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An opinionated micro-framework for creating REST-like APIs in Ruby.

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What is Grape?

Grape is a REST-like API micro-framework for Ruby. It's designed to run on Rack or complement existing web application frameworks such as Rails and Sinatra by providing a simple DSL to easily develop RESTful APIs. It has built-in support for common conventions, including multiple formats, subdomain/prefix restriction, content negotiation, versioning and much more.

Stable Release

You're reading the documentation for the next release of Grape, which should be 0.7.1. Please read UPGRADING when upgrading from a previous version. The current stable release is 0.7.0.

Project Resources

Installation

Grape is available as a gem, to install it just install the gem:

gem install grape

If you're using Bundler, add the gem to Gemfile.

gem 'grape'

Run bundle install.

Basic Usage

Grape APIs are Rack applications that are created by subclassing Grape::API. Below is a simple example showing some of the more common features of Grape in the context of recreating parts of the Twitter API.

module Twitter
  class API < Grape::API
    version 'v1', using: :header, vendor: 'twitter'
    format :json

    helpers do
      def current_user
        @current_user ||= User.authorize!(env)
      end

      def authenticate!
        error!('401 Unauthorized', 401) unless current_user
      end
    end

    resource :statuses do
      desc "Return a public timeline."
      get :public_timeline do
        Status.limit(20)
      end

      desc "Return a personal timeline."
      get :home_timeline do
        authenticate!
        current_user.statuses.limit(20)
      end

      desc "Return a status."
      params do
        requires :id, type: Integer, desc: "Status id."
      end
      route_param :id do
        get do
          Status.find(params[:id])
        end
      end

      desc "Create a status."
      params do
        requires :status, type: String, desc: "Your status."
      end
      post do
        authenticate!
        Status.create!({
          user: current_user,
          text: params[:status]
        })
      end

      desc "Update a status."
      params do
        requires :id, type: String, desc: "Status ID."
        requires :status, type: String, desc: "Your status."
      end
      put ':id' do
        authenticate!
        current_user.statuses.find(params[:id]).update({
          user: current_user,
          text: params[:status]
        })
      end

      desc "Delete a status."
      params do
        requires :id, type: String, desc: "Status ID."
      end
      delete ':id' do
        authenticate!
        current_user.statuses.find(params[:id]).destroy
      end
    end
  end
end

Mounting

Rack

The above sample creates a Rack application that can be run from a rackup config.ru file with rackup:

run Twitter::API

And would respond to the following routes:

GET /statuses/public_timeline(.json)
GET /statuses/home_timeline(.json)
GET /statuses/:id(.json)
POST /statuses(.json)
PUT /statuses/:id(.json)
DELETE /statuses/:id(.json)

Grape will also automatically respond to HEAD and OPTIONS for all GET, and just OPTIONS for all other routes.

Alongside Sinatra (or other frameworks)

If you wish to mount Grape alongside another Rack framework such as Sinatra, you can do so easily using Rack::Cascade:

# Example config.ru

require 'sinatra'
require 'grape'

class API < Grape::API
  get :hello do
    { hello: "world" }
  end
end

class Web < Sinatra::Base
  get '/' do
    "Hello world."
  end
end

use Rack::Session::Cookie
run Rack::Cascade.new [API, Web]

Rails

Place API files into app/api. Rails expects a subdirectory that matches the name of the Ruby module and a file name that matches the name of the class. In our example, the file name location and directory for Twitter::API should be app/api/twitter/api.rb.

Modify application.rb:

config.paths.add File.join('app', 'api'), glob: File.join('**', '*.rb')
config.autoload_paths += Dir[Rails.root.join('app', 'api', '*')]

Modify config/routes:

mount Twitter::API => '/'

See below for additional code that enables reloading of API changes in development.

Modules

You can mount multiple API implementations inside another one. These don't have to be different versions, but may be components of the same API.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  mount Twitter::APIv1
  mount Twitter::APIv2
end

You can also mount on a path, which is similar to using prefix inside the mounted API itself.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  mount Twitter::APIv1 => '/v1'
end

Versioning

There are four strategies in which clients can reach your API's endpoints: :path, :header, :accept_version_header and :param. The default strategy is :path.

Path

version 'v1', using: :path

Using this versioning strategy, clients should pass the desired version in the URL.

curl -H http://localhost:9292/v1/statuses/public_timeline

Header

version 'v1', using: :header, vendor: 'twitter'

Using this versioning strategy, clients should pass the desired version in the HTTP Accept head.

curl -H Accept:application/vnd.twitter-v1+json http://localhost:9292/statuses/public_timeline

By default, the first matching version is used when no Accept header is supplied. This behavior is similar to routing in Rails. To circumvent this default behavior, one could use the :strict option. When this option is set to true, a 406 Not Acceptable error is returned when no correct Accept header is supplied.

When an invalid Accept header is supplied, a 406 Not Acceptable error is returned if the :cascade option is set to false. Otherwise a 404 Not Found error is returned by Rack if no other route matches.

Accept-Version Header

version 'v1', using: :accept_version_header

Using this versioning strategy, clients should pass the desired version in the HTTP Accept-Version header.

curl -H "Accept-Version:v1" http://localhost:9292/statuses/public_timeline

By default, the first matching version is used when no Accept-Version header is supplied. This behavior is similar to routing in Rails. To circumvent this default behavior, one could use the :strict option. When this option is set to true, a 406 Not Acceptable error is returned when no correct Accept header is supplied.

Param

version 'v1', using: :param

Using this versioning strategy, clients should pass the desired version as a request parameter, either in the URL query string or in the request body.

curl -H http://localhost:9292/statuses/public_timeline?apiver=v1

The default name for the query parameter is 'apiver' but can be specified using the :parameter option.

version 'v1', using: :param, parameter: "v"
curl -H http://localhost:9292/statuses/public_timeline?v=v1

Describing Methods

You can add a description to API methods and namespaces.

desc "Returns your public timeline."
get :public_timeline do
  Status.limit(20)
end

Parameters

Request parameters are available through the params hash object. This includes GET, POST and PUT parameters, along with any named parameters you specify in your route strings.

get :public_timeline do
  Status.order(params[:sort_by])
end

Parameters are automatically populated from the request body on POST and PUT for form input, JSON and XML content-types.

The request:

curl -d '{"text": "140 characters"}' 'http://localhost:9292/statuses' -H Content-Type:application/json -v

The Grape endpoint:

post '/statuses' do
  Status.create!(text: params[:text])
end

Multipart POSTs and PUTs are supported as well.

The request:

curl --form image_file=@image.jpg http://localhost:9292/upload

The Grape endpoint:

post "upload" do
  # file in params[:image_file]
end

In the case of conflict between either of:

  • route string parameters
  • GET, POST and PUT parameters
  • the contents of the request body on POST and PUT

route string parameters will have precedence.

Parameter Validation and Coercion

You can define validations and coercion options for your parameters using a params block.

params do
  requires :id, type: Integer
  optional :text, type: String, regexp: /^[a-z]+$/
  group :media do
    requires :url
  end
  optional :audio do
    requires :format, type: Symbol, values: [:mp3, :wav, :aac, :ogg], default: :mp3
  end
  mutually_exclusive :media, :audio
end
put ':id' do
  # params[:id] is an Integer
end

When a type is specified an implicit validation is done after the coercion to ensure the output type is the one declared.

Optional parameters can have a default value.

params do
  optional :color, type: String, default: 'blue'
  optional :random_number, type: Integer, default: -> { Random.rand(1..100) }
  optional :non_random_number, type: Integer, default:  Random.rand(1..100)
end

Parameters can be restricted to a specific set of values with the :values option.

Default values are eagerly evaluated. Above :non_random_number will evaluate to the same number for each call to the endpoint of this params block. To have the default evaluate at calltime use a lambda, like :random_number above.

params do
  requires :status, type: Symbol, values: [:not_started, :processing, :done]
end

The :values option can also be supplied with a Proc to be evalutated at runtime. For example, given a status model you may want to restrict by hashtags that you have previously defined in the HashTag model.

params do
  required :hashtag, type: String, values: -> { Hashtag.all.map(&:tag) }
end

Parameters can be nested using group or by calling requires or optional with a block. In the above example, this means params[:media][:url] is required along with params[:id], and params[:audio][:format] is required only if params[:audio] is present. With a block, group, requires and optional accept an additional option type which can be either Array or Hash, and defaults to Array. Depending on the value, the nested parameters will be treated either as values of a hash or as values of hashes in an array.

params do
  optional :preferences, type: Array do
    requires :key
    requires :value
  end

  requires :name, type: Hash do
    requires :first_name
    requires :last_name
  end
end

Parameters can be defined as mutually_exclusive, ensuring that they aren't present at the same time in a request.

params do
  optional :beer
  optional :wine
  mutually_exclusive :beer, :wine
end

Multiple sets can be defined:

params do
  optional :beer
  optional :wine
  mutually_exclusive :beer, :wine
  optional :scotch
  optional :aquavit
  mutually_exclusive :scotch, :aquavit
end

Warning: Never define mutually exclusive sets with any required params. Two mutually exclusive required params will mean params are never valid, thus making the endpoint useless. One required param mutually exclusive with an optional param will mean the latter is never valid.

Namespace Validation and Coercion

Namespaces allow parameter definitions and apply to every method within the namespace.

namespace :statuses do
  params do
    requires :user_id, type: Integer, desc: "A user ID."
  end
  namespace ":user_id" do
    desc "Retrieve a user's status."
    params do
      requires :status_id, type: Integer, desc: "A status ID."
    end
    get ":status_id" do
      User.find(params[:user_id]).statuses.find(params[:status_id])
    end
  end
end

The namespace method has a number of aliases, including: group, resource, resources, and segment. Use whichever reads the best for your API.

You can conveniently define a route parameter as a namespace using route_param.

namespace :statuses do
  route_param :id do
    desc "Returns all replies for a status."
    get 'replies' do
      Status.find(params[:id]).replies
    end
    desc "Returns a status."
    get do
      Status.find(params[:id])
    end
  end
end

Custom Validators

class AlphaNumeric < Grape::Validations::Validator
  def validate_param!(attr_name, params)
    unless params[attr_name] =~ /^[[:alnum:]]+$/
      raise Grape::Exceptions::Validation, param: @scope.full_name(attr_name), message: "must consist of alpha-numeric characters"
    end
  end
end
params do
  requires :text, alpha_numeric: true
end

You can also create custom classes that take parameters.

class Length < Grape::Validations::SingleOptionValidator
  def validate_param!(attr_name, params)
    unless params[attr_name].length <= @option
      raise Grape::Exceptions::Validation, param: @scope.full_name(attr_name), message: "must be at the most #{@option} characters long"
    end
  end
end
params do
  requires :text, length: 140
end

Validation Errors

Validation and coercion errors are collected and an exception of type Grape::Exceptions::ValidationErrors is raised. If the exception goes uncaught it will respond with a status of 400 and an error message. You can rescue a Grape::Exceptions::ValidationErrors and respond with a custom response.

rescue_from Grape::Exceptions::ValidationErrors do |e|
    Rack::Response.new({
      status: e.status,
      message: e.message,
      errors: e.errors
    }.to_json, e.status)
end

The validation errors are grouped by parameter name and can be accessed via Grape::Exceptions::ValidationErrors#errors.

I18n

Grape supports I18n for parameter-related error messages, but will fallback to English if translations for the default locale have not been provided. See en.yml for message keys.

Headers

Request headers are available through the headers helper or from env in their original form.

get do
  error!('Unauthorized', 401) unless headers['Secret-Password'] == 'swordfish'
end
get do
  error!('Unauthorized', 401) unless env['HTTP_SECRET_PASSWORD'] == 'swordfish'
end

You can set a response header with header inside an API.

header 'X-Robots-Tag', 'noindex'

When raising error!, pass additional headers as arguments.

error! 'Unauthorized', 401, 'X-Error-Detail' => 'Invalid token.'

Routes

Optionally, you can define requirements for your named route parameters using regular expressions on namespace or endpoint. The route will match only if all requirements are met.

get ':id', requirements: { id: /[0-9]*/ } do
  Status.find(params[:id])
end

namespace :outer, requirements: { id: /[0-9]*/ } do
  get :id do
  end

  get ":id/edit" do
  end
end

Helpers

You can define helper methods that your endpoints can use with the helpers macro by either giving a block or a module.

module StatusHelpers
  def user_info(user)
    "#{user} has statused #{user.statuses} status(s)"
  end
end

class API < Grape::API
  # define helpers with a block
  helpers do
    def current_user
      User.find(params[:user_id])
    end
  end

  # or mix in a module
  helpers StatusHelpers

  get 'info' do
    # helpers available in your endpoint and filters
    user_info(current_user)
  end
end

You can define reusable params using helpers.

class API < Grape::API
  helpers do
    params :pagination do
      optional :page, type: Integer
      optional :per_page, type: Integer
    end
  end

  desc "Get collection"
  params do
    use :pagination # aliases: includes, use_scope
  end
  get do
    Collection.page(params[:page]).per(params[:per_page])
  end
end

You can also define reusable params using shared helpers.

module SharedParams
  extend Grape::API::Helpers

  params :period do
    optional :start_date
    optional :end_date
  end

  params :pagination do
    optional :page, type: Integer
    optional :per_page, type: Integer
  end
end

class API < Grape::API
  helpers SharedParams

  desc "Get collection"
  params do
    use :period, :pagination
  end
  get do
    Collection.from(params[:start_date]).to(params[:end_date])
              .page(params[:page]).per(params[:per_page])
  end
end

Parameter Documentation

You can attach additional documentation to params using a documentation hash.

params do
  optional :first_name, type: String, documentation: { example: 'Jim' }
  requires :last_name, type: String, documentation: { example: 'Smith' }
end

Cookies

You can set, get and delete your cookies very simply using cookies method.

class API < Grape::API
  get 'status_count' do
    cookies[:status_count] ||= 0
    cookies[:status_count] += 1
    { status_count: cookies[:status_count] }
  end

  delete 'status_count' do
    { status_count: cookies.delete(:status_count) }
  end
end

Use a hash-based syntax to set more than one value.

cookies[:status_count] = {
  value: 0,
  expires: Time.tomorrow,
  domain: '.twitter.com',
  path: '/'
}

cookies[:status_count][:value] +=1

Delete a cookie with delete.

cookies.delete :status_count

Specify an optional path.

cookies.delete :status_count, path: '/'

Redirecting

You can redirect to a new url temporarily (302) or permanently (301).

redirect '/statuses'
redirect '/statuses', permanent: true

Allowed Methods

When you add a GET route for a resource, a route for the HEAD method will also be added automatically. You can disable this behavior with do_not_route_head!.

class API < Grape::API
  do_not_route_head!

  get '/example' do
    # only responds to GET
  end
end

When you add a route for a resource, a route for the OPTIONS method will also be added. The response to an OPTIONS request will include an "Allow" header listing the supported methods.

class API < Grape::API
  get '/rt_count' do
    { rt_count: current_user.rt_count }
  end

  params do
    requires :value, type: Integer, desc: 'Value to add to the rt count.'
  end
  put '/rt_count' do
    current_user.rt_count += params[:value].to_i
    { rt_count: current_user.rt_count }
  end
end
curl -v -X OPTIONS http://localhost:3000/rt_count

> OPTIONS /rt_count HTTP/1.1
>
< HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
< Allow: OPTIONS, GET, PUT

You can disable this behavior with do_not_route_options!.

If a request for a resource is made with an unsupported HTTP method, an HTTP 405 (Method Not Allowed) response will be returned.

curl -X DELETE -v http://localhost:3000/rt_count/

> DELETE /rt_count/ HTTP/1.1
> Host: localhost:3000
>
< HTTP/1.1 405 Method Not Allowed
< Allow: OPTIONS, GET, PUT

Raising Exceptions

You can abort the execution of an API method by raising errors with error!.

error! 'Access Denied', 401

You can also return JSON formatted objects by raising error! and passing a hash instead of a message.

error!({ error: "unexpected error", detail: "missing widget" }, 500)

Default Error HTTP Status Code

By default Grape returns a 500 status code from error!. You can change this with default_error_status.

class API < Grape::API
  default_error_status 400
  get '/example' do
    error! "This should have http status code 400"
  end
end

Handling 404

For Grape to handle all the 404s for your API, it can be useful to use a catch-all. In its simplest form, it can be like:

route :any, '*path' do
  error! # or something else
end

It is very crucial to define this endpoint at the very end of your API, as it literally accepts every request.

Exception Handling

Grape can be told to rescue all exceptions and return them in the API format.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  rescue_from :all
end

You can also rescue specific exceptions.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  rescue_from ArgumentError, UserDefinedError
end

In this case UserDefinedError must be inherited from StandardError.

The error format will match the request format. See "Content-Types" below.

Custom error formatters for existing and additional types can be defined with a proc.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  error_formatter :txt, lambda { |message, backtrace, options, env|
    "error: #{message} from #{backtrace}"
  }
end

You can also use a module or class.

module CustomFormatter
  def self.call(message, backtrace, options, env)
    { message: message, backtrace: backtrace }
  end
end

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  error_formatter :custom, CustomFormatter
end

You can rescue all exceptions with a code block. The error_response wrapper automatically sets the default error code and content-type.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  rescue_from :all do |e|
    error_response({ message: "rescued from #{e.class.name}" })
  end
end

You can also rescue specific exceptions with a code block and handle the Rack response at the lowest level.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  rescue_from :all do |e|
    Rack::Response.new([ e.message ], 500, { "Content-type" => "text/error" }).finish
  end
end

Or rescue specific exceptions.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  rescue_from ArgumentError do |e|
    Rack::Response.new([ "ArgumentError: #{e.message}" ], 500).finish
  end
  rescue_from NotImplementedError do |e|
    Rack::Response.new([ "NotImplementedError: #{e.message}" ], 500).finish
  end
end

By default, rescue_from will rescue the exceptions listed and all their subclasses.

Assume you have the following exception classes defined.

module APIErrors
  class ParentError < StandardError; end
  class ChildError < ParentError; end
end

Then the following rescue_from clause will rescue exceptions of type APIErrors::ParentError and its subclasses (in this case APIErrors::ChildError).

rescue_from APIErrors::ParentError do |e|
    Rack::Response.new({
      error: "#{e.class} error",
      message: e.message
      }.to_json, e.status).finish
end

To only rescue the base exception class, set rescue_subclasses: false. The code below will rescue exceptions of type RuntimeError but not its subclasses.

rescue_from RuntimeError, rescue_subclasses: false do |e|
    Rack::Response.new(
      status: e.status,
      message: e.message,
      errors: e.errors
      }.to_json, e.status).finish
end

Rails 3.x

When mounted inside containers, such as Rails 3.x, errors like "404 Not Found" or "406 Not Acceptable" will likely be handled and rendered by Rails handlers. For instance, accessing a nonexistent route "/api/foo" raises a 404, which inside rails will ultimately be translated to an ActionController::RoutingError, which most likely will get rendered to a HTML error page.

Most APIs will enjoy preventing downstream handlers from handling errors. You may set the :cascade option to false for the entire API or separately on specific version definitions, which will remove the X-Cascade: true header from API responses.

cascade false
version 'v1', using: :header, vendor: 'twitter', cascade: false

Logging

Grape::API provides a logger method which by default will return an instance of the Logger class from Ruby's standard library.

To log messages from within an endpoint, you need to define a helper to make the logger available in the endpoint context.

class API < Grape::API
  helpers do
    def logger
      API.logger
    end
  end
  post '/statuses' do
    # ...
    logger.info "#{current_user} has statused"
  end
end

You can also set your own logger.

class MyLogger
  def warning(message)
    puts "this is a warning: #{message}"
  end
end

class API < Grape::API
  logger MyLogger.new
  helpers do
    def logger
      API.logger
    end
  end
  get '/statuses' do
    logger.warning "#{current_user} has statused"
  end
end

API Formats

By default, Grape supports XML, JSON, and TXT content-types. The default format is :txt.

Serialization takes place automatically. For example, you do not have to call to_json in each JSON API implementation.

Your API can declare which types to support by using content_type. Response format is determined by the request's extension, an explicit format parameter in the query string, or Accept header.

The following API will only respond to the JSON content-type and will not parse any other input than application/json, application/x-www-form-urlencoded, multipart/form-data, multipart/related and multipart/mixed. All other requests will fail with an HTTP 406 error code.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  format :json
end

When the content-type is omitted, Grape will return a 406 error code unless default_format is specified. The following API will try to parse any data without a content-type using a JSON parser.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  format :json
  default_format :json
end

If you combine format with rescue_from :all, errors will be rendered using the same format. If you do not want this behavior, set the default error formatter with default_error_formatter.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  format :json
  content_type :txt, "text/plain"
  default_error_formatter :txt
end

Custom formatters for existing and additional types can be defined with a proc.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  content_type :xls, "application/vnd.ms-excel"
  formatter :xls, lambda { |object, env| object.to_xls }
end

You can also use a module or class.

module XlsFormatter
  def self.call(object, env)
    object.to_xls
  end
end

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  content_type :xls, "application/vnd.ms-excel"
  formatter :xls, XlsFormatter
end

Built-in formats are the following.

  • :json and :jsonapi: use object's to_json when available, otherwise call MultiJson.dump
  • :xml: use object's to_xml when available, usually via MultiXml, otherwise call to_s
  • :txt: use object's to_txt when available, otherwise to_s
  • :serializable_hash: use object's serializable_hash when available, otherwise fallback to :json

Use default_format to set the fallback format when the format could not be determined from the Accept header. See below for the order for choosing the API format.

class Twitter::API < Grape::API
  default_format :json
end

The order for choosing the format is the following.

  • Use the file extension, if specified. If the file is .json, choose the JSON format.
  • Use the value of the format parameter in the query string, if specified.
  • Use the format set by the format option, if specified.
  • Attempt to find an acceptable format from the Accept header.
  • Use the default format, if specified by the default_format option.
  • Default to :txt.

JSONP

Grape supports JSONP via Rack::JSONP, part of the rack-contrib gem. Add rack-contrib to your Gemfile.

require 'rack/contrib'

class API < Grape::API
  use Rack::JSONP
  format :json
  get '/' do
    'Hello World'
  end
end

CORS

Grape supports CORS via Rack::CORS, part of the rack-cors gem. Add rack-cors to your Gemfile, then use the middleware in your config.ru file.

require 'rack/cors'

use Rack::Cors do
  allow do
    origins '*'
    resource '*', headers: :any, methods: :get
  end
end

run Twitter::API

Content-type

Content-type is set by the formatter. You can override the content-type of the response at runtime by setting the Content-Type header.

class API < Grape::API
  get '/home_timeline_js' do
    content_type "application/javascript"
    "var statuses = ...;"
  end
end

API Data Formats

Grape accepts and parses input data sent with the POST and PUT methods as described in the Parameters section above. It also supports custom data formats. You must declare additional content-types via content_type and optionally supply a parser via parser unless a parser is already available within Grape to enable a custom format. Such a parser can be a function or a class.

With a parser, parsed data is available "as-is" in env['api.request.body']. Without a parser, data is available "as-is" and in env['api.request.input'].

The following example is a trivial parser that will assign any input with the "text/custom" content-type to :value. The parameter will be available via params[:value] inside the API call.

module CustomParser
  def self.call(object, env)
    { value: object.to_s }
  end
end
content_type :txt, "text/plain"
content_type :custom, "text/custom"
parser :custom, CustomParser

put "value" do
  params[:value]
end

You can invoke the above API as follows.

curl -X PUT -d 'data' 'http://localhost:9292/value' -H Content-Type:text/custom -v

You can disable parsing for a content-type with nil. For example, parser :json, nil will disable JSON parsing altogether. The request data is then available as-is in env['api.request.body'].

RESTful Model Representations

Grape supports a range of ways to present your data with some help from a generic present method, which accepts two arguments: the object to be presented and the options associated with it. The options hash may include :with, which defines the entity to expose.

Grape Entities

Add the grape-entity gem to your Gemfile. Please refer to the grape-entity documentation for more details.

The following example exposes statuses.

module API
  module Entities
    class Status < Grape::Entity
      expose :user_name
      expose :text, documentation: { type: "string", desc: "Status update text." }
      expose :ip, if: { type: :full }
      expose :user_type, user_id, if: lambda { |status, options| status.user.public? }
      expose :digest { |status, options| Digest::MD5.hexdigest(status.txt) }
      expose :replies, using: API::Status, as: :replies
    end
  end

  class Statuses < Grape::API
    version 'v1'

    desc 'Statuses index', {
      params: API::Entities::Status.documentation
    }
    get '/statuses' do
      statuses = Status.all
      type = current_user.admin? ? :full : :default
      present statuses, with: API::Entities::Status, type: type
    end
  end
end

You can use entity documentation directly in the params block with using: Entity.documentation.

module API
  class Statuses < Grape::API
    version 'v1'

    desc 'Create a status', {
      requires :all, except: [:ip], using: API::Entities::Status.documentation.except(:id)
    }
    post '/status' do
      Status.create! params
    end
  end
end

You can present with multiple entities using an optional Symbol argument.

  get '/statuses' do
    statuses = Status.all.page(1).per(20)
    present :total_page, 10
    present :per_page, 20
    present :statuses, statuses, with: API::Entities::Status
  end

The response will be

  {
    total_page: 10,
    per_page: 20,
    statuses: []
  }

In addition to separately organizing entities, it may be useful to put them as namespaced classes underneath the model they represent.

class Status
  def entity
    Entity.new(self)
  end

  class Entity < Grape::Entity
    expose :text, :user_id
  end
end

If you organize your entities this way, Grape will automatically detect the Entity class and use it to present your models. In this example, if you added present Status.new to your endpoint, Grape will automatically detect that there is a Status::Entity class and use that as the representative entity. This can still be overridden by using the :with option or an explicit represents call.

Hypermedia

You can use any Hypermedia representer, including Roar. Roar renders JSON and works with the built-in Grape JSON formatter. Add Roar::Representer::JSON into your models or call to_json explicitly in your API implementation.

Rabl

You can use Rabl templates with the help of the grape-rabl gem, which defines a custom Grape Rabl formatter.

Active Model Serializers

You can use Active Model Serializers serializers with the help of the grape-active_model_serializers gem, which defines a custom Grape AMS formatter.

Authentication

Basic and Digest Auth

Grape has built-in Basic and Digest authentication.

http_basic do |username, password|
  # verify user's password here
  { 'test' => 'password1' }[username] == password
end
http_digest({ realm: 'Test Api', opaque: 'app secret' }) do |username|
  # lookup the user's password here
  { 'user1' => 'password1' }[username]
end

Use warden-oauth2 or rack-oauth2 for OAuth2 support.

Describing and Inspecting an API

Grape routes can be reflected at runtime. This can notably be useful for generating documentation.

Grape exposes arrays of API versions and compiled routes. Each route contains a route_prefix, route_version, route_namespace, route_method, route_path and route_params. The description and the optional hash that follows the API path may contain any number of keys and its values are also accessible via dynamically-generated route_[name] functions.

TwitterAPI::versions # yields [ 'v1', 'v2' ]
TwitterAPI::routes # yields an array of Grape::Route objects
TwitterAPI::routes[0].route_version # yields 'v1'
TwitterAPI::routes[0].route_description # etc.

Current Route and Endpoint

It's possible to retrieve the information about the current route from within an API call with route.

class MyAPI < Grape::API
  desc "Returns a description of a parameter."
  params do
    requires :id, type: Integer, desc: "Identity."
  end
  get "params/:id" do
    route.route_params[params[:id]] # yields the parameter description
  end
end

The current endpoint responding to the request is self within the API block or env['api.endpoint'] elsewhere. The endpoint has some interesting properties, such as source which gives you access to the original code block of the API implementation. This can be particularly useful for building a logger middleware.

class ApiLogger < Grape::Middleware::Base
  def before
    file = env['api.endpoint'].source.source_location[0]
    line = env['api.endpoint'].source.source_location[1]
    logger.debug "[api] #{file}:#{line}"
  end
end

Before and After

Blocks can be executed before or after every API call, using before, after, before_validation and after_validation.

Before and after callbacks execute in the following order:

  1. before
  2. before_validation
  3. validations
  4. after_validation
  5. the API call
  6. after

Steps 4, 5 and 6 only happen if validation succeeds.

E.g. using before:

before do
  header "X-Robots-Tag", "noindex"
end

The block applies to every API call within and below the current namespace:

class MyAPI < Grape::API
  get '/' do
    "root - #{@blah}"
  end

  namespace :foo do
    before do
      @blah = 'blah'
    end

    get '/' do
      "root - foo - #{@blah}"
    end

    namespace :bar do
      get '/' do
        "root - foo - bar - #{@blah}"
      end
    end
  end
end

The behaviour is then:

GET /           # 'root - '
GET /foo        # 'root - foo - blah'
GET /foo/bar    # 'root - foo - bar - blah'

Params on a namespace (or whatever alias you are using) also work when using before_validation or after_validation:

class MyAPI < Grape::API
  params do
    requires :blah, type: Integer
  end
  resource ':blah' do
    after_validation do
      # if we reach this point validations will have passed
      @blah = declared(params, include_missing: false)[:blah]
    end

    get '/' do
      @blah.class
    end
  end
end

The behaviour is then:

GET /123        # 'Fixnum'
GET /foo        # 400 error - 'blah is invalid'

Anchoring

Grape by default anchors all request paths, which means that the request URL should match from start to end to match, otherwise a 404 Not Found is returned. However, this is sometimes not what you want, because it is not always known upfront what can be expected from the call. This is because Rack-mount by default anchors requests to match from the start to the end, or not at all. Rails solves this problem by using a anchor: false option in your routes. In Grape this option can be used as well when a method is defined.

For instance when you're API needs to get part of an URL, for instance:

class TwitterAPI < Grape::API
  namespace :statuses do
    get '/(*:status)', anchor: false do

    end
  end
end

This will match all paths starting with '/statuses/'. There is one caveat though: the params[:status] parameter only holds the first part of the request url. Luckily this can be circumvented by using the described above syntax for path specification and using the PATH_INFO Rack environment variable, using env["PATH_INFO"]. This will hold everything that comes after the '/statuses/' part.

Writing Tests

You can test a Grape API with RSpec by making HTTP requests and examining the response.

Writing Tests with Rack

Use rack-test and define your API as app.

require 'spec_helper'

describe Twitter::API do
  include Rack::Test::Methods

  def app
    Twitter::API
  end

  describe Twitter::API do
    describe "GET /api/v1/statuses" do
      it "returns an empty array of statuses" do
        get "/api/v1/statuses"
        last_response.status.should == 200
        JSON.parse(last_response.body).should == []
      end
    end
    describe "GET /api/v1/statuses/:id" do
      it "returns a status by id" do
        status = Status.create!
        get "/api/v1/statuses/#{status.id}"
        last_response.body.should == status.to_json
      end
    end
  end
end

Writing Tests with Rails

require 'spec_helper'

describe Twitter::API do
  describe "GET /api/v1/statuses" do
    it "returns an empty array of statuses" do
      get "/api/v1/statuses"
      response.status.should == 200
      JSON.parse(response.body).should == []
    end
  end
  describe "GET /api/v1/statuses/:id" do
    it "returns a status by id" do
      status = Status.create!
      get "/api/v1/statuses/#{status.id}"
      response.body.should == status.to_json
    end
  end
end

In Rails, HTTP request tests would go into the spec/requests group. You may want your API code to go into app/api - you can match that layout under spec by adding the following in spec/spec_helper.rb.

RSpec.configure do |config|
  config.include RSpec::Rails::RequestExampleGroup, type: :request, example_group: {
    file_path: /spec\/api/
  }
end

Stubbing Helpers

Because helpers are mixed in based on the context when an endpoint is defined, it can be difficult to stub or mock them for testing. The Grape::Endpoint.before_each method can help by allowing you to define behavior on the endpoint that will run before every request.

describe 'an endpoint that needs helpers stubbed' do
  before do
    Grape::Endpoint.before_each do |endpoint|
      endpoint.stub!(:helper_name).and_return('desired_value')
    end
  end

  after do
    Grape::Endpoint.before_each nil
  end

  it 'should properly stub the helper' do
    # ...
  end
end

Reloading API Changes in Development

Rails 3.x

Add API paths to config/application.rb.

# Auto-load API and its subdirectories
config.paths.add File.join("app", "api"), glob: File.join("**", "*.rb")
config.autoload_paths += Dir[Rails.root.join("app", "api", "*")]

Create config/initializers/reload_api.rb.

if Rails.env.development?
  ActiveSupport::Dependencies.explicitly_unloadable_constants << "Twitter::API"

  api_files = Dir[Rails.root.join('app', 'api', '**', '*.rb')]
  api_reloader = ActiveSupport::FileUpdateChecker.new(api_files) do
    Rails.application.reload_routes!
  end
  ActionDispatch::Callbacks.to_prepare do
    api_reloader.execute_if_updated
  end
end

See StackOverflow #3282655 for more information.

Performance Monitoring

Grape integrates with NewRelic via the newrelic-grape gem, and with Librato Metrics with the grape-librato gem.

Contributing to Grape

Grape is work of hundreds of contributors. You're encouraged to submit pull requests, propose features and discuss issues.

See CONTRIBUTING.

Hacking on Grape

You can start hacking on Grape on Nitrous.IO in a matter of seconds:

Hack intridea/grape on Nitrous.IO

License

MIT License. See LICENSE for details.

Copyright

Copyright (c) 2010-2013 Michael Bleigh, and Intridea, Inc.

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