature which uses the Canvas and OSG APIs introduced in OMNeT++ 5.0. Most
other parts of the codebase still builds with OMNeT++ 4.6.
Highlights is this release:
- Added a Wireless Tutorial (tutorials/wireless). The tutorial consists of
several simulation models of increasing complexity, demonstrating the INET
architecture and features related to wireless communication networks. The
models are accompanied by a text which explains each step, complete with
screenshots and recorded animations.
- Added draft for a visualization tutorial.
- Added a new 'visualizer' folder under 'src' that contains visualizer modules.
The current visualizer modules can display the scene (optionally with osgEarth),
the network nodes (optionally with 3D models), physical objects in
the physical environment, node mobility along with movement trail, discovered
network connectivity, discovered network routes, ongoing transmissions,
ongoing receptions, propagating radio signals, and statistics.
The visualizer modules are intentionally kept separate from network protocol
models. They are responsible for displaying various aspects of the simulation
in a graphical user interface. The most common mechanism they use is looking
up other modules and/or subscribing to the signals they emit. The visualizer
modules are compatible with both Tkenv and Qtenv. In Qtenv they are able to
display on both a 2D canvas and a 3D OSG scene.
Instrument figures:
- Implemented a facility that allows one to display various gauges, meters
and indicators in the network graphics that take their inputs from signals.
The "gadgets" themselves are figures that are added into the network using
@figure properties, and they are driven by signals via @statistic properties,
using a special result recorder ("figure") that sets the value in the target
figure. Figure types are: gauge, linearGauge, progressMeter, thermometer,
counter, indicatorLabel/indicatorText, and indexedImage. Their sources
are in src/inet/common/figures.
There is a demo in examples/visualization/instruments, and an additional
usage example in the Wireless Tutorial (tutorials/wireless).
MAC protocols:
- Added CsmaCaMac, a simple CSMA/CA-based MAC protocol with optional
acknowledgements and a retry mechanism. With the appropriate settings,
it can approximate basic 802.11b ad-hoc mode operation. The code is
based on the original Ieee80211Mac (802.11b) from 2006.
- IdealMac: Changed out-of-band ACKs to be optional.
- LMAC, BMAC, CSMA: Fixed handling of frames with bit errors.
- WirelessNic: added optional classifier submodule
- Ieee80211Mac: Resurrected link break signal for giving up a transmission.
- The physical environment model has been extended to include a ground model.
Ground models need to implement the IGround interface that currently
contains a getElevation() method. A very simple implementation, FlatGround
is also provided.
- The TwoRayGroundReflection model has been updated to use the ground model
of the physical environment.
- Added packetReceivedFromUpper and packetSentToUpper signals.
- Mobility models now use the initialZ parameter even if position is
initialized from the display string.
- Added VehicleMobility that simulates turning at waypoints.
- Now all mobile nodes face (i.e. set the orientation to) the direction of
movement. This affects radio reception when direction antenna is used.
Physical enviromment:
- Added geographic coordinate system support.
- TracingObstacleLoss renamed to DielectricObstacleLoss.
- Added ApplicationPacket that can be used as generic application payload.
Currently it contains a sequence number.
- UDPBasicApp/UDPSink: changed to use ApplicationPacket, and record
received packet sequence numbers
- RelayUnit: Added packetReceivedFromLowerSignal and packetSentToLowerSignal signals.
- AODV: Removed AODV-RERR messages for inactive routes.
- Applications: Added throughput statistic to some applications.
- IPv4: Added sentTo/receivedFrom upper/lower signals.
- Common: Added average forest "material".
- Common: Added throughput result filter.
- Added a top level 'doc' target to build all INET documentation in a single step
- Added project feature tests (tests/features)
INET-3.3.0 (June 2016) - stable
This release requires OMNeT++ 4.6 or 5.0.
- Removed unnecessary -pINET from the makemake options. This caused linking
issues on Windows when 'clang' was used as a compiler. (the INET_API
macros are needed only for Visual C++)
- In makefrag, use inet_featuretool instead of scanning the compiler options
to detect the enablement of the VoIPStream and NSC features
- Fix: TCP_lwip did not compile when using the command-line make.
- Examples: 'run' script can now take parameters containing spaces (as long as
they are quoted properly)
- Packetdrill: Added SCTP support and socket options (by Irene Ruengeler)
- SCTP: added support for the SCTP_ACCEPT command (by Irene Ruengeler)
Physical layer:
- Added IdealObstacleLoss. This obstacle loss model determines power loss by
checking if there is any obstructing physical object along the straight
propagation path. The result is either total power loss if there was
such an object or no loss at all if there wasn't.
- The "MANET Routing" feature (a collection of routing protocols ported
into INET from other projects) was removed from the source tree. The
removed MANET routing algorithms are still available in the INETMANET
fork of INET ( INET now contains
the following natively implemented MANET routing protocols: AODV, DYMO, GPSR.
- IPv4: bug fix in IPv4 packet deserialization
- Ieee802.11: bug fix in 802.11 management code (set TID only for QoS data
- TelnetApp: bug fix (cancel pending timers correctly)
- IPv4NetworkConfigurator: bug fix: links were not properly detected by the
configurator when nodes connected to a switch were defined after the switch
in the NED file
- IPv6: double delete fixed
- IPv4RoutingTable: fix: only interfaces with the BROADCAST flag set have
local broadcast addresses
- AODV: fix: AODV stopped with an error if an ICMP error packet was received
(ICMP packets are now accepted and silently dropped)
- examples: removed obsolete fingerprints.ini files
- Added a separate EtherPhyFrame class. Motivation: there was no obvious way
looking at an EtherFrame to tell whether it already contains preamble+SFD
or not.
- Change: When modeling the decapsulation from PHY header (subtracting preamble
and SFD lengths), padding to minimum frame size was also undone. This is
no longer done.
- EtherIFG renamed to EtherFilledIFG
- Catch duplex-halfduplex misconfiguration and throw error
- Fix incorrect byte counting during burst
- Serializer: adapted to the introduction of EtherPhyFrame
- Serializer: fix: CRC was in wrong byte order
- Serializer: fix: length field contained incorrect value (size of frame
instead of size of payload)
INET-3.2.4 (April 2016) - stable
This is a minor maintenance release that requires either OMNeT++ 4.6,
or 5.0. (Earlier test versions of OMNeT++ will not work.)
- build: updated inet_featuretool (the same like the opp_featuretool in OMNeT++ 5.0)
- minor fixes to make it build under both OMNeT++ 4.6 and 5.0
INET-3.2.3 (March 2016) - Stable
This is a minor maintenance release that requires either OMNeT++ 4.6,
or 5.0rc or later. (Earlier test versions of OMNeT++ will not work.)
- build: updated inet_featuretool (the same like the opp_featuretool in OMNeT++ 5.0 rc)
- several fixes to make it compatible with both OMNeT++ 4.6 and 5.0
- smoke and fingerprint tests are running on both OMNeT++ 4.6 and 5.0
- some variable renames and fixes in ieee802.11
INET-3.2.1 (January 2016) - Stable
- 802.11 MAC model: EDCA, rate control crashes fixed
- Radio: Fixed handling of abort reception/transmission.
- Added missing INET_API defines
- Physical layer: Fixed memory issues detected by valgrind
INET-3.2 (December 2015) - Stable
This release requires either OMNeT++ 4.6, or 5.0b3 or later. (Earlier test
versions of OMNeT++ will not work.)
IEEE 802.11 MAC model:
- After further refinement, new features, several bugfixes and validation
testing, the new MAC model was made the default one. It was also renamed
from Ieee80211NewMac to Ieee80211Mac, while the old Ieee80211Mac became
- Improvements on the new MAC model include:
* Added fragmentation support;
* Added Onoe, ARF, AARF rate control algorithms;
* Implemented early Ack timeout;
- Validation: Several validation tests were run against the ns-3 Wifi model.
In the tested configurations, it was ensured that new Mac model behaves
*exactly* as the ns-3 model (that is, timestamped packet logs match exactly).
Discrepancies were resolved with bugfixes in our code, in the ns-3 code,
or both. Bugs found in ns-3 were reported in the ns-3 bugtracker.
See tests/misc/ns3.
Physical layer:
- Added support for the simulation of separate signal parts in the Radio.
The preamble, header and data parts can be optionally simulated
separately. This results in a more accurate simulation, because a
reception may be aborted before the data part is received.
- Added separate preambleDuration parameters to each radio transmitter for more
flexible configuration.
- Added Ieee80211IdealRadio, an ideal channel model (aka unit disc radio)
suitable for use with Ieee80211Mac.
- Fixed PER computation in NetworkConfiguratorBase.
- Fixed missing byte length in AODV and added control packet length configuration.
- RTT initialization was fixed in TCP (Vegas, Westwood) because the original
value caused "out of range" error with the overflow check introduced in
OMNeT++ 5.0b3.
- BPDU packet length was incorrectly set sometimes in the 802.1d model.
- Fixed incorrect sign of lastSpeed in some mobility models.
- The VoIPStream app has been updated to work with the ffmpeg version
distributed in Ubuntu 15.10
- Added some INET_API macros to compile properly on Windows.
- QoSClassifier example no longer needs the 802.11 project feature.
INET-3.1.1 (October 2015) - Stable
- Fixed build problem on Windows
INET-3.1.0 (October 2015) - Stable
This release requires OMNeT++ 4.6 or later. In addition to several bug fixes,
it features the following additions compared to INET-3.0:
1. A modular and extensible new 802.11 MAC model.
It replaces the existing monolithic 802.11 MAC model that has become
increasingly difficult to maintain and extend over the years. The new MAC
has a modular design, where components can be swapped in and out. Concepts
such as contention-based channel access, frame exchange sequences, EDCA
queues, aggregation, fragmentation, duplicate detection, block acknow-
ledgement, frame rate selection, automatic rate selection, etc would
be expressed as self-contained C++ classes that implement abstract
interfaces and (may) have multiple implementations.
This kind of modular design also favours the open-source development model,
because abstract interfaces give contributors better cues on where to start
implementing a new feature, and new classes can be more readily accepted
into the codebase because changes to existing code (and thus the risk of
introducing new bugs) can be minimized.
In this initial form, it has roughly the same set of 802.11 features as the
old Ieee80211Mac module: basic DCF and EDCA, with the channel access and
some more parameters being configurable.
For now, the old Ieee80211Mac is still the default one for simulations.
To switch to using the new one, add the following line to your omnetpp.ini:
**.macType = "Ieee80211CompatibleNewMac"
Ieee80211CompatibleNewMac is a wrapper around Ieee80211NewMac to make its
parameterization similar to the old MAC.
Note that the new MAC is a compound module. You can double-click on the mac
submodule (in Tkenv) and expore its internals.
See the ChangeLog in src/inet/linklayer/ieee80211/newmac/ for more
information. The same folder also contains a presentation about the
architecture of the new MAC, as it was presented at the 2nd OMNeT++
Community Summit in September 2015 (see
2. Packetdrill. This is a port of Google's Packetdrill testing tool into
the INET Framework.
Google released the script-based Packetdrill tool in 2013. It allows one
to test transport protocols like UDP and TCP on Linux and BSD-based
operating systems. Scripts define test cases that inject packets to the
protocol implementation under test, perform operations using the API
controlling the transport protocol, and verify the sending of packets, all
at specified times. The ported version provides a simple and powerful
method of testing transport protocols implemented in INET.
Packetdrill has been contributed by Irene Rungeler and Michael Tuexen at
FH Muenster. Packetdrill has been presented at the 2nd OMNeT++ Community
Summit in September 2015; find the paper and presentation slides
3. Manet protocols in inet.routing.extras package are now disabled by default.
You can still enable the MANET feature manually or you can use INETMANET
(a fork of INET) which contains a more up to date codebase for these protocols.
4. Changes and bug fixes in the (old) 802.11 MAC:
- The default lot time was not always correctly chosen for the configured
mode (modulation and coding scheme).
- Change maxQueueSize's meaning to per AC queue. Before, maxQueueSize
referred to the total of the AC queue lengths, which could cause starvation
of higher priority queues (see ChangeLog for more info.)
- Removed external queue support, that is, the mgmt submodule in the Nic
no longer serves as a passive queue for the MAC.
INET-3.0.0 (June 2015) - Stable
This release requires OMNeT++ 4.6 or later. There are numerous breaking changes
since the latest stable version (2.6). Please read this file carefully and
see the ChangeLog files in the source for more details.
- Modules that represent a "node" at network level should be tagged with
@networkNode property instead of @node. (The @node property name was
too generic.) The INode module interface was renamed to INetworkNode, too.
- The functionality of PingTestApp was merged into PingApp and PingTestApp
was removed.
Network Layer:
- Refactored IPv4/IPv6 options to use TLVOptions structure.
INET-2.99.1 (May 2015) - Development
This release is the last development snapshot of the upcoming INET-3.0 version.
The highlights of this release are:
1. Includes a new packet/bit/symbol level physical layer model for the 802.11
OFDM PHY according to the IEEE 802.11-2012 standard, and a hypothetical
generic packet/bit/symbol level APSK physical layer model for further
experimentation. The new implementations include forward error correction
encoding/decoding, scrambling/descrambling, interleaving/deinterleaving, and
2. Contains fixes for more than 300 defects found by Coverity, an online C++
static code analysis tool. The reported Defect Density is decreased to
0.5/kLoC which is considered a result. You can find the detailed results at
3. Contains several other memory leak and memory management fixes reported by
valgrind memcheck.
4. Modernizes C++ source code using new C++11 features such as nullptr, auto
types, range loop, override, etc.
Read on for further details.
All components:
- Replaced all variants of findModuleWherever calls with module parameters,
because their behavior is non-predictable and less composable.
- Replaced most getParentModule calls with module parameters to make modules
less dependent on their context, and thus more reusable.
- Replaced UnimplementedModule and all related *_None modules with calls to
firstAvailableOrEmpty NED function, and changed affected submodules to be
present conditionally.
- Moved interface classes under contract subdirectories. Moved base classes
under base subdirectories.
- Introduced a new script called 'inet_featuretool' in the root folder of the
project that allows listing/enabling/disabling specific features from the
command line. Use 'inet_featuretool -h' for further info.
The 'make makefiles' command now uses this tool to extract the required
command line options to generate the makefile. This means that after
enabling/disabling a feature you always have to invoke 'make makefiles'
to regenerate the makefile based on the new feature enablement state.
- All "node type" modules implement the INode module interface so it is now
possible to create networks (using the <"actualNodeType"> like INode construct)
where the actual node type can be configured from an ini file.
- Network Emulation feature no longer depends on OMNeT++ to detect the presence
of PCAP. Instead the feature can be turned on/off by the user.
- Added create-module and delete-module commands to ScenarioManager.
- New macros in INETDefs.h to test INET version: INET_VERSION (format: 0xAABB
where AA is the major while BB is the minor version in hex) and
INET_PATCH_LEVEL (format: 0xCC is the patch level in hex).
- On Linux, specifying --valgrind as the first argument for the opp_run script
(or a run script in the examples folder) will start the simulation using the
'valgrind' memory profiler.
- Added a reusable HeatMapFigure and a GaugeFigure.
- Added a reusable DelayedInitializer to support static member initialization
without having to worry about the initialization order.
- Renamed ByteArrayMessage to RawPacket.
- Added isometric view angles to physical environment visualization.
- Added class and module interfaces to physical environment.
- Added a new StaticConcentricMobility similar to StaticGridMobility that places
nodes on concentric circles.
- Removed TracCI and TraCIScenarioManager because these modules are maintained
in the Veins framework.
- Refactored packet serializer classes to use a safe buffer class to read and
write binary data. This allows parsing incorrect binary representations without
runtime errors required by bit precise physical layer models.
- Refactored recursion in serializers to be extensible with new packet formats
without modifying existing code.
- Fixed a number of packet length bugs and inconsistencies between serialized
and non-serialized forms.
- Merged NetPerfMeter application from the master branch added by Thomas Dreibholz.
- Allow flushing the pcapFile after each write to ensure that all packets are
captured in case of a crash.
Transport Layer:
- Added ITransportPacket interface to TCPSegment, UDPPacket, and SCTPMessage.
It allows generic handling of transport packets.
- Added fragPoint parameter to limit the size of fragments.
- After the handshake only send heartbeats on unconfirmed paths.
- Fixed close command handling, i.e. stop reading when the command is sent.
- Handle SACK and NR_SACK separately and use getByteLength instead of getBitLength.
- Fixed several bugs.
- Refactored and cleaned up TCP header options.
- Fixed scaling window bug (Martin Becke).
Network Layer:
- Factored out the network topology extraction algorithm from IPv4NetworkConfigurator
into a base class.
- Added support to IPv4NetworkConfigurator for computing wireless shortest path
based on a simple packet error rate estimation.
- Added netmaskRoutes parameter to IPv4RoutingTable to control whether netmask
routes are maintained or not.
- Added useAdminDist parameter to IPv4RoutingTable to enable/disable the use
of Cisco specific routing entry extension (disabled by default).
- Added IGMPv3 implementation (the orinal code came from the ANSA project).
It has been almost fully rewritten and extended by Tamas Borbely.
- Added PIM-DM and PIM-SM implementation. The original codebase (from the ANSA project has been extensively reviewed, refactored and
extended by Tamas Borbely.
- Refactored supported metrics (hopCount, delay, dataRate, errorRate) and related
parameters in IPv4NetworkConfigurator.
- Added autoroute XML configuration element to IPv4NetworkConfigurator. It provides
parameters for the automatic route discovery. The autoroute element determines
the set of routing tables that will be modified, the set of destinations for
which the shortest path will be computed, the used metric and the cost for nodes
and links.
Link layer:
- Added TUN/TAP virtual network interfaces thanks to Irene Ruengeler. This kind
of interfaces send/receive packets to/from TUN applications.
- Updated the 802.11 MAC implementation to use the new 802.11 mode descriptors.
- Replaced the old 802.11 operational mode and modulation descriptor classes.
This change modifies the fingerprint of a few simulations, because the header
length was computed incorrectly.
- Changed the 802.11 MAC to use asynchronous commands to set the radio mode.
- Updated the 802.11 MAC state machine diagram (graphviz) to reflect the current
state of the implementation.
- Added safety guard to the 802.11 MAC against recursively calling handleWithFSM.
- Fixed packet order in transmissionQueue.
- Renamed getNetworkInterfaceModule to getInterfaceModule in InterfaceEntry.
- Improved response time on external interfaces. On Linux cSocketScheduler is now
using immediate mode to reduce the CPU usage while still maintaining a fast
sub millisec response time (Artur Scussel). On Windows and MAC OS X the polling
interval was reduced to improve the response time.
- Added support for sending NF_LINK_BREAK signal from BMAC and CSMA. This is
required for certain routing protocols (i.e. AODV) to function properly.
- Extended Ethernet macs accept raw packet
Physical layer:
- Extended the physical layer contract interfaces for layered implementations.
- Added signal representations for packet domain, bit domain, symbol domain,
sample domain and analog domain, and also added contracts for the processing
components in all of these domains.
- Added a detailed 802.11 OFDM physical layer implementation that supports
packet-level, bit-level, and symbol-level simulations in compliant, and also
in freely configurable non-compliant operational modes.
- Replaced the old 802.11 operational mode and modulation descriptor classes.
The new classes are more detailed and more complete implementations. They
supports both the flat and the layered physical layer models and provide PHY
characteristics. The implemented 802.11 modes are: DSSS, HR-DSSS, FHSS, IR,
- Added IEEE 802.11 High Throughput mode descriptor. This mode is defined in
Clause 20. High Throughput (HT) PHY specification in the IEEE 802.11-2012
specification. The new HT mode makes available the Wifi n modes in the
- Added a simple hypothetical APSK physical layer implementation that supports
packet-level, bit-level, and symbol-level simulations with widely configurable
bit-domain and symbol-domain parameters.
- Consistently moved packet level and bit level implementations into separate
subdirectories throughout the physical layer.
- Added a generic convolutional encoder/decoder, a generic additive
scrambler/descrambler, and a 802.11 specific interleaver/deinterleaver.
- Added a separate modulations folder that contains descriptor classes for
various keying techniques such as BPSK, QPSK, QAM16, QAM64, QAM256, MQAM,
- Reimplemented the computation of BER and SER based on the SNIR for the QAM-like
modulations according to wikipedia.
- Added a special IntervalTree cache for efficiently computing arrival intervals
for transmissions. This change drastically increases the physical layer
performance for large networks with lots of ongoing transmissions.
- Refactored the radio medium model to support the optional representation of
PHY frames for the layered physical layer models.
- Refactored the medium analog model to simultaneously support the new layered
and the already existing flat radio signal models.
- Refactored the existing 802.11 statistical error models to use the new
operation mode descriptors.
- Extracted the BER table based 802.11 statistical error model into a separate
class. This change modifies the fingerprint of simulations that use this
error model.
- Added a new detailed 802.11 error model that computes erroneous packet
domain, bit domain or symbol domain signal representations.
- Added 802.11 OFDM PHY frame serializer.
- Extracted separate CommunicationCache classes from RadioMedium.
- Extracted separate CommunicationLog class from RadioMedium.
- Extracted a separate MediumLimitCache module from RadioMedium.
- Extracted a separate MediumVisualizer module from RadioMedium.
- Added optional recent communication heat map to MediumVisualizer.
- Renamed radio control info classes to TransmissionRequest and ReceptionIndication.
- Added Ieee80211TransmissionRequest with an optional IIeee80211Mode parameter
to allow the mac module to determine the exact physical layer operational mode.
- Added CosineAntenna and ParabolicAntenna.
- Added basic antenna array support to be used with 802.11 HT modes.
- Added arrival parameter to computeReceptionPower. Added snir parameter to
computeIsReceptionSuccessful. Added snir parameter to computeReceptionDecision.
- Added level parameter to printToStream function to better support logging.
- Fixed the indefinite heap growth bug in the RadioMedium.
- Added separate automated tests for convolutional encoding/decoding,
interleaving/deinterleaving, scrambling/descrambling, modulation/demodulation
and various combinations.
- Added a new detailed 802.11 OFDM radio example that supports configurable
packet-level, bit-level, and symbol-level simulations for model verification.
- Also added a simple hypothetical APSK radio example that supports configurable
packet-level, bit-level, and symbol-level simulations for model verification.
- Added a work in progress Wireless tutorial in the tutorials/wireless folder.
INET-2.99.0 (November 2014) - Development
This release is a snapshot of the development that has begun in early 2013, and
will culminate in the release of INET-3.0. The code is work in progress, which
means all details may still change until 3.0 is reached.
This release requires OMNeT++ 4.6 or later.
The highlights of this release are:
1. Network layer refactoring that allows higher layer protocols (including
routing protocols) to be written in a network protocol agnostic manner.
2. A new physical layer model that builds upon the INET and MiXiM physical
layers, and brings them to new heights. Design goals were extreme modularity,
extensibility, the ability to support (and easily switch between) various
levels of detail, and the ability to add support for exploiting various
pieces of parallel hardware.
3. Extensive refactoring aimed at improving code quality. It includes
directory restructuring, code formatting, refactoring of init stages and
publish-subscribe communication, and more.
Read on for further details.
Geometry model:
- Added new orientation related classes: EulerAngles, Rotation, and Quaternion.
- Added new basic 3D geometry classes: LineSegment, Box, Plane, and Polygon.
- Added new 3D convex shapes: Cuboid, Sphere, Prism, and Polyhedron.
- Added new geometry cache data structures: SpatialGrid, QuadTree, and BVHTree.
Physical environment model:
- Removed obsolete classes: Obstacle, ObstacleControl, and AnnotationManager.
- Implemented a completely new physical environment model as follows.
- Added a new global PhysicalEnvironment module that provides some trivial
global properties: temperature, space limits, and a list of physical objects.
- Added a new PhysicalObject class that has shape, position, orientation,
material, and various graphics properties.
- Added a new Material class along with some default materials: vacuum, air,
copper, aluminium, wood, brick, concrete, and glass.
- Added a new IObjectCache interface for efficient physical object queries
along a line segment.
- Added IObjectCache implementations: GridObjectCache and BVHObjectCache.
- Added an XML file format to initialize the physical environment with shapes,
materials, and physical objects.
- Added support for drawing the physical objects on a compound module canvas
(Tkenv) in 2D as seen from a configured view angle.
- Added examples that demonstrate the initialization and usage of the physical
environment, the physical objects, and the configuration of the object cache.
Power model:
- Removed obsolete classes: IBattery, BasicBattery, InetSimpleBattery and Energy.
- Implemented a completely new power model.
- Added new interfaces: IEnergyConsumer, IEnergyStorage, and IEnergyGenerator.
- Added implementations: IdealEnergyStorage, and SimpleEnergyStorage.
- Added a new power consumer implementation for radios based on the radio mode,
the reception state, and the transmission state: StateBasedEnergyConsumer.
Physical layer:
- Refactored and unified the existing INET and MiXiM physical layer models into
a new extended and scalable model as follows.
- Designed new interfaces and classes to support optimistic parallel computation
of reception results utilizing multicore CPUs and/or GPUs.
- Designed new model that supports different level of details with respect to
transmitters, receivers, radio signals, antennas, propagation models, etc.
- Added new radio signal power representations: scalar and dimensional over
time, frequency, space, etc.
- Added various performance vs. accuracy tradeoff configuration options (e.g.
range filter, radio mode filter, listening mode filter, MAC address filter)
- Added concurrent transmitter and receiver radio mode (transceiver mode).
- Added separate controllable radio mode and automatic signaling of reception
state and transmission state.
- Added configurable non-zero time radio mode switching.
- Added separate power consumption model based on the radio mode, the reception
state and the transmission state.
- Added support for burst mode (back to back) transmissions.
- Introduced compile time checked physical units in C++ code to avoid conversion
errors and to enhance self documentation.
Physical layer radio model:
- Removed obsolete classes: Radio, IdealRadio, GenericRadio, GenericRadioModel,
IRadio, IRadioModel, INoiseGenerator, and some others.
- Added new interfaces: IRadio, IAntenna, ITransmitter, IReceiver, and IErrorModel.
- Added new implementation classes: Radio, IdealRadio, ScalarRadio,
DimensionalRadio, Ieee80211Radio, and Ieee802154UWBIRRadio.
- Added a number of implementation base classes and subcomponents unlisted here.
- Added and updated error model implementations: FlatErrorModel,
Ieee80211NistErrorModel, Ieee80211YansErrorModel
- Introduced controllable radio mode: off, sleep, receiver, transmitter,
transceiver, and switching.
- Introduced automatically signaled reception state: undefined, idle, busy,
synchronizing and receiving.
- Introduced automatically signaled transmission state: undefined, transmitting.
- Added new antenna classes: IsotropicAntenna, ConstantGainAntenna,
DipoleAntenna, and InterpolatingAntenna.
Physical layer radio medium model:
- Removed obsolete classes: ChannelAccess ChannelControl, IdealChannelModel,
IdealChannelModelAccess and some others.
- Added new interfaces to model the radio medium: IRadioMedium, IPropagation,
IBackgroundNoise, IPathLoss, IObstacleLoss, IAttenuation, and INeighborCache.
- Added new implementation classes: RadioMedium, IdealRadioMedium,
ScalarRadioMedium, DimensionalRadioMedium, Ieee80211RadioMedium, and
- Added propagation models: ConstantTimePropagation and ConstantSpeedPropagation.
- Added background noise source models: ScalarIsotropicBackgroundNoise and
- Refactored existing path loss models: FreeSpacePathLoss, LogNormalShadowing,
TwoRayGroundReflection, NakagamiFading, RayleighFading, RicianFading, and
- Added new path loss models: BreakpointPathLoss and UWBIRStochasticPathLoss
from MiXiM.
- Added a new obstacle loss model: TracingObstacleLoss.
- Added INeighborCache implementations: ListNeighborCache, GridNeighborCache,
and QuadTreeNeighborCache.
Physical layer communication model:
- Removed obsolete classes: AirFrame, IdealAirFrame and SnrList.
- Added new interfaces: IRadioFrame, ITransmission, IArrival, IReception,
INoise, ISNIR, IListening, and IReceptionDecision.
- Added new implementation classes: RadioFrame, Arrival, Interference,
ScalarSNIR, DimensionalSNIR.
- Added a number of implementation base classes unlisted here.
- Added range based, narrow band scalar and dimensional signal power
representations for transmissions, receptions, and noise.
Link layer:
- Added a simple MAC protocol for testing purposes: IdealMac.
- Ported MAC protocols from MiXiM: CSMA, BMACLayer, and LMacLayer.
Network layer:
- IPv4/IPv6: dynamic registration of upper layer protocols.
TCP, UDP, SCTP, RSVP, OSPF, MANET are all merged into transport gates.
Network user modules must register their protocol number by sending
an IPRegisterProtocolCommand from initialize().
Introduced an IPSocket class that wraps the registration process.
- Refactoring: routing tables and routes now implement a common IRoutingTable
and IRoute C++ interface (details below)
Motivation: allow uniform access to the IPv4, IPv6 and possibly other routing tables;
e.g. some wireless networks may use MAC address as network address. Also, in
simulation it sometimes makes sense to work with simple abstract addresses like
module names, indices or IDs.
Being able to uniformly access routing tables containing different types of
addresses makes it possible to implement routing protocols in generic way.
I.e. the same DYMO module can work with IPv4, IPv6, MAC and other addresses
without change and recompiling.
Ingredients of this patch:
- generic L3Address class that can hold all kinds of addresses (=union)
- interfaces for generic access: IRoutingTable, IRoute, INetworkDatagram, etc.
- Ping refactoring (use generic addressing instead of hardcoded IPv4, IPv6)
- merged routing table change notification constants for IPv4 and IPv6
- NetworkLayer was renamed to IPv4NetworkLayer and moved into src/networklayer/ipv4;
same for IPv6 (NetworkLayer6 -> IPv6NetworkLayer).
- IPvXAddress ha been extended and renamed to L3Address. Similarly,
IPvXAddressResolver became L3AddressResolver. In addition to IPv4 and IPv6
addresses, L3Address also allows using other kinds of addresses and identifiers
(e.g. MACAddress, module IDs, module paths) for network-layer addressing.
- Added GenericNetworkProtocol, which is a simplified network protocol with
table-based forwarding. It uses L3Address, so it is agnostic to the network-layer
address type.
- Added MultiNetworkLayer, which is a wrapper for multiple network layers; in
practice it can be used for simulating IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack hosts.
- Ported network protocols from MiXiM: Flood, ProbabilisticBroadcast, and WiseRoute.
C++ source cleanup:
- Changed include directives to specify the full path of the header file. This
resolves ambiguities caused by different projects having similar header files,
and by case-insensitive file systems (Windows).
- Changed header guards to use a uniform syntax.
- Applied code formatting (whitespace, braces, etc.) Formatter script (based on
uncrustify) is under _scripts/reformat, for future formatting needs.
- Introduced C++ namespaces: inet, inet::utils, inet::ospf, inet::bgp, inet::sctp, etc.
- Init stages have been refactored: initialization is now done bottom-up,
by layers, and hardcoded init stage numbers have been replaced by symbolic
- Removed NotificationBoard and INotifiable: all modules now use OMNeT++ signals
for publish/subscribe communication.
- Improved logging: log messages have been classified by importance, and logging
to EV has been replaced by EV_ERROR, EV_WARN, EV (for EV_INFO), EV_DETAIL,
EV_DEBUG and EV_TRACE accordingly. Proper support for these log categories
will be available from OMNeT++ 5.0, for 4.x they are simply mapped to EV.
- Several modules have been adapted to the coding conventions, e.g. the RTP models.
Directory reorganization:
- Moved src/ under src/inet/ to avoid header conflicts with 3rd party software.
- base/ and util/ have been consolidated into common/ and its several subdirectories
(e.g. common/misc/, common/geometry/, common/queue/, common/lifecycle/)
- queue/ has become common/queue/.
- Routing protocols have been moved into the new routing/ toplevel directory
from networklayer/routing/, networklayer/bgpv4 and networklayer/ospfv2/.
- Protocols in networklayer/manetrouting/ have been moved into routing/extras/.
- transport/ has been renamed to transportlayer/.
- battery/ has been replaced by power/, intended to hold models for power management
related components.
- The physicallayer/ toplevel directory has been created to hold the new physical
layer model.
- The environment/ toplevel directory has been created for models that represent
the global physical environment.
- world/ no longer exists, its contents has been distributed to other directories.
- status/ lives on as common/lifecycle/.
- networklayer/autorouting/ has become networklayer/configurator/.
- applications/httptools/ has been split up to several subdirectories: browser/,
server/, configurator/, common/.
INET 2.6 (March 05, 2015) - Stable
This release requires OMNeT++ 4.4 or later. It contains the following changes:
- made compatible with OMNeT++ 5.0b1
- added OLIA for CMT-SCTP (by Martin Becke)
- added a trace player feature to NetPerfMeter
- fixed compile errors when using OMNeT++ 5.0b1
- fixed an issue with too small initial value of 'ssthreshold' in TCP
- fixed window scaling in TCP
- added INET_VERSION macro (in hexadecimal form e.g.: 0x0206)
INET 2.5.1 (November 7, 2014)
This release requires OMNeT++ 4.4.
- fixed a crash in SCTP
- now builds with all features turned off
INET 2.5.0 (October 29, 2014)
This release requires OMNeT++ 4.4.
- made the codebase compile in C++11 mode. (required by OMNeT++ 4.6)
- added netperfmeter application by Thomas Dreibholz
INET-2.4.0 (June 12, 2014)
New AODV protocol implementation:
- From-scratch AODV implementation backported from the integration
branch; see src/network/routing/
- Added support for link break detection in IdealWireless
(using the NF_LINK_BREAK signal)
- VoIPStream updated to match the latest version of ffmpeg library.
- Added packet printers that can dump packet data in OMNeT++ 4.5/Tkenv
in the packet trace window.
- Fixed non-conformant 802.11 WAITACK timeout computation
INET-2.3.0 (March 17, 2014)
This release contains several new protocols, and a lot of changes that were
backported from the current integration branch (destined to be INET 3.0).
This release requires OMNeT++ 4.3.
Application startTime/stopTime fixes:
- apps start sending at startTime, and send their last packet
before stopTime
- negative stopTime means sending forever
- if startTime and stopTime are the same, the app sends a single
packet only (except TCP apps)
DHCPServer and Client:
- The whole implementation has been reviewed to bring it closer to
the standards defined in RFC 2131 and 2132.
- Major changes were made both in client's and server's state machines.
It is now extended with new states (INIT-REBOOT, REBOOTING) and
with new message types (DHCPNAK, DHCPDECLINE). The new states allow
the user to model scenarios with lifecycle events.
- The server's performance model has been removed.
- The internal representation of the DHCP options were moved to the
DHCPOptions INET message definition file.
- Limitation: The client module currently does not support multiple
DHCP servers and BOOTP relay agents.
SCTP improvements submitted by Irene Rungeler and Thomas Dreibholz:
- added CMT support (Concurrent Multipath Transfer)
- added SCTP NAT support
- added support for using SCTP over IPv6
STP / RSTP support (802.1d) added to the EthernetSwitch:
- STP: added IEEE 802.1D-1998 implementation of Spanning Tree Protocol.
The source code is based on the ANSA (
- RSTP: added IEEE 802.1D-2004 implementation of Spanning Tree Protocol.
The source code is based on Juan Luis Garrote Molinero's implementation
- Interfaces can be configured using the new L2NetworkConfigurator module.
This module allows one to configure network scenarios at Layer 2.
- Replaced the EtherSwitch relay unit with a new, STP/RSTP capable one.
The CPU and memory modelling are no longer supported in this relay unit.
Nodes automatically pick-up the network configuration on restart:
- An IPv4NodeConfigurator module has been added to hosts, which is responsible
for configuring the host on restart based on information stored in the
IPv4NetworkConfigurator module.
INetFilter::IHook API:
Modules can now hook into the IP module with the new 'NetFilter' API.
Routing protocols can be implemented now without modifying the IP
module's code. ManetRoutingBase, InternetCloud and ARP have been updated
to use the new 'NetFilter' API.
Added new routing protocols:
- RIP (networklayer/routing/rip)
- GPSR (networklayer/routing/gpsr)
- DYMO (networklayer/routing/dymo)
These protocols use INetFilter::IHook, too.
Revised Mobility code:
Split the 'models' directory into multiple directories:
- contract - specifies the interface of mobility models
- common - shared files among mobility models that are not complete
mobility models
- static - mobility models that actually don't move
- single - mobility models controlling only one moving object
- group - mobility models controlling multiple interlinked moving objects
Added the Stanford University Interim radio propagation model contributed
by Konrad Polys and Krzysztof Grochla.
Other, smaller changes:
- Added ILifecycle support to most applications
- Renamed AppBase to ApplicationBase and moved to 'common'.
- UDP: added option to specify the source address of the sent datagram
- UDPBasicBurst: added bool parameter: excludeLocalDestAddresses
- UDPVideoStreamCli: use stages in initialize
- UDPApp*: Added AppBase and subclassed UDP apps from it.
Binds sockets at startTime and closes them at stopTime.
- EtherApp* bugfixes
- Added a command to set TCP queue length threshold. TCP will notify the
application if it is ready to transmit more bytes.
- registerSignal() calls were moved from initialize() to static
variable declarations.
- Added/fixed @signal declarations, fixed the type of emitted values.
- httptools: removed the fileExists() function.
- New logging mechanism + EV handling in preparation for the new OMNeT++ 5.0
logging mechanism.
- IPv4Route/IPv6Route: added administrative distance field
- Added IPv6 header serializer (so ext interfaces can be used with IPv6, too)
- Invalid access of message pointers fixed in: OSPF, SCTP, DHCP, PingApp
- Battery: code review, small fixes.
- Revised init stages in all modules
- Many smaller fixes and improvements (see the ChangeLog files for further detail.)
INET-2.2.0 (August 22, 2013)
The main highlight of this release is the long-sought support for
simulating node shutdown/restart events for network nodes.
This release requires OMNeT++ 4.2 or later.
New features:
1. Lifecycle infrastructure.
For node shutdown/crash/startup/etc, a LifecycleOperation (e.g.
NodeShutdownOperation) is applied to the submodule tree of the node
(host or router) by LifecycleController. Each module can decide how
to handle the operation and how to store the resulting state (up/down,etc).
Operations can be multi-stage, and don't need to complete immediately
(i.e. they can take nonzero simulation time and multiple events to complete).
Network nodes now also have a status submodule (type NodeStatus) with the sole
purpose of storing the whole node's status (up/down) and displaying it
via icons.
- classes: ILifecycle, LifecycleOperation (NodeOperation, InterfaceOperation),
LifecycleController, NodeStatus
- NodeStatus module to store the network node's status (up or down)
- added optional NodeStatus submodule to NodeBase
- added a test for the basic Lifecycle infrastructure
We also removed obsolete ways of shutdown/restart: FailureManager, PowerControl,
2. Static IP4 configuration:
A new module, IPv4NodeConfigurator was added to IPv4NetworkLayer. This module
is necessary because IPv4NetworkConfigurator cannot configure the node after
a restart (see newly introduced node lifecycle operations above), since
being a global module, it doesn't know about node lifecycle events. The new
module listens to node lifecycle events, and configures the node's routing
table and interfaces according to configuration computed by the network's
global IPv4NetworkConfigurator module. Initialization-time node configuration
is also carried out by the new module.
3. Added TCP Vegas and Westwood algorithms.
The implementation is a slightly improved version of a 2013 workshop submission:
"INET framework extensions for TCP Vegas and TCP Westwood", Maria Fernandez,
Carlos Calafate, Juan-Carlos Cano and Pietro Manzoni. OMNeT++ Workshop, 2013.
4. Added IdealWirelessNic (IdealRadio + IdealWirelessMac) and IdealWirelessFrame msg.
This is a highly abstracted wireless NIC that consists of a unit disk radio
and a trivial MAC protocol. It offers simplicity for scenarios where Layer 1
and Layer 2 effects can be completely ignored, for example testing the basic
functionality of a wireless ad-hoc routing protocol.
The most important parameter this model accepts is the transmission range.
When a radio transmits a frame, all other radios within transmission range
will receive the frame correctly, and radios out of range will not be
affected at all. There are no collisions -- a radio can simultaneously
receive any number of frames, and also transmit a single frame at the same time.
5. STCP received several new features (patches submitted by Irene Ruengeler):
- 8 new strategies for SCTP stream scheduling
- SCTP Stream Reset (RFC 6525)
- SCTP Authentication (RFC 4895)
- Add-IP feature for SCTP (RFC 5061)
- NR_SACK feature to SCTP
- Partial Reliability SCTP (RFC 3758)
- SCTP packet drop feature (draft-stewart-sctp-pktdrprep-15.txt)
- SCTP "sack immediately" feature (draft-ietf-tsvwg-sctp-sack-immediately)
- several alternatives to send fast retransmissions on SCTP
6. Loopback interface added
Loopback used to be a special case inside the IPv4/IPv6 modules, now it
is handled completely like any other interface, with a separate Loopback
7. EtherSwitch, AccessPoint:
Bare EtherMAC modules have been replaced with EthernetInterface, so that
external queues can be used (useful for e.g. QoS).
8. InterfaceTable, NIC, NetworkLayer:
Revert to earlier behavior of determining networkLayerGateIndex.
Now the module connected to a NIC *must* have gate vectors called ifIn and ifOut.
If it doesn't, the code decides that the NIC is *not* directly connected to
a network layer, and leaves networkLayerGateIndex unfilled.
Other, smaller changes:
- MANET protocols have been synchronized with the INETMANET project
- NodeBase: added optional battery (off by default)
- UDP: implemented ReuseAddress option (it's like SO_REUSEADDR socket
option in Linux). If ReuseAddress is set to true on two sockets,
then they can bind to the same local address/port.
- PingApp and other apps: for the stopTime parameter, 'none' is now represented
by -1, not 0. As this is the default setting, likely very few simulations
(ini files) are affected.
- IPv4NetworkConfigurator: added @groups to <interface> (ie. multicast groups
can now be also specified in the <interface> element, not only in a separate
<multicast-group> element)
- in many simulation examples, .irt files were replaced by IPv4NetworkConfigurator XML.
- EtherMACFullDuplex: wait IFG *after* frames, not before.
- Ieee80211Mac: added signals declarations and statistics in the NED file
- EthernetInterface: the encap submodule was made replaceable ("like IEtherEncap")
- NED: Added InterfaceTable unconditionally to bridge devices, as it is currently
required by IPv4NetworkConfigurator. Also added NotificationBoard required by
- IPv4NetworkConfigurator: Changed to support mixed wired and wireless LANs
for autoconfiguration.
- Fixed IPv4NetworkConfigurator bug sometimes not being able to assign addresses.
Changed to assign most constrained addresses first.
- RTPHost was moved from src/transport to src/nodes/, and changed to be based
on StandardHost
- TurtleMobility: Fixed getting the position from a mobility signal listener
during initialization. The script was resumed before initialize() finished,
resulting in incorrect positioning.
- StaticGridMobility: Added new parameters to specify the number of rows/columns
and the horizontal/verical separation between the nodes. Note that the way
the node positions are calculated has changed. You may need to update your
INI files (see the NED file for more info.)
- Many smaller fixes and improvements
INET-2.1.0 (Jan 31, 2013)
- Added a new module to model an "internet cloud". The component can
be configured to model packet delay, datarate and drop probability
between each input-output interface pair. The parameter matrix
is provided as an XML configuration file. See the README file
in src/nodes/internetcloud for further details.
- New SimpleVoIPReceiver/Sender applications that gather MOS (Mean
Opinion Score) for measuring voice quality.
- Added HNA support to the Batman protocol (MANET)
- PingApp: Shows the configured destination address at the end of the
- TCPBasicClientApp: bugfix #611: simulation generated an ASSERT if
numRequestsPerSession parameter value larger than 1.
- TcpApp: socket state is now shown on the GUI (in Echo, Sink and Session apps.)
- VoipTool: was renamed to VoIPStream (The actual module names are
- Transmission channel's 'disabled' parameter is now correctly handled in
- Better parameter processing in MAC: error is thrown if an undefined value
is specified for the opmode or autoBitrate parameters.
- Added the Ieee80211Descriptor class to assign modulation speed
and type for the different opModes.
- Bugfix: Default bitrate for opMode 'p' was incorrectly set.
- Minor optimizations
- Bugfix: The text in specification "sets the ConnectRetryTimer to zero" means:
restart this timer. The _connectRetryTime member now stores the timeout value.
- updated documentation
- replaced Uint128 with ManetNetworkAddress
- removed:
- unused ManetTimer and BatmanTimer class
- unused static variables
- isIpLocalAddress(), uses isLocalAddress()
- convertAddressToString()
- getXPos(), getYPos() functions, you should use getPosition()
- redesigned coordinate and speed storage and access.
replaced double x,y with a Coord. getDirection() now returns the
speed vector (as a Coord)
- getters returns UNSPECIFIED_ADDRESS if addrType==UNDEFINED
- merged sendToIp() code into a common base function sendToIpOnIface()
- AODV's hand-written descriptors were replaced with generated ones
[with A.Varga]
- aodv_msg_struct.h: added getter methods expected by the generated
descriptors removed hand-written
- Updated and expanded documentation
- Updated the code to match the latest available "batmand" version.
- Numerous optimizations
- Fixed several memory leaks
- Fixed routing table corruption and possible crash when multiple
radios were used in a single host
- Fixed decapsulation of incoming packets. Now it checks for the
type of decapsulated packet.
- Fix for a problem when aggregated batman packets were
dropped erronously.
- Added HNA support. Nodes can advertise external networks,
so traffic towards those networks can be routed correctly.
Use the announcedNetworks parameter to specify multiple connected
external networks.
- Added SourceModifier script to help the conversion from the original
batmand code.
- fixes spaces, tabs and empty lines
- replaces some c-style structs to c++-style classes
- replaces some batmand specified list manipulators with c++ code
- replaces malloc/free with new/delete
- removes prof_start()/prof_stop() calls
- Added a new simulation with wired and wireless hosts exchanging UDP
data via an AccessPoint. It shows how to use the IPv4NetworkConfigurator
to mix wired and wireless networks.
- Fixes for BGP examples.
- New example to demonstrate HNA support in Batman.
- Hostautoconf examample moved to the adhoc folder.
Other changes:
- Uint128 class was removed. Use ManetNetworkAddress class instead.
- Visual changes in StandardHost/NodeBase: utility module icons are
now smaller and wlan[]/PingApp[] modules are displayed in a row.
- NodeBase: it is possible to use mobility module even if numRadios = 0
- Added check for detecting too small netmask parameter value in
- PacketDump: TCP header option fix (dumped only in verbose mode.)
- Bugfix #620. The module pointer returned by a ModuleAccess class is
now cached only if get() was used. For get(module) no caching is done.
- MACAddress: made the constructor explicit so we will not see
unexpected implicit conversions in future
- IPv6Address: removed Uint128 related functions and added an
additional constructMask() method
- headerserializers: compile fix for Visual C++ 10.0 and later
- Pcap now records on ALL interfaces by default (including external IFs).
Added Enter_Method for better error reporting if a packet cannot be
serialized. Also added an icon for PcapRecorder.
- Several TCP related fixes.
INET-2.0.0 (August 7, 2012)
If you are upgrading from an earlier INET version (i.e. INET 20111118),
expect to have to revise your existing omnetpp.ini files and possibly
NED/C++ files as well.
Changes since 1.99.5:
The DHCP protocol received several fixes. It is now possible to use DHCP
with both wired and wireless interfaces.
MANET routing protocols updated from INETMANET-2.0 @ 9a3dc7a
OLSR protocol received several patches allowing it to work with multiple
radios. It can work now on both wired and wireless interfaces.
- bugfix: The latest version of INET (1.99.5) contained a bug where
speed values for 11MBps and 12MBps were swapped.
- A new "bitrate" parameter was added to the Ieee80211Nic module.
The Radio and MAC module uses this bitrate to set thir own bitrate
value. Its default value is 11Mbps for 802.11b, 27Mbps for 802.11p
and 54Mbps for 802.11g and 802.11a. (i.e. the default bitrate depends
on the opMode parameter) This can avoid potential configuration
inconsitencies. UPDATE all your INI files accordingly.
The Ethernet module now throws an error message if two ethernet ports are
connected using an IdealChannel. Previously it just silently ignored the
connection that was definitely against the "least surprise" principle.
A new "Delayer" module has been added and DropsGenerator and DuplicatesGenerator
has been renamed to OrdinalBasedDropper and OrdinalBasedDuplicator respectively.
These modules implement the IHook module interface and can be installed inside
hosts to induce different packet errors. IHook modules can be inserted
between the network and link layer protocols.
The Ext-interface, TraCI, Mobility and Ping modules received some minor fixes.
See ChangeLogs in individual source folders for more information.
INET-1.99.5 (June 22, 2012)
This is the final testing version of the 1.99.x series leading to the 2.0
release. Requires OMNeT++ 4.2 (version 4.2.2 suggested).
Several OSPF fixes and changes in configuration (see the ChangeLog file
in the OSPF folder for details):
- improved error detection in xml config files
- replaced the ospfConfigFile string-type ned parameter with ospfConfig parameter (xml type)
- uses IPvXAddressResolver for reading IP address and IP netmask values from xml
- uses @name instead @id to identify the routers in the xml config
- most attributes in xml config became optional, and default values
come from ned the parameters of OSPFRouting (with same name)
- modified xml schema: converted most subnodes to attributes
- Added etc/OSPFold_to_OSPFnew.xsl for converting the old xml format to new, and
converted all the ospf config files to the new format in the examples folder
(after using the converter you must convert router@id to router@name by hand).
- added @toward attribute to XML for easier interface specification
old: interfaces were specified by their name (e.g. ifName="eth0").
new: interfaces can be specified either by their name (e.g. ifName="eth0"),
or by the name of a module the interface is connected to (e.g. toward="Area3.N9")
- fixed OSPF.xsd schema
Queueing components:
The networklayer/queue folder has moved to linklayer/queue folder as
queues are mostly used in linklayer. This is a new framework that can be
used to create more complex systems.
Old queuing components has been removed:
- DropTailQosQueue, REDQueue, WeightedFairQueue
- IQoSClassifier (moved to linklayer/ieee80211/mac)
- BasicDSCPClassifier
Some of them can be substituted by compound modules composed of these newly
added components:
- FIFOQueue
- REDDropper
- ThresholdDropper
- PriorityScheduler
- WRRScheduler
For example REDQueue is a combination of a REDDropper and a FIFOQueue,
and DropTailQosQueue is a combination of some classifier, DropTailQueues,
and a PriorityScheduler. Read the INET Manual (in doc folder) for more
information about the usage of these modules.
Brand new Differentiated Services component (using the Queueing framework)
that is implementing the following standards:
- RFC 2474: Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in
the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers
- RFC 2475: An Architecture for Differentiated Services
- RFC 2597: Assured Forwarding PHB Group
- RFC 2697: A Single Rate Three Color Marker
- RFC 2698: A Two Rate Three Color Marker
- RFC 3246: An Expedited Forwarding PHB (Per-Hop Behavior)
- RFC 3290: An Informal Management Model for Diffserv Routers
New send method on UDPSocket now allows to specify on which interface
the packets should be sent out.
Added DHCP protocol implementation by Juan Carlos Maureira
taken over from INETMANET-2.0 @ 7fb431b. It can be deployed just
like any other UDP apps.
MANET routing protocols updated from INETMANET-2.0 @ 7fb431b
The whole manetrouting directory was taken over.
Mobility: Added two new mobility models:
- TraCI + TraCIScenarioManager to connect with an external server
- LinearNodeDistribution - static hosts in a single line in
ANY direction
IPv4Route: removed the "type" attribute from the routing entries
VoIPTool: Now compiles with the latest version of ffmpeg libs
IGMPv2: external routers attached to the IGMP module are now
responsible for implementing the IGMP router logic (emitting queries
and processing group membership reports). In this case the IGMP
module passes all incoming IGMP messages to the external router.
Updated 802.11 model from INETMANET-2.0 @ 7fb431b (minor bugfixes)
All files are synced. The following features were omitted:
MULTIQUEUES, HWMP and MESH networking related code.
The default wireless NIC is now using the latest 802.11 code from
INETMANET. The Ieee80211NewNic was renamed to Ieee80211Nic. With
the new NIC it is now possible set the operating mode (a,b,g,p)
The original Ieee80211 implementation was removed to avoid confusion.
The ancient 802.11 implementation from the mobility framework was removed
(i.e. the mf80211 directory).
Added HostAutoConfigurator module (should be added inside a host)
This configurator is deprecated and should be used ONLY if the hosts are
dynamically created/deleted during the simulation. Otherwise please use the
new IPv4NetworkConfigurator.
IPv4NetworkConfigurator: Examples have been updated to use this configurator.
XML configuration format changes:
- added @among attribute for interface and multicast-group entries:
"among='X Y Z'" means "hosts='X Y Z' towards='X Y Z'"
- added @metric attribute for interface entry in XML
- added @id attribute for wireless entry
- several smaller bugfixes and documentation changes (see ChangeLog
in the directory)
IPv4 fix: subnet directed broadcast (e.g. works now:
When the datagram reaches the router of the subnet, it should
be forwarded as a link layer broadcast.
Changes in link layer
- added INic moduleinterface, all other network interfaces should
implement this
- renamed the netwIn, netwOut gates to upperLayerIn, upperLayerOut
Small fixes in MACAddress, PPP, IPv4NetworkConfigurator, VoIPTool,
Mobility, BatteryModule
INET-1.99.4 (March 20, 2012)
This version contains mainly bugfixes, plus some features that did not make
into the previous release. Requires OMNeT++ 4.2 (version 4.2.1 suggested).
- Added IPv4NetworkConfigurator, a new network configurator for IPv4
This is intended to replace both routing files (.irt/.mrt) and
specialized network configurators like FlatNetworkConfigurator,
and do much more.
Covers address assignment (manual, automatic), adding manual routes,
setting up static routing, optimizing the routing tables, etc.
Unlike FlatNetworkConfigurator, it will generate per-interface
addresses. Wireless networks are also supported.
- Added an IGMPv2 implementation, based on code contributed by Jesse Jones
Changes in IPv4 multicast routing:
- We now use reverse path forwarding (routing entry contains
source address/mask, multicast group, parent (incoming) interface
and the set of child (outgoing) interfaces).
- The new routing table enables to specify a separate multicast
routing tree per source network and multicast group. (Old
implementation used a common tree for each source.) The multicast
routing tree is represented by IPv4MulticastRoute entries.
- IRoutingTable has been extended with methods manipulating the
multicast routing entries. Notifications are generated, when
the multicast routing table changes.
- IPv4 multicast routing algorithm uses the multicast routes
for forwarding decisions.
- When HL does not specify the multicast interface for outgoing
datagrams, then it is selected according to the routing table
or the source address of the datagram.
Change from previous behavior:
- packets sent to a multicast address from higher layer: it used
to go out on each interface that had a matching route in the
routing table (unless mcast interface was specified by HL).
Now it only goes out on the first match route's interface;
if there's no match it goes out on the 1st multicast interface
(unless mcast interface was specified by HL). If you want to
send on multiple interfaces, you have to send multiple packets
from the higher layer.
- multicast forwarding: no longer takes into account the routes
in the unticast routing table that have mcast destinations.
Only the (new format) multicast table is used. This new
multicast routing table can only be configured with
IPv4NetworkConfigurator, routing files don't support it.
- mobility: fixed infinite loop when nextChange is set to current
simulation time
- base: Added createNode(), createLink() factory methods to Topology class.
- Enhancements in IPvXAddressResolver. The new resolver allows you
to specify an interface based on which module the interface is
connected to.
- Added a RoutingTableRecorder module that records all the changes
in the routing table to a file.
- OSPF & BGP fix:
- gateway is now correcty set on routing table entries.
- eliminated redundant nextHop field from routing table entries
- Fixed routing table change notifications.
- Added printMulticastRoutingTable() to IRoutingTable
- Added IPingApp interface and support for more than one PingApp
in a host.
- Changes in the UDP socket API:
The first call on an UDP socket do not need to be bind() or connect()
anymore. It is possible to create a socket and sending data immediately
by calling sendTo(). It is also possible to set socket options before
calling connect() or bind(). connect() can be called several times.
However the bind() call fails if the socket is already bound.
- LDP: The LDP module now creates a separate UDP socket for each
multicast interface of the node, sets the multicast interface
on them, and sends a copy of LDP-Hellos via each socket.
- ICMP messages are correctly handled now in all TCP implementations
(in LwIP and NSC, too)
See ChangeLogs in individual source folders for more information.
INET-1.99.3 (Feb 22, 2012)
With this release, we have started a review of all basic protocol modules in
the INET Framework, fixing bugs, refactoring for clarity and maintainability,
and implementing commonly needed missing features. A testing framework is also
falling into place. We have added ChangeLog files in each source directory
to make it easier to follow things for end users and contributors alike, and
we'll also be requiring ChangeLog entries from contributors who submit code
patches. ChangeLogs also include a brief history of the corresponding
components from the start; if you have fixes or amendments, please contact us.
This version of INET requires OMNeT++ 4.2 (version 4.2.1 suggested).
- Ethernet model improvements: EtherMAC refactored for better readability;
added reconnect support, better PAUSE support, support for 40 Gigabit and
100 Gigabit Ethernet; several bugfixes; regression and validation tests
- added predefined Ethernet link types: Eth10M, Eth100M, Eth1G, Eth10G,
Eth40G, Eth100G
- IPv4 model improvements: better fragmentation and multicast support; IPv4
module refactored for readability and maintainability; several bugfixes
- IPv4 routing table improvements: notification for routing entry changes
(routing entry objects no longer need to be immutable); lookup performance
optimization (routes are kept in decreasing prefix length order to speed up
longest prefix match); cleanup and bugfixes
- IPv6 improvements: implemented Default Router Selection as specified in
RFC 4861 6.3.6 (round-robin); tunneling is now available without xMIPv6;
implemented datagram fragmentation/reassembly; IPv6 now works over PPP;
several other bug fixes
- UDP: better multicast support and DSCP support (apps can specify ToS [IPv4] /
Traffic Class [IPv6] byte); bug fixes
- PPPInterface, EthernetInterface: use queueType="" instead of queueType=
"NoQueue" to turn off external queue module and use internal queue.
- Ieee80211, MANET routing: updated to latest INETMANET release:
radio: added support for noise generators and configurable error models;
802.11: Airtime Link Metric support; duplicate frame detection / filtering;
support for prioritizing of multicast frames
- added WeightedFairQueue from INETMANET
- removed Ieee802.11 Mesh feature. It depended on too many upper layer
protocols and features.
- statistics (@statistic properties) cleaned up in all modules: standardized
on lower case statistics titles; record packet counts in a less confusing
way (NOT as rcvdPkBytes:count); cleaned up recorder lists
- miscellaneous: timer usage optimized in DYMO_FAU; revised PingApp, e.g.
printPing is now turned off by default; numerous bug fixes and improvements
- added a test suite (tests/); it contains fingerprint tests (for regression
testing); smoke tests (crude regression tests); statistical tests (for
validation); unit tests (of classes/modules); and other tests. We make most
use of fingerprint tests, so they are probably in the best state.
See ChangeLogs in individual source folders for more information.
INET-1.99.2 (Nov 18, 2011)
Requires OMNeT++ 4.2 (final).
- Integrated Kristjan Jonsson's HttpTools project,
- The mobility models have been revised and brought in sync with their
MiXiM versions; added 3D coordinate system from MiXim; added MoBAN mobility
model from MiXiM.
- UDP: multicast, broadcast and ttl support; bugfixes; heavy API changes.
It is now possible to receive broadcasts and multicasts. Implemented support
for the following socket options: time-to-live (unicast and multicast),
broadcast, multicast output interface, join multicast group, leave multicast
group. Connect without bind is now supported (used to be an error).
The cost of the above is changes in the way you talk to the UDP module:
UDPControlInfo has been split to several classes (UDPBindCommand, UDPConnect-
Command, UDPSendCommand, etc.), and the UDPSocket class has been redesigned.
Check transport/udp/ChangeLog for detailed information.
- Apps: some standardization of parameter names, so that various modules don't
call the same thing differently. Introduced the following names:
'startTime', 'stopTime', 'sendInterval', 'localAddress', 'localPort'.
E.g. the following parameters became 'sendInterval': 'messageFreq',
'waitTime', 'packetInterval', 'interval', and 'waitInterval'.
- Added a 'stopTime' parameter to several apps: TelnetApp, UDPBasicApp,
TCPBasicClientApp, IPvXTrafGen, EtherAppCli
- UDPBasicBurst revised
- Removed Blackboard (it was obsolete and out of use)
- Numerous bugfixes.
INET-1.99.1 (May 27, 2011)
This is a beta of a major feature release, with new models and a lot of
incompatible changes. It requires at least OMNeT++ 4.2b2.
If you are upgrading from an earlier INET version, expect to have
to revise your existing simulations.
- INET can now be compiled with various parts turned off. This is based on
the new OMNeT++ Project Features facility, avaiable from 4.2b2, see
slides 9-13. INET project features are defined in the .oppfeatures file;
features can be turned on/off in Project -> Project Features... in the IDE.
Not all features will compile on Windows: the ones that need to be turned off
on Windows are TCP_NSC, TCP_lwIP, VoIPTool, MANET Routing, Mesh Networking.
- Integrated the following external packages: VoIPTool, xMIPv6.
- Several components were taken over from INETMANET: MANET routing, combined
802.11a/b/g/e model, 802.11 mesh networking, obstacle model, several
mobility models, battery model, globalARP feature. Multiple radio support
has also been added to INET, loosely based on the INETMANET solution.
- NED-level cleanup of several compound modules: hosts, routers, NICs, APs,
switches, etc. There were a lot of very similar modules that differred in the
presence or type of one or more submodules, resulting in code duplication
and confusion in general. Many variants have been eliminated, and the
differences have been mapped to parameters, parametric or conditional
- ChannelController now deals only with radios and not hosts. This makes it
possible to have hosts with several radio interfaces. The radios are
registered/unregistered in the ChannelAccess module (previously host
registration was done by the mobility modules). ChannelControl/ChannelAccess
are now completely independent of the mobility modules. This means that if
there is no mobility module present in a host, the host's displaystring
will be used to set the static positions of the radios.
- Ethernet switch was moved under the linklayer/ethernet/switch directory.
EtherHostQ is now called EtherHost. To have no queue in the Ethernet host,
specify queueType="NoQueue" (which in fact inserts a dummy queue).
In EtherSwitch, EtherHost and inside the EthernetInterface the
csmacdSupport parameter can be used to switch between the full (EtherMAC)
and the simplified (EtherMACFullDuplex) implementation.
- EthernetInterfaceFullDuplex removed. By default EthernetInterface is using
EtherMACFullDuplex, a simplified MAC that does not support CSMA/CD and works
only with point-to-point links. Use the EthernetInterface with
csmacdSupport=true to turn on CSMA/CD support (EtherMAC).
- IPv4-related modules and classes whose names started with "IP" were renamed
to start with "IPv4", to be more explicit and more future-proof. IP->IPv4,
IPAddress->IPv4Address, IPControlInfo->IPv4ControlInfo, IPRoute->IPv4Route,
IPDatagram->IPv4Datagram, etc.
- Renamed routingTableFile to routingTable in RoutingTable6. Added default
parameter value. You no longer need to specify **.routingTableFile =
xmldoc("empty.xml") and have an empty.xml file in the model directory.
OMNeT++ 4.2 supports the xml("<inlinexml/>") syntax; we now use that for
the default value.
- New PcapRecorder module (in StandardHost) for recording traffic to a pcap file.
It is intended as a replacement for the old TCPDump module.
- StandardHost and Router now have a common base (containing Link~ and
NetworkLayer) Wireless~ and AdhocHost is derived from StandardHost. All of
them (including Router) support multiple wireless, Ethernet, PPP and
external interfaces (i.e. multiple wireless radios are supported using
different channels)
- Several modules - especially inside StandardHost - are now conditional
(using NED's new "conditional submodule" feature), and will be instantiated
only if needed. For example, TCP is only instantiated if there are TCP
applications configured for the host.
- Router and StandardHost have optional mobility support. The mobility module
is created only if there are wireless cards present in the node (numRadios>0).
Of course WirelessHost and AdhocHost have mobility by default. You can configure
the mobility type using the "mobilityType" parameter. BasicMobility have
been renamed to NullMobility (resulting stationary nodes). There is a dummy
mobility type called NoMobility which does not have any C++ implementation.
Nodes that do not need mobility support (i.e. no radios) should set their type
to NoMobility.
- FailedRouter has been removed (was a trivial node). BurstHost moved to the
example directory (it was not generic and was used only by a single example).
MobileHost has been removed; use AdhocHost instead as a drop-in replacement.
- Network Interface Cards (Ieee80211Nic, EthernetInterface and PPPInterface)
now support input and output hook modules that implement the IHook interface.
Hooks are useful for simulating packet drops, duplication or measuring thruput.
The number of hook modules can be controlled with the numInputHooks /
numOutputHooks parameters, and the hook's type via typename.
An example: that installs two hooks in the input path of PPP:
**.ppp[*].numInputHooks = 2
**.ppp[*].inputHook[0].typename = "DropsGenerator"
**.ppp[*].inputHook[1].typename = "ThruputMeter"
- Network interfaces can specify a queueType paramater. Possible values:
DropTailQueue, DropTailQoSQueue, REDQueue, NoQueue.
To disable queueing, use NoQueue: **.ppp[*].queueType = "NoQueue"
- PPPInterfaceNoQueue and EthernetInterfaceNoQueue have been removed; use the
queueType="NoQueue" parameter in the interfaces.
- TCP, UDP and SCTP implementations are now pluggable; you can select the
implementation with the tcpType, udpType and sctpType parameters in the host.
Modules must implement ITCP, IUDP and ISCTP interface and the specify
the implementing NED type in the parameter. At the moment SCTP and UDP
have only one implementation. TCP has TCP (the default INET implementation),
TCP_NSC (Network Simulation Cradle) and TCP_lwIP (the lightweight IP stack).
- AccessPoint has been generalized. Now it supports both (multiple) wireless
and ethernet ports. Relaying between ethernet and wireless ports is now
supported. A relay unit is created only if more than one ports are present
in the AccessPoint, i.e. having a single radio and no ethernet connections
will fall back to a single wireless NIC without a relay unit. Having no radio
and several ethernet ports connected will practically result in an ethernet
- Wireless NICs now should implement IWirelessNIC. Now we have only a single
Ieee80211Nic implementation instead of the 5 variants we have previously.
Management type (Adhoc, AccessPoint, Station, AccessPointSimplified and
StationSimplified) can be configured using the mgmtType parameter of the NIC
(instead of having separate NIC types for each.)
- Multiple radios on independent channels are now supported by all nodes. See
the wireless/multiradio example.
- The radio infrastucture have been refactored. All radios should now implement
the IRadio interface. They are now pluggable. RadioModel can be configured
also via a module parameter. The attenuationModel parameter was moved from
the radio to ChannelController (it is now global) and renamed to propagationModel.
Several new propagation model have been added (see NED file docs).
- Removed the TCPSpoofingHost node. Use instead StandardHost with the
tcpType="TCPSpoof" parameter.
- NAMTrace and NAMTraceWriter modules have been moved to the obsolete directory.
Turn on event logging instead and use the eventlog animator in the IDE. Event
logging can be turned on with --record-eventlog=true from the command line or
using the toolbar button in Tkenv. Once the .elog file is generated, right
click on it in the IDE and select Open with / Animation Player.
- ChannelInstaller module has been removed. Implemented a ThruputMeteringChannel that
extends DatarateChannel. It adds thruputDisplayFormat that allows showing different
statistics along the source gate of the channel. Specifying "" as display format
results the same behavior as DatarateChannel (with no performance penalty).
If you want to gather statistics, you do not need this channel. The DatarateChannel
already emits signals "channelBusy", "messageSent" and "messageDiscarded"
that can be used to calculate different statistics. Use "opp_run -h neddecls"
to see what statistics are provided by default. e.g in INI file use
**.channel.throughput.result-recording-modes=+last to store all channel's
thoughput values as scalars.
INET-1.99.0 (March 3, 2011)
This is a beta of a major feature release, with new models and also incompatible
changes. If you are upgrading from an earlier INET version, expect to have
to revise your existing omnetpp.ini files and possibly NED/C++ files as well.
The most significant changes:
- replaced cOutVector and recordScalar() with signal-based statistics
recording in most places (see @statistic properties in NED files)
- support for more than one type of tcpApp and udpApp in StandardHost
(elimination of tcpAppType/udpAppType parameters)
- Interfaces renamed to start with letter "I". BasicMobility -> IMobility,
TCPApp->ITCPApp, UDPApp->IUDPApp, SCTPApp->ISCTPApp, MacRelayUnit->IMacRelayUnit,
Radio->IRadio, Ieee80211Mgmt->IIeee80211Mgmt, OutputQueue->IOutputQueue,
- added new AdhocHost for basic node types used in adhoc networks. Supports
mobility and multiple wireless radios. It obsoletes the MFMobileHost
(use AdhocHost with **.wlan.type-name=Nic80211) and MobileHost (use AdhocHost
with default parameters)
- added new AccessPoint module with configurable wireless, ethernet and relay
unit and mobility module types. Obsoletes: WirelessAP and WirelessAPWithEth
(use AccessPoint), WirelessAPSimplified and WirelessAPWithEthSimplified
(use AccessPoint with **.wlan.type-name=Ieee80211NicAPSimplified),
WirelessHost (use StandardHost with numRadios=1) and WirelessHostSimplified
(use StandardHost with numRadios=1 and **.wlan.type-name=Ieee80211NicSTASimplified)
- in StandardHost and Router it is now possible to configure what wireless, ethernet, ppp
or external interfaces are used. Wired interfaces must implement IWiredNic, and wireless
modules must implement IWirelessNic. Mobility type and number of wireless cards (default=0)
can be also configured via **.wlan.type-name and **.mobility.type-name. The use of
interfaces obsoletes several older modules which differed only in interface types
(like WirelessHost or ExtRouter)
- enhanced Router to support external interfaces, ppp, wireless, ethernet etc. This module
is similar to StandardHost except it does not contain the transport layer and application layer
protocols (plus IPForwarding is enabled by default). Obsoletes the ExtRouter module (use Router)
- NetworkLayer and NetworkLayer6: added dummy modules that implement the IHook interface
at the bottom of network layer (above link layer). This allows one to insert
thruput metering, packet drop and duplication modules etc. without modifying the module.
New modules implementing IHook: ThruputMeter, DropsGenerator, DuplicatesGenerator and Nop.
Use **.networkLayer.outputHook.type-name = "ThruputMeter" to configure them (use inputHook
for incoming traffic)
- added global ARP optimization. If you are not interested in modeling the traffic of ARP protocol,
it is now possible to use a much faster implementation by specifying (by Alfonso Ariza Quintana):
- multiple radios (on multiple channels) are supported by StandardHost, AdhocHost
and Router if ChannelControllerExtended is used in the network.
- point-to-point Ethernet links can now use normal DatarateChannels
(EtherMAC's txrate parameter was removed)
- added a new TCP model that directly wraps the lwIP stack (without
NetworkSimulationCradle (NSC) overhead)
- TCP transfer mode (bytecount / cPacket / bytestream) is now
controlled by the app via a control info field (the sendQueueClass/
receiveQueueClass TCP module parameters were removed); this works across
all three TCP models (native OMNeT++, NSC, lwIP)
- experimental support for application-imposed TCP flow control (i.e.
implementation of "socket read" calls; this is not yet in the
"integration" branch)
- brand new BGPv4 model, contributed by Helene Lageber
- OSPF model: mass renaming and code formatting to make code conform
to the rest of INET in coding style
- fix: Ieee80211DataFrame was missing the LLC SNAP header, so all
802.11 data frames were simulated with 8 bytes less length than
they should have (this will slightly modify simulation results)
- RTP model refactoring to make it use msg files and a control info
based interface toward apps
- some improvements INETMANET implemented have been taken over into
INET (also to decrease INETMANET maintenance cost)
- started taking over xMIPv6's modification to the base INET, so
xMIPv6 won't need to patch INET
- added basic "New INET simulation" wizards which appear under
File|New in the IDE
- started working on an INET User Manual (see
- added an initial test suite with tests for Ethernet, 802.11 and TCP
(uses OMNeT++'s opp_test utility and the "omnetpp" R plugin for
scripted checking of simulation results; not yet in "integration")
- many smaller bug fixes and refactoring, mostly invisible for users
In more details:
* Reorganized StandardHost:
Several changes were introduced to make the basic building blocks of
simulation (StandardHost, AdhocHost, Router etc.) more configurable,
without the need to copy and modify the modules or derive a new module
type. Applications, tcp type, nic, mobility, routing protocols can be
configured using parameters or the **.type-name=typename in the .ini file.
* Ethernet point-to-point links:
In the old code, datarate of Ethernet channels were to be set to zero, and
the real datarate given in the txrate parameter of EtherMAC. This was to
work around a limitation in OMNeT++ 3.x's channel support. In the new code,
the txrate parameter is gone, and the datarate should be set on the
channel. This is consistent with e.g. PPP. This requires non-backward
compatible changes to models.
* Support for several different TCP/UDP apps in StandardHost
In the old code, tcpApp[] is declared as
tcpApp[numTcpApps]: <tcpAppType> like TCPApp;
which has the side effect that when using StandardHost, all apps have to be
the same type (the one in the tcpAppType parameter). OMNeT++ 4.x supports
setting the types one-by-one, using the following syntax:
tcpApp[numTcpApps]: <> like TCPApp;
and in the ini file, you have to write
**.tcpApp[0].type-name = "inet.applications.tcpapp.TCPBasicClientApp"
**.tcpApp[1].type-name = "inet.applications.tcpapp.TCPEchoApp"
**.tcpApp[*].type-name = "inet.applications.tcpapp.TCPSinkApp"
The existing tcpAppType/udpAppType/sctpAppType parameters would be removed.
However, this also means that existing ini files have to be changed.
If they are not updated, the simulation will not work.
* Multiple TCP implementations, and related parameterization changes
INET now supports Network Simulation Cradle (NSC; wraps several FreeBSD,
Linux and lwIP stacks), and we have an lwIP-based TCP module as well
(without the NSC limitations and overhead); the NED types are TCP, TCP_NSC,
TCP_lwip. Any of them can be selected in StandardHost, via the tcpType
parameter (the tcp module is now declared as "tcp: <tcpType> like ITCP").
tcpType defaults to the native OMNeT++ TCP module.
The sendQueueClass/rcvQueueClass parameters are gone. They were used to
select what to transmit inside TCP segments: C++ objects (cPacket) or byte
counts only. Now, this can (must) be specified per-connection by the app
layer, because the app knows best what it requires. Also, instead of two
class names now there is a single enum value; it should be put into the
dataTransferMode field of TCPOpenCommand. Potential values are:
TCP_TRANSFER_UNDEFINED = 0; // Invalid value
TCP_TRANSFER_BYTECOUNT = 1; // Transmit byte counts only
TCP_TRANSFER_OBJECT = 2; // Transmit the application packet C++ objects
TCP_TRANSFER_BYTESTREAM = 3; // Transmit actual bytes
Ideally, all 3 TCP implementations should understand all 3 transfer modes;
currently OBJECT support is missing from TCP_NSC.
- additional statistics in the SCTP module (Alberto Cortes)
- fix for SCTP Path.Max.Retrans threshold problem (Alberto Cortes)
- minor changes in #includes to ensure compatibility with upcoming OMNeT++ 4.2
- TCP improvement (Thomas Reschka, Zoltan Bojthe).
* implemented RFC 1323 (TCP Extensions for High Performance):
- Window Scale option
- Timestamps option (Round-Trip Time Measurement - RTTM)
- Protect Against Wrapped Sequence Numbers (PAWS)
- added a PAWS modification according to the latest proposal
of the list (Braden 1993/04/26)
* implemented missing part of RFC 2581: Re-starting Idle Connections
* various fixes
* see details in src/transport/tcp/ChangeLog.
- added examples for new TCP features (Thomas Reschka):
* examples/inet/tcptimestamps
* examples/inet/tcpwindowscale
- added NetAnimTrace module (Andras Varga). This module can be used to record
input for the NetAnim program (
- Ieee80211Radio: added a shadowing component for the path loss reception model
(Nikos Simantirakis). This is a random variable has a normal distribution
in dB and results to -normal distribution in mW. This is a widespread and
common model used for reproducing shadowing effects (Rappaport, T. S. (2002),
Communications - Principles and Practice, Prentice Hall PTR).
- bugfix and small improvements in SCTP, TCPSessionApp, ThruputMeter
- cosmetic changes in many other files (comments, indentation, compiler warning
elimination, variable renaming, etc.)
- added "label" annotations to gates and modules to support the adaptive palette
filtering and gate matching in the connection chooser (OMNeT++ 4.1).
- updated SCTP implementation by Michael Tuexen, Irene Ruengeler and
Thomas Dreibholz
- added support for Sam Jensen's Network Simulation Cradle,, which makes real-world TCP stacks available
in simulations. Currently NSC supports the FreeBSD, OpenBSD, lwIP and Linux
stacks. The TCP_NSC module (transport/tcp_nsc) is a drop-in replacement for the
normal TCP module (transport/tcp), and can be activated with a single parameter
setting in StandardHost. See src/transport/tcp_nsc, 3rdparty/README, and
- added TCP SACK and New Reno implementation by Thomas Reschka. The original TCP
version is still available as TCP_old. See src/transport/tcp/ChangeLog for details.
- tagged version for OMNeT++ 4.0 final
- reworked build system to create shared library by default
- added SCTP from Michael Tuexen and Irene Ruengeler
Internal snapshot, for omnetpp-4.0b6.
- performance optimization in all queue modules: remember output gate pointer
instead of looking up gate by name for each send()
- randomize the start time of the scanning process.
(Randomizing the time of sending the first beacon in
was already done earlier.)
- IP: set TTL to 1 on new datagram if the destination address is link local
multicast, to prevent broadcasting to non-neighbouring routers.
- several bugfixes
Internal snapshot, for omnetpp-4.0b3.
- interface table and routing table are now accessed via the C++ interfaces
IInterfaceTable and IRoutingTable. This is done to reduce interdependencies
among modules; more specifically, to allow users implement their own
InterfaceTables and RoutingTables and plug them into INET simulations,
without any change to the base INET.
- PPP and EtherMAC2: performance: don't fire tx begin/end notifications if
no one is listening; remember output gate pointer instead of looking it up
by name for each send
- UDPEchoApp: messageLength parameter now understood in bytes not bits
- RoutingTable: implemented routing cache and other optimizations
Internal snapshot, for omnetpp-4.0b2.
- to enable and encourage extending INET via subclassing (as opposed to
patching), nearly all member functions made virtual (except in data classes
like IPAddress), and also, private sections in most classes were changed to
- some refactoring on TCP, UDP and IP, to allow subclassing of TCP, UDP and IP
packets: packets are now created via factory methods that can be overridden
if needed
- AbstractQueue (base class for IP and other modules) made more efficient: now it
doesn't schedule a timer if (when) serviceTime is zero.
- IPAddress class made more efficient [code from Ingmar Baumgart, OverSim]
- parsim: added pack/unpack functions for IPAddress, IPv6Address, IPvXAddress
- InterfaceTable: added deleteInterface(). This also causes RoutingTable to
drop routes that correspond to the deleted interface.
- RoutingTable: wrapped naked data members of IPRoute into getters/setters;
enforce by returning "const" pointers that routes already added cannot be
changed any more (one must delete and re-add it)
- InterfaceTable: created a getInterfaceById() method, NOT to be
confused with getInterface(pos)! Ids are stable after deletions,
unlike 0..getNumInterfaces()-1 indices, and reliable/safe unlike
InterfaceEntry* pointers
- InterfaceTable and RoutingTable now fire proper notifications on changes:
- NotificationBoard: added hasSubscribers(int category) method, to allow for
optimizing out firing change notifications if there's no one listening.
Internal snapshot, for omnetpp-4.0b2.
- updated for OMNeT++ 4.0b2
- extensive renaming: added "get" verb to getter methods in most classes;
also eliminated @addGetVerb(true) from message classes
- revived the RTP model: starting from Ahmed Ayadi's patch, migrated the code
to OMNeT++ 4.0, and started some refactoring (started introducing .msg files
for handcoded message classes; not yet finished)
Internal snapshot, for omnetpp-4.0b1.
- directory structure reorganized
- converted to OMNeT++ 4.0
- some refactoring (parameter/gate name changes, etc)
- IP/IPv6: do not schedule a timer if processing time is zero (change made
in base/AbstractQueue)
- FlatNetworkConfigurator: use @node() property to determine which modules are
network nodes (removed moduleTypes, nonIPModuleTypes parameters)
- new example network: Examples/Ethernet/ARPTest (old ARPTest renamed)
- bugfixes: AbstractRadio (Dave Symonds); Ieee80211 (also reported by Dave)
- improvements on the wireless infrastructure: support for multiple channels
and channel switching by NICs; account for finite radio wave propagation speed
- added new 802.11 model which also supports infrastructure mode; see
NetworkInterfaces/Ieee80211. Even for ad-hoc mode, Ieee80211Mac is recommended
over the older Mac80211 from MF.
- added Ieee80211Radio which supersedes SnrEval80211 and Decider80211.
- added EtherDuplexMAC, a simplified Ethernet implementation for full duplex
point-to-point operation mode when CSMA/CD is not in use.
- makefiles within Examples/ have been largely unnecessary because all
simulations just invoke bin/INET. Realizing these makefiles have been
confusing to many people, they got removed now. The target to generate
them is still present in makemakefiles in case someone needs it.
- several other fixes
- checked in the new MPLS, RSVP-TE and LDP models, written/rewritten by
Vojta Janota
- new model: Network/Quagga. This is port of the Quagga routing daemon to the
INET Framework. Currently provides RIP and OSPFv2 routing. Quagga itself is
a fork of Zebra. (Ported to INET by Vojta Janota)
- new model: Network/OSPFv2. This is a new OSPF implementation.
(author: Andras Babos)
- UDP rewritten: similarly to TCP, dispatching is now done inside UDP, and
apps now identify sockets with a sockId; implemented ephemeral port reuse
- UDPSocket class added to facilitate talking to the UDP model from apps;
analogous to TCPSocket (thanks to Michael Tuexen and Vojta Janota for
- new snapshot of the IPv6 module (by Wei Yang Ng)
- added ability to write nam traces (Util/NAMTraceWriter, World/NAMTrace);
feature originally implemented by Vojta Janota (and refactored by Andras,
so bugs are very likely mine)
- implemented ThruputMeteringChannel which can display #packets, pk/sec etc
on the links; and ChannelInstaller as a temporary solution to install
ThruputMeteringChannel instead of the built-in BasicChannel class.
- updated module class ctors/dtors for OMNeT++ 3.2; changed msg->length()/8 to
msg->byteLength() and msg->setLength(8*bytes) to msg->setByteLength(bytes),
- TCP: Reno bugs fixed (reported by Pascal Rousseau); TCPMessageBasedSendQueue
seqNo bug fixed (Adam Hudson); implemented reuse of ephemeral ports;
fixed incorrect behaviour when ACK of SYN carries data (reported by Joachim
Meichle); fixed minor issue that when the user issued CLOSE, transition to
FIN_WAIT_1 was done immediately and not deferred until all data are sent.
- added Applications/TCPApp/TCPSpoof
- hosts have now the same queues as routers (reported by Michael Tuexen)
- ev replaced with EV in every module (speed increase in Express mode)
- NetworkLayer(6): gates towards interfaces renamed to ifOut[]/ifIn[]
- FlatNetworkConfigurator internals refactored
- added another network configurator, NetworkConfigurator
- RoutingTable: routerId selection moved from stage 1 to stage 3 (you may
need to revise your code if it depends on routerId)
- patched for OMNeT++ 3.2:
- added '=NULL' default value to all args of hand-code module constructors
(2 or 3 places)
- RSVPPacket.h: dup() return type has to be cPolymorphic with OMNeT++ 3.2;
fixed it using '#if OMNETPP_VERSION<0x0302...#else...#endif'
- UDP dispatchByPort bug fixed; further smaller fixes
- IPv6 updated (still unfinished)
- TCP bug
- incorrect handling of host queues (Michael Tuexen)
- module types renamed for consistency: PPPModule -> PPP, TCPMain -> TCP,
UDPProcessing -> UDP
- C++ methods renamed: isNull() -> isUnspecified() in IPAddress, IPv6Addres,
- created two subdirs under Transport/TCP: flavours and queues, and moved
the appropriate cc/h files there. The structure of the TCP model should
now be much more obvious to readers. Also added READMEs explaining things.
- TCP fixes: raise an error (~EADDRINUSE) on attempt to create more than one
connections to listen on the same port
- implemented REDQueue
- beginnings of a "Getting started with TCP" doc
- TCP improvements: separate congestion control behaviour classes
TCPTahoe, TCPReno and TCPNoCongestionControl provided, for teaching
purposes (their code is very short, to the point, and extensively
- TCP: fixed bogus RTT calculation and other other bugs; also, sequence
numbers are now recorded into omnetpp.vec, so with Plove one can create
sequence number plots like Sally Floyd's [thanks to Ahmet Sekercioglu
for help!]
- still TCP: fixed the bug which caused closing of a connection to be reported
2MSL (240s) later to the user.
- Added support for drop-tail router queues, and queues with QoS support
based on DS Code Point; RED in preparation (see Network/Queue)
- Added wireless and mobility support (based on Mobility Framework code),
including 802.11b ad-hoc mode MAC, and several new mobility models
(also new to MF). Supports mobility traces from BonnMotion and ANSim.
- Contract directories introduced: Transport/Contract, Network/Contract
and NetworkInterfaces/Contract. These directories contain a minimal set
of classes necessary for using one layer's functionality from higher layers.
- Added notification mechanism: modules can now notify each other about
"events" such as routing table changes, interface status changes (up/down),
interface configuration changes, wireless handovers, changes in the state
of the wireless channel, mobile node position changes, etc. Notification
works via the NotificationBoard which replaces the Blackboard.
- InterfaceTable introduced: it stores all interface configuration that was
previously stored in RoutingTable. Per-interface data structure was also
split into protocol independent (InterfaceEntry) and protocol dependent
(IPv4InterfaceData, IPv6InterfaceData) parts.
- ScenarioManager introduced (experimental, in World/ subdirectory):
it addresses the need for simulating scenarios like "what if this cable
breaks at t=20s", or "what if traffic intensity grows at t=100s".
Scenario is described in an XML file.
- Ping and VideoStream applications added (from IPv6SuiteWithINET)
- ARP got moved up from L2 to L3; this is to prepare for IPv6 support (IPv6
doesn't need ARP, so we can no longer have it as part of the network
- prepared for IPv6: application layer, transport layer and IPv6 contract
taken over from IPv6SuiteWithINET-20050502
- work in progress: from-scratch IPv6 implementation by Wei Yang Ng (Monash
University) and Andras Varga
- added INET_API definitions to classes, so that one can build a DLL that can
be loaded dynamically into INET.exe (hint: compile DLL code *without*
/DBUILDING_INET, and link them with INET.lib! then add [General]/load-libs=
to omnetpp.ini.)
- Network/IPv4d subdirectory finally thrown out. It was a bad idea to
implement IP with a dozen small modules in the first place.
- added files called !WORK_IN_PROGRESS! with some explanations to
directories which contain unfinished simulation models.
INET-20050404 released
- Updated to omnetpp-3.1.
- patches from Michael Tuexen
- updated to omnetpp-3.0
- package renamed to INET Framework
- practically a complete rewrite of IPSuite took place 03/2004 through
10/2004. See change log at
Preparations for rewriting IPSuite, 09/2003-03/2004
2004-02-04 Andras Varga
* got it compiled with omnetpp-3.0pre1. changes:
- added #include <iostream>, using std::ostream at a couple of places
- deprecated receiveOn(), receiveNewOn() no longer exists, replaced by:
msg = receive();
ASSERT(dfmsg->arrivedOn("fromEnqHook")); // FIXME revise this
* removed ProcessorManager altogether
2003-09-19 Andras Varga
* added the MPLS/LDP/RSVP-TE models created by Xuan Thang Nguyen
( at UTS (University of Technology, Sydney).
* did IPsuite modifications necessary fo MPLS. Modularity is preserved:
it is still possible to build IPSuite without the MPLS models.
2003-09-18 Andras Varga
* merged patches for compiling with MSVC.
* module descriptions (comments) added to/rearranged in all NED files
for documentation generation with new opp_neddoc.
* DIRECTORY STRUCTURE WAS REARRANGED along the lines of the OSI layers,
and also to make it consistent with the IPv6Suite. Hopefully every file
is now where one would expect to find it.
* added makemake.cmd for generating's (using opp_nmakemake)
for building with MSVC, and makemake for generating Unix makefiles
* lots of minor fixes to make the code compile with MSVC.
Note: for compatibility with MSVC6.0,
1. return type of dup() should ALWAYS be cObject* (and cannot be the
actual class name)
2. class variables cannot be initialized (even const or
static const ones) within the class declaration.
* updated for recent OMNeT++ versions: added ",row" to vector module
display strings; removed className() methods, etc.
* FIXME: KIDSRouter was missing from the original IPSuite! KIDSNw1
didn't compile. I temporarily substituted a copy of NextHopRouter.
2003-09-17 Andras Varga
* taken ipsuite-20021124-src.tgz and started improving it.
IPSuite's change log, 2000-2001
Before Andras Varga took over the development in 2003, IPSuite was
created and developed at University of Karlsruhe, Germany.
2001-12-10 Ulrich Kaage <>
* Global changes for OMNeT++ 2.2 conformance:
copy constructor -> const argument
virtual long length(const ) -> virtual long length(const) const
virtual int numInitStages() -> virtual int numInitStages () const
virtual char *className() -> virtual const char* className() const
virtual cObject *dup() -> virtual cObject *dup() const
cObject& operator=(cObject& o) -> cObject& operator=(const cObject& o)
2001-08-31 Ulrich Kaage <>
* CVS-Tag da-kussaether: Work on TCP by Rolf Kussaether;
implementation of TCP flavours Reno (fast recovery) and New Reno.
2001-03-19 Verena Kahmann <>
* deleted all queues and behaviors except FIFO* and the basic behaviors.
Maybe we have to apply some extra cleaning still.
2000-12-19 Ulrich Kaage <>
* recent (standalone) TCP model is merged into the ip-suite. The
simple test network is now located in ./Networks/TCPTester
2000-12-13 Ulrich Kaage <>
* makeipsuite: replaced by top level Makefile
* rundemo: front end for launching all available simulations
* Makefile: Top level makefile to create Makefiles from
in all subdirectories
* removed mmake in subdirectories and replaced them by
2000-11-22 Ulrich Kaage <>
* CREDITS: Put your name here if you have contributed to the
OMNeT++ Internet Protocol Suite