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Committee ci Gem Version

A collection of middleware to help build services with JSON Schema, OpenAPI 2, OpenAPI 3.

Supported Ruby Versions

Committee is tested on the following MRI versions:

  • 2.4
  • 2.5
  • 2.6
  • 2.7
  • 3.0

Committee::Middleware::RequestValidation

This feature is supported by all of Hyper-Schema, OpenAPI 2, and OpenAPI 3.

use Committee::Middleware::RequestValidation, schema_path: 'docs/schema.json', coerce_date_times: true

This piece of middleware validates the parameters of incoming requests to make sure that they're formatted according to the constraints imposed by a particular schema.

Options and their defaults:

name Hyper-Schema OpenAPI 3 Description
allow_form_params true true Specifies that input can alternatively be specified as application/x-www-form-urlencoded parameters when possible. This won't work for more complex schema validations.
allow_get_body true false Allow GET request body, which merge to request parameter. See (#211)
allow_query_params true true Specifies that query string parameters will be taken into consideration when doing validation.
check_content_type true true Specifies that Content-Type should be verified according to JSON Hyper-schema or OpenAPI 3 definition.
check_header true true Check header data using JSON Hyper-schema or OpenAPI 3 definition.
coerce_date_times false true Convert the string with "format": "date-time" parameter to DateTime object.
coerce_form_params false true Tries to convert POST data encoded into an application/x-www-form-urlencoded body (where values are all strings) into concrete types required by the schema. This works for null (empty value), integer (numeric value without decimals), number (numeric value) and boolean ("true" is converted to true and "false" to false). If coercion is not possible, the original value is passed unchanged to schema validation.
coerce_path_params false true The same as coerce_form_params, but tries to coerce parameters encoded in a request's URL path.
coerce_query_params false true The same as coerce_form_params, but tries to coerce GET parameters encoded in a request's query string.
coerce_recursive false always true Coerce data in arrays and other nested objects
optimistic_json false false Will attempt to parse JSON in the request body even without a Content-Type: application/json before falling back to other options.
raise false false Raise an exception on error instead of responding with a generic error body.
strict false false Puts the middleware into strict mode, meaning that paths which are not defined in the schema will be responded to with a 404 instead of being run.
ignore_error false false Validate and ignore result even if validation is error. So always return original data.

Non-boolean options:

name allowed object type Hyper-Schema OpenAPI 3 Description
error_class StandardError supported supported Change validation errors from Committee::ValidationError).
prefix String supported supported Mounts the middleware to respond at a configured prefix. (e.g. prefix is '/v1' and request path is '/v1/test' use '/test' definition).
schema_path String supported supported Defines the location of the schema file to use for validation.
error_handler Proc Object supported supported A proc which will be called when error occurs. Take an Error instance as first argument, and request.env as second argument. (e.g. -> (ex, env) { Raven.capture_exception(ex, extra: { rack_env: env }) })
accept_request_filter Proc Object supported supported A proc that accepts a Request and returns a boolean. It indicates whether to validate the current request, or not. (e.g. -> (request) { request.path.start_with?('/something') })
params_key String supported supported Save checked and merged parameter value to request.env using this key. Default value is committee.params
headers_key String supported supported Save checked header value to request.env using this key. Default value is committee.headers
query_hash_key String supported supported Save checked query parameter value to request.env using this key. Default value is rack.request.query_hash but we will change committee.query_hash in next version
path_hash_key String supported supported Save checked path parameter value to request.env using this key. Default value is committee.path_hash
request_body_hash_key String supported supported Save checked request body parameter (json, form) value to request.env using this key. Default value is committee.request_body_hash

Note that Hyper-Schema and OpenAPI 2 get the same defaults for options.

Some examples of use:

# missing required parameter
$ curl -X POST http://localhost:9292/account/app-transfers -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{"app":"heroku-api"}'
{"id":"bad_request","message":"#/paths/~1account~1app-transfers/post/requestBody/content/application~1json/schema missing required parameters: recipient"}

# missing required parameter (should have &query=...)
$ curl -X GET http://localhost:9292/search?category=all
{"id":"bad_request","message":"#/paths/~1search/get missing required parameters: query"}

# contains an unknown parameter
$ curl -X POST http://localhost:9292/account/app-transfers -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{"app":"heroku-api","recipient":"api@heroku.com","sender":"api@heroku.com"}'
{"id":"bad_request","message":"#/paths/~1account~1app-transfers/post/requestBody/content/application~1json/schema does not define properties: sender"}

# invalid type
$ curl -X POST http://localhost:9292/account/app-transfers -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{"app":"heroku-api","recipient":7}'
{"id":"bad_request","message":"#/paths/~1account~1app-transfers/post/requestBody/content/application~1json/schema/properties/recipient expected string, but received Integer: 7"}

# invalid format (supports date-time, email, uuid)
$ curl -X POST http://localhost:9292/account/app-transfers -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{"app":"heroku-api","recipient":"matz"}'
{"id":"bad_request","message":"#/paths/~1account~1app-transfers/post/requestBody/content/application~1json/schema/properties/recipient email address format does not match value: matz"}

# invalid pattern
$ curl -X POST http://localhost:9292/apps -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{"name":"$#%"}'
{"id":"bad_request","message":"#/paths/~1apps/post/requestBody/content/application~1json/schema/properties/name pattern ^[a-z][a-z0-9-]{3,50}$ does not match value: $#%"}

Committee::Middleware::Stub

Note: This feature is not yet available for OpenAPI 3.

use Committee::Middleware::Stub, schema_path: 'docs/schema.json'

This piece of middleware intercepts any routes that are in the JSON Schema, then builds and returns an appropriate response for them.

$ curl -X GET http://localhost:9292/apps
[
  {
    "archived_at":"2012-01-01T12:00:00Z",
    "buildpack_provided_description":"Ruby/Rack",
    "created_at":"2012-01-01T12:00:00Z",
    "git_url":"git@heroku.com/example.git",
    "id":"01234567-89ab-cdef-0123-456789abcdef",
    "maintenance":false,
    "name":"example",
    "owner":[
      {
        "email":"username@example.com",
        "id":"01234567-89ab-cdef-0123-456789abcdef"
      }
    ],
    "region":[
      {
        "id":"01234567-89ab-cdef-0123-456789abcdef",
        "name":"us"
      }
    ],
    "released_at":"2012-01-01T12:00:00Z",
    "repo_size":0,
    "slug_size":0,
    "stack":[
      {
        "id":"01234567-89ab-cdef-0123-456789abcdef",
        "name":"cedar"
      }
    ],
    "updated_at":"2012-01-01T12:00:00Z",
    "web_url":"http://example.herokuapp.com"
  }
]

committee-stub

A bundled executable is also available to easily start up a server that will serve the stub for some particular JSON Schema file:

committee-stub -p <port> <path to JSON schema>

Committee::Middleware::ResponseValidation

This feature is supported by all of Hyper-Schema, OpenAPI 2, and OpenAPI 3.

use Committee::Middleware::ResponseValidation, schema_path: 'docs/schema.json'

This piece of middleware validates the contents of the response received from up the stack for any route that matches the JSON Schema. A hyper-schema link's targetSchema property is used to determine what a valid response looks like.

Option values and defaults:

name Hyper-Schema OpenAPI 3 Description
raise false false Raise an exception on error instead of responding with a generic error body.
validate_success_only true false Also validate non-2xx responses only.
ignore_error false false Validate and ignore result even if validation is error. So always return original data.
parse_response_by_content_type false false Parse response body to JSON only if Content-Type header is 'application/json'. When false, this always optimistically parses as JSON without checking for Content-Type header.

No boolean option values:

name allowed object type Hyper-Schema OpenAPI 3 Description
prefix String support support Mounts the middleware to respond at a configured prefix.
error_class StandardError support support Specifies the class to use for formatting and outputting validation errors (defaults to Committee::ValidationError).
error_handler Proc Object support support A proc which will be called when error occurs. Take an Error instance as first argument, and request.env as second argument. (e.g. -> (ex, env) { Raven.capture_exception(ex, extra: { rack_env: env }) })

Given a simple Sinatra app that responds for an endpoint in an incomplete fashion:

require "committee"
require "sinatra"

use Committee::Middleware::ResponseValidation, schema_path: 'docs/schema.json'

get "/apps" do
  content_type :json
  "[{}]"
end

The middleware will raise an error to indicate what the problems are:

# missing keys in response
$ curl -X GET http://localhost:9292/apps
{"id":"invalid_response","message":"Missing keys in response: archived_at, buildpack_provided_description, created_at, git_url, id, maintenance, name, owner:email, owner:id, region:id, region:name, released_at, repo_size, slug_size, stack:id, stack:name, updated_at, web_url."}

If you want to take log only (for example avoiding false-positive in production), use ignore_error and error_handler option.

Validation Errors

Committee will by default respond with a generic error JSON body for validation errors (when the raise middleware option is false).

Here's an example error to show the default format:

{
  "id":"invalid_response",
  "message":"Missing keys in response: archived_at, buildpack_provided_description, created_at, git_url, id, maintenance, name, owner:email, owner:id, region:id, region:name, released_at, repo_size, slug_size, stack:id, stack:name, updated_at, web_url."
}

You can customize this JSON body by setting the error_class middleware option. The error_class will be instantiated with: status, id, and message.

  • status: HTTP status code
  • id: HTTP status name/string
  • message: error message

Here's an example of a class to format errors according to JSON API:

module MyAPI
  class ValidationError < Committee::ValidationError
    def error_body
      {
        errors: [
          { status: id, detail: message }
        ]
      }
    end

    def render
      [
        status,
        { "Content-Type" => "application/vnd.api+json" },
        [JSON.generate(error_body)]
      ]
    end
  end
end

Test Assertions

Supported in HyperSchema and OpenAPI 3.

Committee ships with a small set of schema validation test assertions designed to be used along with rack-test.

Here's a simple test to demonstrate:

describe Committee::Middleware::Stub do
  include Committee::Test::Methods
  include Rack::Test::Methods

  def app
    Sinatra.new do
      get "/" do
        content_type :json
        JSON.generate({ "foo" => "bar" })
      end
    end
  end

  def committee_options
    @committee_options ||= { schema: Committee::Drivers::load_from_file('docs/schema.json'), prefix: "/v1" }
  end

  describe "GET /" do
    it "conforms to schema with 200 response code" do
      assert_schema_conform(200)
    end

    it "conforms to request schema" do
      assert_request_schema_confirm
    end

    it "conforms to response schema with 200 response code" do
      assert_response_schema_confirm(200)
    end

    it "conforms to response and request schema with 200 response code" do
      @committee_options[:old_assert_behavior] = false
      assert_schema_conform(200)
    end
  end
end

Tips

Use Ruby on Rails with coerce option

Please set 'action_dispatch.request.request_parameters' to params_key option.

use Committee::Middleware::RequestValidation,
      schema_path: 'docs/schema.json',
      coerce_date_times: true,
      params_key: 'action_dispatch.request.request_parameters'

Committee has few options which enable convert request data. By default committee save converted data to committee.params and rails dose not read it. So we need save convertd value to 'action_dispatch.request.request_parameters' bacause rails create parameter from this value.

Using OpenAPI 3

Committee can detect the type of schema (Hyper-Schema, OpenAPI 3, etc.) from the provided file, so there's no need to pass in any additional options:

use Committee::Middleware::RequestValidation, schema_path: 'open_api_3/schema.yaml'

If you want to select the type manually, pass an OpenAPI 3 object to the schema option manually:

open_api = OpenAPIParser.parse(YAML.load_file('open_api_3/schema.yaml'))
schema = Committee::Drivers::OpenAPI3::Driver.new.parse(open_api)
use Committee::Middleware::RequestValidation, schema: schema

Limitations of OpenAPI 3 support

  • Stub servers are not yet supported, so neither Committee::Middleware::Stub or Committee::Bin::CommitteeStub are functional.
  • Changing coerce_recursive isn't supported. This option is always on.

Upgrading from Committee 2.* to 3.*

Committee 3.* has many breaking changes so we recommend upgrading to the latest release on 2.* and fixing any deprecation errors you see before upgrading to 3.*. The steps would be roughly as follows:

  1. Update to the latest 2.* release (usually by modifying the statement in your Gemfile and running bundle update).
  2. Run your test suite and fix any deprecation warnings that appear.
  3. Update to the latest 3.* release.
  4. Switch to OpenAPI 3 if you'd like to do so.

Important changes are also described below.

Upgrading from Committee 4.* to 5.*

Committee 5.* has few breaking changes so we recommend upgrading to the latest release on 4.* and fixing any deprecation errors you see before upgrading. (Now we doesn't release 5.* yet)

  • change parse_response_by_content_type's default value from false to true.

Setting schemas in middleware

Committee 2.* supported setting schema to a string or a hash like this:

# valid
use Committee::Middleware::RequestValidation, schema: JSON.parse(File.read(...))

# valid
use Committee::Middleware::RequestValidation, schema: {json: 'json_data...'}

# valid
use Committee::Middleware::RequestValidation, schema: 'json string'

That usage is no longer supported in 3.* Instead, use either schema_path or set a parsed schema object to schema:

# auto-select Hyper-Schema/OpenAPI 2/OpenAPI 3 from file
use Committee::Middleware::RequestValidation, schema_path: 'docs/schema.json' # using file extension

# auto-select Hyper-Schema/OpenAPI 2/OpenAPI 3 from hash
json = JSON.parse(File.read('docs/schema.json'))
use Committee::Middleware::RequestValidation, schema: Committee::Drivers::load_data(json)

# manually select
json = JSON.parse(File.read(...))
schema = Committee::Drivers::HyperSchema::Driver.new.parse(json)
use Committee::Middleware::RequestValidation, schema: schema

The auto-select algorithm works roughly like this (so make sure that your file sets one of these attributes correctly):

hash = JSON.load(json_path)

# OpenAPI 3 requires the `openapi` key and a version
if hash['openapi']&.start_with?('3.')
  return Committee::Drivers::OpenAPI3::Driver.new.parse(hash)

# OpenAPI 2 requires the `swagger` key
elsif hash['swagger'] == '2.0'
  return Committee::Drivers::OpenAPI2::Driver.new.parse(hash)

else
  return Committee::Drivers::HyperSchema::Driver.new.parse(hash)
end

Test assertions

Committee 3.* drops many of the methods that were previously available from the Committee::Test::Methods mixin.

Use it by defining a committee_options method and having it return a schema and other options you'd like to use:

def committee_options
  @committee_options ||= { schema: Committee::Drivers::load_from_file('docs/schema.json'), prefix: "/v1", validate_success_only: true }
end

The default assertion option in 2.* was validate_success_only=true, but this becomes validate_success_only=false in 3.. For the smoothest possible upgrade, you should set it to false in your test suite before upgrading to 3..

Test schema coverage

You can check how much of your API schema your tests have covered. NOTICE: Currently committee only supports schema coverage for openapi schemas, and only checks coverage on responses, via assert_response_schema_confirm or assert_schema_conform methods. Usage:

  1. Set schema_coverage option of committee_options
  2. Use assert_response_schema_confirm or assert_schema_conform
  3. Then use SchemaCoverage#report or SchemaCoverage#report_flatten to get coverage report

Example:

before do
  schema_coverage = Committee::Test::SchemaCoverage.new(openapi_schema)
  @committee_options[:schema_coverage] = schema_coverage
end
it 'covers /some_api' do
  get '/some_api'
  assert_response_schema_confirm # or assert_schema_conform
  coverage_report = schema_coverage.report
  # check coverage expectations of /some_api here
end
it 'covers /other_api schema' do
  get '/other_api'
  assert_response_schema_confirm # or assert_schema_conform
  coverage_report = schema_coverage.report
  # check coverage expectations of /other_api here
end
after do
  coverage_report = schema_coverage.report
  # check coverage expectations of all apis here
end

Coverage report structure:

/* using #report */
{
  <path> => {
    <method> => {
      'responses' => {
        <status> => <true|false>
      }
    }
  }
}
/* using #report_flatten */
{
  responses: [
    { path: <path>, method: <method>, status: <status>, is_covered: <true|false> },
  ]
}

Other helper methods:

  • Committee::Test::SchemaCoverage.merge_report(<Hash>, <Hash>): merge 2 coverage reports together
  • Committee::Test::SchemaCoverage.flatten_report(<Hash>): flatten a coverage report Hash into flatten structure

Other changes

  • GET request bodies are ignored in OpenAPI 3 by default. If you want to use them, set the allow_get_body option to true.

Development

Run tests with the following:

bundle install
bundle exec rake

Run a particular test suite or test:

bundle exec ruby -Ilib -Itest test/router_test.rb
bundle exec ruby -Ilib -Itest test/router_test.rb -n /prefix/

Release

  1. Update the version in committee.gemspec as appropriate for semantic versioning and add details to CHANGELOG.md.

  2. Commit those changes. Use a commit message like Bump version to 1.2.3.

  3. Run the release task:

    bundle exec rake release
    

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A collection of Rack middleware to support JSON Schema.

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