Extensible, scalable, Sass-based, OOCSS framework for large and long-lasting UI projects.
CSS JavaScript
Latest commit 0c859ee Jan 11, 2017 @csshugs csshugs committed on GitHub Merge pull request #269 from jorenvanhee/patch-1
Fix indents comment block

README.md

inuitcss

CircleCI

Extensible, scalable, Sass-based, OOCSS framework for large and long-lasting UI projects.

inuitcss is a framework in its truest sense: it does not provide you with UI and design out of the box, instead, it provides you with a solid architectural baseline upon which to complete your own work.

Installation

You can use inuitcss in your project by installing it using a package manager (recommended):

npm:

$ npm install inuitcss --save

Bower:

$ bower install inuitcss --save

Copy/paste (not recommended):

You can download inuitcss and save it into your project’s css/ directory. This method is not recommended because you lose the ability to easily and quickly manage and update inuitcss as a dependency.

Getting Started

Once you have got inuitcss into your project using one of the methods outlined above, there are a handful of things we need to do before we’re ready to go.

Firstly, we need to identify any files whose name contain the word example. These files are demo and/or scaffolding files that inuitcss requires, but that you are encouraged to create and define yourself. These files, as of v6.0.0, are:

example.main.scss
settings/_example.settings.config.scss
settings/_example.settings.global.scss
components/_example.components.buttons.scss

Here’s what we need to do with them:

example.main.scss

This is your main, or manifest, file. This is the backbone of any inuitcss project, and it is responsible for @importing all other files. This is the file that we compile out into a corresponding CSS file.

You need to copy this file from the directory that your package manager installed it into, and move it to the root of your css/ directory. Once there, rename it main.scss.

Next, you’ll need to update all of the @imports in that file to point at the new locations of each partial (that will depend on how your project is set up).

Once you’ve done this, you should be able to run the following command on that file and get a compiled stylesheet without any errors:

path/to/css/$ sass main.scss:main.css

N.B. If you downloaded inuitcss, you do not need to move this file; you can simply rename it.

_example.settings.config.scss

This is a configuration file that inuitcss uses to handle the state, location, or environment of your project. This handles very high-level settings that don’t necessarily affect the CSS itself, but can be used to manipulate things depending on where you are running things (e.g. turning a debugging mode on, or telling your CI sever that you’re compiling for production).

Copy this file into your own css/settings/ directory and rename it _settings.config.scss.

N.B. If you downloaded inuitcss, you do not need to move this this file; you can simply rename it.

_example.settings.global.scss

This is an example globals file; it contains any settings that are available to your entire project. These variables and settings could be font families, colours, border-radius values, etc.

Copy this file into your own css/settings/ directory and rename it _settings.global.scss. Now you can begin adding your own project-wide settings.

_example.components.buttons.scss

You don’t need to really do much with this file other than ensure you don’t let it into your final project!

This file exists to show you how you might build components into an inuitcss project, because components are the one thing that inuitcss purposefully refuses to provide.

You can, if you wish, copy this file to your own css/components/ directory and rename it _components.buttons.scss. You can now use this file as the basis for your own buttons component.

CSS directory structure

inuitcss follows a specific folder structure, which you should follow as well in your own CSS directory:

  • /settings: Global variables, site-wide settings, config switches, etc.
  • /tools: Site-wide mixins and functions.
  • /generic: Low-specificity, far-reaching rulesets (e.g. resets).
  • /elements: Unclassed HTML elements (e.g. a {}, blockquote {}, address {}).
  • /objects: Objects, abstractions, and design patterns (e.g. .o-layout {}).
  • /components: Discrete, complete chunks of UI (e.g. .c-carousel {}). This is the one layer that inuitcss doesn’t provide code for, as this is completely your terrain.
  • /utilities: High-specificity, very explicit selectors. Overrides and helper classes (e.g. .u-hidden {}).

Following this structure allows you to intersperse inuitcss’ code with your own, so that your main.scss file might look something like this:

// SETTINGS
@import "settings/settings.config";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/settings/settings.core";
@import "settings/settings.global";
@import "settings/settings.colors";

// TOOLS
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/tools/tools.font-size";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/tools/tools.clearfix";
@import "node_modules/sass-mq/mq";
@import "tools/tools.aliases";

// GENERIC
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/generic/generic.box-sizing";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/generic/generic.normalize";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/generic/generic.shared";

// ELEMENTS
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/elements/elements.page";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/elements/elements.headings";
@import "elements/elements.links";
@import "elements/elements.quotes";

// OBJECTS
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/objects/objects.layout";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/objects/objects.media";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/objects/objects.flag";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/objects/objects.list-bare";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/objects/objects.list-inline";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/objects/objects.box";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/objects/objects.block";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/objects/objects.tables";

// COMPONENTS
@import "components/components.buttons";
@import "components/components.page-head";
@import "components/components.page-foot";
@import "components/components.site-nav";
@import "components/components.ads";
@import "components/components.promo";

// UTILITIES
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/utilities/utilities.widths";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/utilities/utilities.headings";
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/utilities/utilities.spacing";

NOTE: Every @import above which begins with "node_modules" is inuitcss core. When you installed inuitcss via bower, these imports would begin with "bower_components".

Having your own and inuitcss’ partials interlaced like this is one of the real strengths of inuitcss.

Core functionality

Before inuitcss can do anything, it needs to know your base font-size and line-height. These settings are stored in settings.core (as $inuit-global-font-size and $inuit-global-line-height), and can be overridden in the same way you’d override any of inuitcss’ config.

Probably the most opinionated thing inuitcss will ever do is reassign your $inuit-global-line-height variable to $inuit-global-spacing-unit. This value then becomes the cornerstone of your UI, acting as the default margin and padding value for any components that require it.

While this might seem overly opinionated, it does mean that:

  1. You get a free vertical rhythm because everything sits on a multiple of your baseline, and…
  2. We reduce the amount of magic numbers in our codebase because we can rationalise where the majority of values in our CSS came from.

Modifying inuitcss

inuitcss is highly configurable, but should not be edited directly. The correct way to make changes to inuitcss is to pass in variables before you @import the specific file. Let’s take settings.core as an example—in this file we can see the variables $inuit-global-font-size and $inuit-global-line-height. If we want to keep these as-is then we needn’t do anything other than @import the file. If we wanted to change these values to 12px and 18px respectively (don’t worry, inuitcss will convert these pixel values to rems for you) then we just need to pass those values in before the @import, thus:

$inuit-global-font-size:   12px;
$inuit-global-line-height: 18px;
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/settings/settings.core";

The same goes for any inuitcss module: you can configure it by predefining any of its variables immediately before the @import:

$inuit-wrapper-width: 1480px;
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/objects/objects.wrapper";

$inuit-fractions: 1 2 3 4 12;
@import "node_modules/inuitcss/utilities/utilities.widths";

This method of modifying the framework means that you don’t need to edit any files directly (thus making it easier to update the framework), but also means that you’re not left with huge, bloated, monolithic variables files from which you need to configure an entire library.

Extending inuitcss

To extend inuitcss with your own code, simply create a partial in the <section>.<file> format, put it into the appropriate directory and @import it in your main.scss.

But extending inuitcss does not only mean adding your own partials to the project. Due to inuitcss’ modular nature, you can also omit those partials of inuitcss you don't need. But be aware that there are a few interdependencies between various inuitcss partials. The only partial that is indispensable for the framework to work properly is settings.core, though. But we recommend using all partials from the /settings, /tools and /generic layer.

Aliases

In order to avoid clashes with your own code, all of inuitcss’ mixins and variables are namespaced with inuit-, for example: $inuit-global-spacing-unit. These variables and mixins can become very tedious and time consuming to type over and over, so it is recommended that you alias them to something a little shorter. You can do this by creating a tools.aliases file (tools/_tools.aliases.scss) which would be populated with code like this:

// Reassign `$inuit-global-spacing-unit` to `$unit`.
$unit: $inuit-global-spacing-unit;

// Reassign lengthy font-size mixin to `font-size()`.
@mixin font-size($args...) {
  @include inuit-font-size($args...);
}

You can now use your own aliases onto inuitcss’ defaults throughout your project.

Components

inuitcss is a design-free, OOCSS framework—it does its best to provide zero cosmetic styling. This means that inuitcss can be used on any and all types of project (and it has been) without dictating (or even suggesting) a look-and-feel. If you do require a UI out of the box, then inuitcss is probably not the best tool for you. I’d recommend looking at a UI Toolkit such as Bootstrap.

Because inuitcss does no cosmetic styling, it is up to you to author the Components layer. Components are small partials that contain discrete chunks of UI that utilise the layers that came before it, for example, a carousel, or a dropdown nav, or an image gallery, and so on.

Namespaces

You may have stumbled upon the “odd” way inuitcss’ classes are prefixed. There are three different namespaces directly relevant to inuitcss:

  • .o-: Objects
  • .c-: Components
  • .u-: Utilities

In short: Every class in either of these three directories gets the appropriate prefix in its classname. All of inuitcss’ classes in one of these three layers has this kind of prefix. Be sure to follow this convention in your own code as well to keep a consistent naming convention across your code base.

If you want to dive deeper into namespacing classes and want to know why this is a great idea, have a look at this article.

Responsive

inuitcss is built with as much extensibility as possible in mind. Adding full responsive functionality for every kind of module would pretty much kill the intended generic concept behind the framework.

The one opinionated decision we made was adding Sass-MQ as a dependency, to provide at least a full working responsive grid off-the-shelf. So if you need media-query support in your own Sass code, have a look at the Sass-MQ documentation on how to use it properly.

NOTE: If you've installed inuitcss neither with npm nor with bower, make sure that Sass-MQ is properly imported in your main.scss in the tools layer.

If you want to use another media-query library like @include-media or sass-mediaqueries, feel free to do so. But in this case you have to manage your responsive widths classes yourself.

Providing plugins for inuitcss

Since inuitcss just provides very generic modules, there are probably modules you will write anew in every project. Although these modules might seem generic enough to you to be integrated into the core framework, we probably will consider it as not generic enough (we'd appreciate every idea, though!). But just because we are not willing to include a module you consider being useful, does not mean other inuitcss users shall not benefit from such an useful module. Due to inuitcss’ modular architecture, it's totally possible and we even welcome it, that these modules are published as kind of inuitcss plugins by you in a separate repository.

We'd love to see that the framework gets extended through the contribution of you and your plugins!

Prerequisities

Make sure you have at least Sass v3.3 installed.