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README.md
in.txt
solve.cpp

README.md

Find Peak Element

A peak element is an element that is greater than its neighbors.

Given an input array where num[i] ≠ num[i+1], find a peak element and return its index.

The array may contain multiple peaks, in that case return the index to any one of the peaks is fine.

You may imagine that num[-1] = num[n] = -∞.

For example, in array [1, 2, 3, 1], 3 is a peak element and your function should return the index number 2.

click to show spoilers. Note:

Your solution should be in logarithmic complexity.

Credits: Special thanks to @ts for adding this problem and creating all test cases.

Solution 1

题目的意思就是找一个局部最大值,即一个元素大于两边相邻的元素,该元素就是Peak Element。

直接搜索数组,时间复杂度O(n).

int findPeakElement(vector<int> &a) {
	int n = a.size();
	if (n < 2 || a[0] > a[1])
		return 0;
	if (a[n - 1] > a[n - 2])
		return n - 1;
	for (int i = 1; i < n - 1; ++i)
		if (a[i] > a[i - 1] && a[i] > a[i + 1])
			return i;
}

Solution 2

方案1比较次数是2n,实际上从0开始遍历,只需要找到一个元素a[i] > a[i + 1]即可,i就是局部最大值。

这是因为a[-1]是负无穷的,如果a[0] > a[1],则a[0]就是Peak元素,否则必有a[1] > a[0], 如果a[1] > a[2],那 a[1]显然是Peak元素,否则a[1] < a[2], 即a[2] > a[1],判断a[2]和a[3]的关系,依次类推,a[n - 1]必然小于a[n]。 因此Peak元素必然存在

int findPeakElement(vector<int> &a) {
	int n = a.size();
	for (int i = 0; i < n - 1; ++i)
		if (a[i] > a[i + 1])
			return i;
	return n - 1;
}

Solution 3

方案2只是减少了比较次数,但复杂度依然是O(n), 而题目要求是O(logn)。

但凡想到O(xxlogn)算法,自然想到的是二分法,当二分法一般针对的是有序集合(有序数组、查找树等),而目前情况都不满足。

但是根据前面方案2的思路,如果a[i] > a[i + 1],那a[i]可能就是局部最优,如果a[i] < a[i + 1],那a[i + 1]是可能的局部最优.

根据这个原理,我们就可以自然想到二分法, 设left = 0, right = n - 1, mid = (left + right) >> 1, 则:

  • a[mid] > a[mid + 1] && a[mid] > a[mid - 1], 返回mid, 否则下一步
  • a[mid] > a[mid + 1], right = mid, 否则下一步
  • a[mid] < a[mid - 1], left = mid + 1
  • 重复直到left == right, 此时left就是Peak元素索引
int fastFindPeakElement(vector<int> &a) {
	int n = a.size();
	int left = 0, right = n - 1;
	while (left < right) {
		int mid = (left + right) >> 1;
		printf("left = %d, mid = %d, right = %d\n", left, mid, right);
		if (a[mid] > a[mid - 1] && a[mid] > a[mid + 1])
			return mid;
		if (a[mid] > a[mid + 1])
			right = mid;
		else
			left = mid + 1;
	}
	return left;
}
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