FreeBSD jail manager
Shell Groff Makefile
Latest commit 069f6d2 Oct 21, 2016 @asomers asomers committed with skarekrow Fix NIS in jails (#369)
Add a "domainname" property.  If set, it will become the NIS domainname
of the jail.  This is needed to get NIS working inside the jail, because
jails don't have the power to set their own domainnames.

**No longer supported. iocage is being rewritten in a different language. To fetch 10.3-RELEASE or above, supply the release to iocage:

iocage fetch release=10.3-RELEASE

This will skip the interactive dialog and proceed.


A FreeBSD jail manager.

iocage is a zero dependency, drop in jail/container manager amalgamating some of the best features and technologies the FreeBSD operating system has to offer. It is geared for ease of use with a simple and easy to understand command syntax.

iocage is in the FreeBSD ports tree as sysutils/iocage. To install using binary packages, simply run: pkg install iocage


The develop branch may not be functional at any given point. This is where a lot of experimental work gets done. No guarantees for stability or migrations within the branch are given. Things can and do change rapidly. Please don't use it if you require stability.

Raising an issue:

We like issues! If you are having trouble with iocage please open a GitHub issue and we will run around with our hair on fire look into it. Before doing so, please give us some information about the situation:

  • Tell us what version of FreeBSD you are using with something like uname -ro
  • It would also be helpful if you gave us the output of iocage version
  • Most importantly, try to be detailed. Simply stating "I tried consoling into a jail and it broke" will not help us very much. However, saying something like this helps much, much more:

"I tried to console into a template jail, but it failed with this error in which I pasted below:"

gasgiant ~ # iocage list -t
JID  UUID                                  BOOT  STATE  TAG     TYPE
-    XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-a5be-3417ebb13845  off   down   pepperd  template
gasgiant ~ # iocage console salted
cannot open 'zroot/iocage/jails/XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-a5be-3417ebb13845': dataset does not exist
cannot open 'zroot/iocage/jails/XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-a5be-3417ebb13845': dataset does not exist
[: -ne: unexpected operator
  ERROR: jail: pepperd is not running!
  • Use the Markdown Basics GitHub page for more information on how to paste lines of code and terminal output.


  • Templates, clones, basejails, fully independent jails
  • Ease of use
  • Zero configuration files
  • Rapid thin provisioning within seconds
  • Automatic package installation
  • Virtual networking stacks (vnet)
  • Shared IP based jails (non vnet)
  • Resource limits (CPU, MEMORY, etc.)
  • Filesystem quotas and reservations
  • Dedicated ZFS datasets inside jails
  • Transparent ZFS snapshot management
  • Binary updates
  • Differential jail packaging
  • Export and import
  • And many more!


Fetch a release:

iocage fetch

Create a jail:

iocage create tag=myjail ip4_addr="em0|"

Start the jail:

iocage start myjail


  iocage activate ZPOOL
  iocage cap UUID|TAG
  iocage chroot UUID|TAG [command]
  iocage clean [-a|-r|-j]
  iocage clone UUID|TAG [UUID|TAG@snapshot] [property=value]
  iocage console UUID|TAG
  iocage create [-b|-c|-e] [release=RELEASE] [pkglist=file] [property=value]
  iocage deactivate ZPOOL
  iocage defaults
  iocage destroy [-f] UUID|TAG
  iocage df
  iocage exec [-u username | -U username] UUID|TAG|ALL command [arg ...]
  iocage export UUID|TAG
  iocage fetch [release=RELEASE | | ftpdir=/dir/ |
                ftpfiles="base.txz doc.txz lib32.txz src.txz"]
  iocage get property|all UUID|TAG
  iocage help
  iocage import UUID [property=value]
  iocage init-host IP ZPOOL
  iocage inuse UUID|TAG
  iocage limits [UUID|TAG]
  iocage list [-b|-t|-r]
  iocage package UUID|TAG
  iocage promote UUID|TAG
  iocage rcboot
  iocage reboot UUID|TAG
  iocage rcshutdown
  iocage record start|stop UUID|TAG
  iocage reset UUID|TAG|ALL
  iocage restart UUID|TAG
  iocage rollback UUID|TAG@snapshotname
  iocage runtime UUID|TAG
  iocage set property=value UUID|TAG
  iocage show property
  iocage snaplist UUID|TAG
  iocage snapremove UUID|TAG@snapshotname|ALL
  iocage snapshot UUID|TAG [UUID|TAG@snapshotname]
  iocage start UUID|TAG
  iocage stop UUID|TAG
  iocage uncap UUID|TAG
  iocage update UUID|TAG
  iocage upgrade UUID|TAG [release=RELEASE]
  iocage version | --version


  • FreeBSD 9.3-RELEASE amd64 or newer
  • ZFS file system
  • Optional - Kernel compiled with:

    # This is optional and only needed if you need VNET and resource
    # limits
    options         VIMAGE # VNET/Vimage support
    options         RACCT  # Resource containers
    options         RCTL   # same as above


  • For resource limiting please read rctl(8)
  • For the explanations on jail properties read jail(8)
  • Create bridge0 and bridge1 interfaces


  • Use iocage set/get to modify properties
  • To understand what most properties do read iocage(8).
  • If using VNET consider adding the following to /etc/sysctl.conf on the host:

    net.inet.ip.forwarding=1       # Enable IP forwarding between interfaces  # Only pass IP packets when pfil is enabled  # Packet filter on the bridge interface  # Packet filter on the member interface