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# Copyright 2015 PLUMgrid
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
from __future__ import print_function
import atexit
import ctypes as ct
import fcntl
import json
import os
import re
import struct
import errno
import sys
from .libbcc import lib, bcc_symbol, bcc_symbol_option, bcc_stacktrace_build_id, _SYM_CB_TYPE
from .table import Table, PerfEventArray
from .perf import Perf
from .utils import get_online_cpus, printb, _assert_is_bytes, ArgString
from .version import __version__
from .disassembler import disassemble_prog, decode_map
try:
basestring
except NameError: # Python 3
basestring = str
_probe_limit = 1000
_num_open_probes = 0
# for tests
def _get_num_open_probes():
global _num_open_probes
return _num_open_probes
TRACEFS = "/sys/kernel/debug/tracing"
# Debug flags
# Debug output compiled LLVM IR.
DEBUG_LLVM_IR = 0x1
# Debug output loaded BPF bytecode and register state on branches.
DEBUG_BPF = 0x2
# Debug output pre-processor result.
DEBUG_PREPROCESSOR = 0x4
# Debug output ASM instructions embedded with source.
DEBUG_SOURCE = 0x8
# Debug output register state on all instructions in addition to DEBUG_BPF.
DEBUG_BPF_REGISTER_STATE = 0x10
# Debug BTF.
DEBUG_BTF = 0x20
class SymbolCache(object):
def __init__(self, pid):
self.cache = lib.bcc_symcache_new(
pid, ct.cast(None, ct.POINTER(bcc_symbol_option)))
def resolve(self, addr, demangle):
"""
Return a tuple of the symbol (function), its offset from the beginning
of the function, and the module in which it lies. For example:
("start_thread", 0x202, "/usr/lib/.../libpthread-2.24.so")
If the symbol cannot be found but we know which module it is in,
return the module name and the offset from the beginning of the
module. If we don't even know the module, return the absolute
address as the offset.
"""
sym = bcc_symbol()
if demangle:
res = lib.bcc_symcache_resolve(self.cache, addr, ct.byref(sym))
else:
res = lib.bcc_symcache_resolve_no_demangle(self.cache, addr,
ct.byref(sym))
if res < 0:
if sym.module and sym.offset:
return (None, sym.offset,
ct.cast(sym.module, ct.c_char_p).value)
return (None, addr, None)
if demangle:
name_res = sym.demangle_name
lib.bcc_symbol_free_demangle_name(ct.byref(sym))
else:
name_res = sym.name
return (name_res, sym.offset, ct.cast(sym.module, ct.c_char_p).value)
def resolve_name(self, module, name):
module = _assert_is_bytes(module)
name = _assert_is_bytes(name)
addr = ct.c_ulonglong()
if lib.bcc_symcache_resolve_name(self.cache, module, name,
ct.byref(addr)) < 0:
return -1
return addr.value
class PerfType:
# From perf_type_id in uapi/linux/perf_event.h
HARDWARE = 0
SOFTWARE = 1
class PerfHWConfig:
# From perf_hw_id in uapi/linux/perf_event.h
CPU_CYCLES = 0
INSTRUCTIONS = 1
CACHE_REFERENCES = 2
CACHE_MISSES = 3
BRANCH_INSTRUCTIONS = 4
BRANCH_MISSES = 5
BUS_CYCLES = 6
STALLED_CYCLES_FRONTEND = 7
STALLED_CYCLES_BACKEND = 8
REF_CPU_CYCLES = 9
class PerfSWConfig:
# From perf_sw_id in uapi/linux/perf_event.h
CPU_CLOCK = 0
TASK_CLOCK = 1
PAGE_FAULTS = 2
CONTEXT_SWITCHES = 3
CPU_MIGRATIONS = 4
PAGE_FAULTS_MIN = 5
PAGE_FAULTS_MAJ = 6
ALIGNMENT_FAULTS = 7
EMULATION_FAULTS = 8
DUMMY = 9
BPF_OUTPUT = 10
class BPF(object):
# From bpf_prog_type in uapi/linux/bpf.h
SOCKET_FILTER = 1
KPROBE = 2
SCHED_CLS = 3
SCHED_ACT = 4
TRACEPOINT = 5
XDP = 6
PERF_EVENT = 7
CGROUP_SKB = 8
CGROUP_SOCK = 9
LWT_IN = 10
LWT_OUT = 11
LWT_XMIT = 12
SOCK_OPS = 13
SK_SKB = 14
CGROUP_DEVICE = 15
SK_MSG = 16
RAW_TRACEPOINT = 17
CGROUP_SOCK_ADDR = 18
TRACING = 26
# from xdp_action uapi/linux/bpf.h
XDP_ABORTED = 0
XDP_DROP = 1
XDP_PASS = 2
XDP_TX = 3
XDP_REDIRECT = 4
# from bpf_attach_type uapi/linux/bpf.h
TRACE_FENTRY = 24
TRACE_FEXIT = 25
_probe_repl = re.compile(b"[^a-zA-Z0-9_]")
_sym_caches = {}
_bsymcache = lib.bcc_buildsymcache_new()
_auto_includes = {
"linux/time.h": ["time"],
"linux/fs.h": ["fs", "file"],
"linux/blkdev.h": ["bio", "request"],
"linux/slab.h": ["alloc"],
"linux/netdevice.h": ["sk_buff", "net_device"]
}
_syscall_prefixes = [
b"sys_",
b"__x64_sys_",
b"__x32_compat_sys_",
b"__ia32_compat_sys_",
b"__arm64_sys_",
b"__s390x_sys_",
b"__s390_sys_",
]
# BPF timestamps come from the monotonic clock. To be able to filter
# and compare them from Python, we need to invoke clock_gettime.
# Adapted from http://stackoverflow.com/a/1205762
CLOCK_MONOTONIC = 1 # see <linux/time.h>
class timespec(ct.Structure):
_fields_ = [('tv_sec', ct.c_long), ('tv_nsec', ct.c_long)]
_librt = ct.CDLL('librt.so.1', use_errno=True)
_clock_gettime = _librt.clock_gettime
_clock_gettime.argtypes = [ct.c_int, ct.POINTER(timespec)]
@classmethod
def monotonic_time(cls):
"""monotonic_time()
Returns the system monotonic time from clock_gettime, using the
CLOCK_MONOTONIC constant. The time returned is in nanoseconds.
"""
t = cls.timespec()
if cls._clock_gettime(cls.CLOCK_MONOTONIC, ct.byref(t)) != 0:
errno = ct.get_errno()
raise OSError(errno, os.strerror(errno))
return t.tv_sec * 1e9 + t.tv_nsec
@classmethod
def generate_auto_includes(cls, program_words):
"""
Generates #include statements automatically based on a set of
recognized types such as sk_buff and bio. The input is all the words
that appear in the BPF program, and the output is a (possibly empty)
string of #include statements, such as "#include <linux/fs.h>".
"""
headers = ""
for header, keywords in cls._auto_includes.items():
for keyword in keywords:
for word in program_words:
if keyword in word and header not in headers:
headers += "#include <%s>\n" % header
return headers
# defined for compatibility reasons, to be removed
Table = Table
class Function(object):
def __init__(self, bpf, name, fd):
self.bpf = bpf
self.name = name
self.fd = fd
@staticmethod
def _find_file(filename):
""" If filename is invalid, search in ./ of argv[0] """
if filename:
if not os.path.isfile(filename):
argv0 = ArgString(sys.argv[0])
t = b"/".join([os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(argv0.__str__())), filename])
if os.path.isfile(t):
filename = t
else:
raise Exception("Could not find file %s" % filename)
return filename
@staticmethod
def find_exe(bin_path):
"""
find_exe(bin_path)
Traverses the PATH environment variable, looking for the first
directory that contains an executable file named bin_path, and
returns the full path to that file, or None if no such file
can be found. This is meant to replace invocations of the
"which" shell utility, which doesn't have portable semantics
for skipping aliases.
"""
# Source: http://stackoverflow.com/a/377028
def is_exe(fpath):
return os.path.isfile(fpath) and \
os.access(fpath, os.X_OK)
fpath, fname = os.path.split(bin_path)
if fpath:
if is_exe(bin_path):
return bin_path
else:
for path in os.environ["PATH"].split(os.pathsep):
path = path.strip('"')
exe_file = os.path.join(path, bin_path)
if is_exe(exe_file):
return exe_file
return None
def __init__(self, src_file=b"", hdr_file=b"", text=None, debug=0,
cflags=[], usdt_contexts=[], allow_rlimit=True, device=None):
"""Create a new BPF module with the given source code.
Note:
All fields are marked as optional, but either `src_file` or `text`
must be supplied, and not both.
Args:
src_file (Optional[str]): Path to a source file for the module
hdr_file (Optional[str]): Path to a helper header file for the `src_file`
text (Optional[str]): Contents of a source file for the module
debug (Optional[int]): Flags used for debug prints, can be |'d together
See "Debug flags" for explanation
"""
src_file = _assert_is_bytes(src_file)
hdr_file = _assert_is_bytes(hdr_file)
text = _assert_is_bytes(text)
assert not (text and src_file)
self.kprobe_fds = {}
self.uprobe_fds = {}
self.tracepoint_fds = {}
self.raw_tracepoint_fds = {}
self.kfunc_entry_fds = {}
self.kfunc_exit_fds = {}
self.perf_buffers = {}
self.open_perf_events = {}
self.tracefile = None
atexit.register(self.cleanup)
self.debug = debug
self.funcs = {}
self.tables = {}
self.module = None
cflags_array = (ct.c_char_p * len(cflags))()
for i, s in enumerate(cflags): cflags_array[i] = bytes(ArgString(s))
if src_file:
src_file = BPF._find_file(src_file)
hdr_file = BPF._find_file(hdr_file)
# files that end in ".b" are treated as B files. Everything else is a (BPF-)C file
if src_file.endswith(b".b"):
self.module = lib.bpf_module_create_b(src_file, hdr_file, self.debug, device)
else:
if src_file:
# Read the BPF C source file into the text variable. This ensures,
# that files and inline text are treated equally.
with open(src_file, mode="rb") as file:
text = file.read()
ctx_array = (ct.c_void_p * len(usdt_contexts))()
for i, usdt in enumerate(usdt_contexts):
ctx_array[i] = ct.c_void_p(usdt.get_context())
usdt_text = lib.bcc_usdt_genargs(ctx_array, len(usdt_contexts))
if usdt_text is None:
raise Exception("can't generate USDT probe arguments; " +
"possible cause is missing pid when a " +
"probe in a shared object has multiple " +
"locations")
text = usdt_text + text
self.module = lib.bpf_module_create_c_from_string(text,
self.debug,
cflags_array, len(cflags_array),
allow_rlimit, device)
if not self.module:
raise Exception("Failed to compile BPF module %s" % (src_file or "<text>"))
for usdt_context in usdt_contexts:
usdt_context.attach_uprobes(self)
# If any "kprobe__" or "tracepoint__" or "raw_tracepoint__"
# prefixed functions were defined,
# they will be loaded and attached here.
self._trace_autoload()
def load_funcs(self, prog_type=KPROBE):
"""load_funcs(prog_type=KPROBE)
Load all functions in this BPF module with the given type.
Returns a list of the function handles."""
fns = []
for i in range(0, lib.bpf_num_functions(self.module)):
func_name = lib.bpf_function_name(self.module, i)
fns.append(self.load_func(func_name, prog_type))
return fns
def load_func(self, func_name, prog_type, device = None):
func_name = _assert_is_bytes(func_name)
if func_name in self.funcs:
return self.funcs[func_name]
if not lib.bpf_function_start(self.module, func_name):
raise Exception("Unknown program %s" % func_name)
log_level = 0
if (self.debug & DEBUG_BPF_REGISTER_STATE):
log_level = 2
elif (self.debug & DEBUG_BPF):
log_level = 1
fd = lib.bcc_func_load(self.module, prog_type, func_name,
lib.bpf_function_start(self.module, func_name),
lib.bpf_function_size(self.module, func_name),
lib.bpf_module_license(self.module),
lib.bpf_module_kern_version(self.module),
log_level, None, 0, device);
if fd < 0:
atexit.register(self.donothing)
if ct.get_errno() == errno.EPERM:
raise Exception("Need super-user privileges to run")
errstr = os.strerror(ct.get_errno())
raise Exception("Failed to load BPF program %s: %s" %
(func_name, errstr))
fn = BPF.Function(self, func_name, fd)
self.funcs[func_name] = fn
return fn
def dump_func(self, func_name):
"""
Return the eBPF bytecodes for the specified function as a string
"""
func_name = _assert_is_bytes(func_name)
if not lib.bpf_function_start(self.module, func_name):
raise Exception("Unknown program %s" % func_name)
start, = lib.bpf_function_start(self.module, func_name),
size, = lib.bpf_function_size(self.module, func_name),
return ct.string_at(start, size)
def disassemble_func(self, func_name):
bpfstr = self.dump_func(func_name)
return disassemble_prog(func_name, bpfstr)
def decode_table(self, table_name, sizeinfo=False):
table_obj = self[table_name]
table_type = lib.bpf_table_type_id(self.module, table_obj.map_id)
return decode_map(table_name, table_obj, table_type, sizeinfo=sizeinfo)
str2ctype = {
u"_Bool": ct.c_bool,
u"char": ct.c_char,
u"wchar_t": ct.c_wchar,
u"unsigned char": ct.c_ubyte,
u"short": ct.c_short,
u"unsigned short": ct.c_ushort,
u"int": ct.c_int,
u"unsigned int": ct.c_uint,
u"long": ct.c_long,
u"unsigned long": ct.c_ulong,
u"long long": ct.c_longlong,
u"unsigned long long": ct.c_ulonglong,
u"float": ct.c_float,
u"double": ct.c_double,
u"long double": ct.c_longdouble,
u"__int128": ct.c_int64 * 2,
u"unsigned __int128": ct.c_uint64 * 2,
}
@staticmethod
def _decode_table_type(desc):
if isinstance(desc, basestring):
return BPF.str2ctype[desc]
anon = []
fields = []
for t in desc[1]:
if len(t) == 2:
fields.append((t[0], BPF._decode_table_type(t[1])))
elif len(t) == 3:
if isinstance(t[2], list):
fields.append((t[0], BPF._decode_table_type(t[1]) * t[2][0]))
elif isinstance(t[2], int):
fields.append((t[0], BPF._decode_table_type(t[1]), t[2]))
elif isinstance(t[2], basestring) and (
t[2] == u"union" or t[2] == u"struct" or
t[2] == u"struct_packed"):
name = t[0]
if name == "":
name = "__anon%d" % len(anon)
anon.append(name)
fields.append((name, BPF._decode_table_type(t)))
else:
raise Exception("Failed to decode type %s" % str(t))
else:
raise Exception("Failed to decode type %s" % str(t))
base = ct.Structure
is_packed = False
if len(desc) > 2:
if desc[2] == u"union":
base = ct.Union
elif desc[2] == u"struct":
base = ct.Structure
elif desc[2] == u"struct_packed":
base = ct.Structure
is_packed = True
if is_packed:
cls = type(str(desc[0]), (base,), dict(_anonymous_=anon, _pack_=1,
_fields_=fields))
else:
cls = type(str(desc[0]), (base,), dict(_anonymous_=anon,
_fields_=fields))
return cls
def get_table(self, name, keytype=None, leaftype=None, reducer=None):
name = _assert_is_bytes(name)
map_id = lib.bpf_table_id(self.module, name)
map_fd = lib.bpf_table_fd(self.module, name)
if map_fd < 0:
raise KeyError
if not keytype:
key_desc = lib.bpf_table_key_desc(self.module, name).decode("utf-8")
if not key_desc:
raise Exception("Failed to load BPF Table %s key desc" % name)
keytype = BPF._decode_table_type(json.loads(key_desc))
if not leaftype:
leaf_desc = lib.bpf_table_leaf_desc(self.module, name).decode("utf-8")
if not leaf_desc:
raise Exception("Failed to load BPF Table %s leaf desc" % name)
leaftype = BPF._decode_table_type(json.loads(leaf_desc))
return Table(self, map_id, map_fd, keytype, leaftype, name, reducer=reducer)
def __getitem__(self, key):
if key not in self.tables:
self.tables[key] = self.get_table(key)
return self.tables[key]
def __setitem__(self, key, leaf):
self.tables[key] = leaf
def __len__(self):
return len(self.tables)
def __delitem__(self, key):
del self.tables[key]
def __iter__(self):
return self.tables.__iter__()
@staticmethod
def attach_raw_socket(fn, dev):
dev = _assert_is_bytes(dev)
if not isinstance(fn, BPF.Function):
raise Exception("arg 1 must be of type BPF.Function")
sock = lib.bpf_open_raw_sock(dev)
if sock < 0:
errstr = os.strerror(ct.get_errno())
raise Exception("Failed to open raw device %s: %s" % (dev, errstr))
res = lib.bpf_attach_socket(sock, fn.fd)
if res < 0:
errstr = os.strerror(ct.get_errno())
raise Exception("Failed to attach BPF to device %s: %s"
% (dev, errstr))
fn.sock = sock
@staticmethod
def get_kprobe_functions(event_re):
with open("%s/../kprobes/blacklist" % TRACEFS, "rb") as blacklist_f:
blacklist = set([line.rstrip().split()[1] for line in blacklist_f])
fns = []
in_init_section = 0
in_irq_section = 0
with open("/proc/kallsyms", "rb") as avail_file:
for line in avail_file:
(t, fn) = line.rstrip().split()[1:3]
# Skip all functions defined between __init_begin and
# __init_end
if in_init_section == 0:
if fn == b'__init_begin':
in_init_section = 1
continue
elif in_init_section == 1:
if fn == b'__init_end':
in_init_section = 2
continue
# Skip all functions defined between __irqentry_text_start and
# __irqentry_text_end
if in_irq_section == 0:
if fn == b'__irqentry_text_start':
in_irq_section = 1
continue
elif in_irq_section == 1:
if fn == b'__irqentry_text_end':
in_irq_section = 2
continue
# All functions defined as NOKPROBE_SYMBOL() start with the
# prefix _kbl_addr_*, blacklisting them by looking at the name
# allows to catch also those symbols that are defined in kernel
# modules.
if fn.startswith(b'_kbl_addr_'):
continue
# Explicitly blacklist perf-related functions, they are all
# non-attachable.
elif fn.startswith(b'__perf') or fn.startswith(b'perf_'):
continue
# Exclude all gcc 8's extra .cold functions
elif re.match(b'^.*\.cold(\.\d+)?$', fn):
continue
if (t.lower() in [b't', b'w']) and re.match(event_re, fn) \
and fn not in blacklist:
fns.append(fn)
return set(fns) # Some functions may appear more than once
def _check_probe_quota(self, num_new_probes):
global _num_open_probes
if _num_open_probes + num_new_probes > _probe_limit:
raise Exception("Number of open probes would exceed global quota")
def _add_kprobe_fd(self, name, fd):
global _num_open_probes
self.kprobe_fds[name] = fd
_num_open_probes += 1
def _del_kprobe_fd(self, name):
global _num_open_probes
del self.kprobe_fds[name]
_num_open_probes -= 1
def _add_uprobe_fd(self, name, fd):
global _num_open_probes
self.uprobe_fds[name] = fd
_num_open_probes += 1
def _del_uprobe_fd(self, name):
global _num_open_probes
del self.uprobe_fds[name]
_num_open_probes -= 1
# Find current system's syscall prefix by testing on the BPF syscall.
# If no valid value found, will return the first possible value which
# would probably lead to error in later API calls.
def get_syscall_prefix(self):
for prefix in self._syscall_prefixes:
if self.ksymname(b"%sbpf" % prefix) != -1:
return prefix
return self._syscall_prefixes[0]
# Given a syscall's name, return the full Kernel function name with current
# system's syscall prefix. For example, given "clone" the helper would
# return "sys_clone" or "__x64_sys_clone".
def get_syscall_fnname(self, name):
name = _assert_is_bytes(name)
return self.get_syscall_prefix() + name
# Given a Kernel function name that represents a syscall but already has a
# prefix included, transform it to current system's prefix. For example,
# if "sys_clone" provided, the helper may translate it to "__x64_sys_clone".
def fix_syscall_fnname(self, name):
name = _assert_is_bytes(name)
for prefix in self._syscall_prefixes:
if name.startswith(prefix):
return self.get_syscall_fnname(name[len(prefix):])
return name
def attach_kprobe(self, event=b"", event_off=0, fn_name=b"", event_re=b""):
event = _assert_is_bytes(event)
fn_name = _assert_is_bytes(fn_name)
event_re = _assert_is_bytes(event_re)
# allow the caller to glob multiple functions together
if event_re:
matches = BPF.get_kprobe_functions(event_re)
self._check_probe_quota(len(matches))
for line in matches:
try:
self.attach_kprobe(event=line, fn_name=fn_name)
except:
pass
return
self._check_probe_quota(1)
fn = self.load_func(fn_name, BPF.KPROBE)
ev_name = b"p_" + event.replace(b"+", b"_").replace(b".", b"_")
fd = lib.bpf_attach_kprobe(fn.fd, 0, ev_name, event, event_off, 0)
if fd < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to attach BPF program %s to kprobe %s" %
(fn_name, event))
self._add_kprobe_fd(ev_name, fd)
return self
def attach_kretprobe(self, event=b"", fn_name=b"", event_re=b"", maxactive=0):
event = _assert_is_bytes(event)
fn_name = _assert_is_bytes(fn_name)
event_re = _assert_is_bytes(event_re)
# allow the caller to glob multiple functions together
if event_re:
for line in BPF.get_kprobe_functions(event_re):
try:
self.attach_kretprobe(event=line, fn_name=fn_name,
maxactive=maxactive)
except:
pass
return
self._check_probe_quota(1)
fn = self.load_func(fn_name, BPF.KPROBE)
ev_name = b"r_" + event.replace(b"+", b"_").replace(b".", b"_")
fd = lib.bpf_attach_kprobe(fn.fd, 1, ev_name, event, 0, maxactive)
if fd < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to attach BPF program %s to kretprobe %s" %
(fn_name, event))
self._add_kprobe_fd(ev_name, fd)
return self
def detach_kprobe_event(self, ev_name):
if ev_name not in self.kprobe_fds:
raise Exception("Kprobe %s is not attached" % ev_name)
res = lib.bpf_close_perf_event_fd(self.kprobe_fds[ev_name])
if res < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to close kprobe FD")
res = lib.bpf_detach_kprobe(ev_name)
if res < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to detach BPF from kprobe")
self._del_kprobe_fd(ev_name)
def detach_kprobe(self, event):
event = _assert_is_bytes(event)
ev_name = b"p_" + event.replace(b"+", b"_").replace(b".", b"_")
self.detach_kprobe_event(ev_name)
def detach_kretprobe(self, event):
event = _assert_is_bytes(event)
ev_name = b"r_" + event.replace(b"+", b"_").replace(b".", b"_")
self.detach_kprobe_event(ev_name)
@staticmethod
def attach_xdp(dev, fn, flags=0):
'''
This function attaches a BPF function to a device on the device
driver level (XDP)
'''
dev = _assert_is_bytes(dev)
if not isinstance(fn, BPF.Function):
raise Exception("arg 1 must be of type BPF.Function")
res = lib.bpf_attach_xdp(dev, fn.fd, flags)
if res < 0:
err_no = ct.get_errno()
if err_no == errno.EBADMSG:
raise Exception("Internal error while attaching BPF to device,"+
" try increasing the debug level!")
else:
errstr = os.strerror(err_no)
raise Exception("Failed to attach BPF to device %s: %s"
% (dev, errstr))
@staticmethod
def remove_xdp(dev, flags=0):
'''
This function removes any BPF function from a device on the
device driver level (XDP)
'''
dev = _assert_is_bytes(dev)
res = lib.bpf_attach_xdp(dev, -1, flags)
if res < 0:
errstr = os.strerror(ct.get_errno())
raise Exception("Failed to detach BPF from device %s: %s"
% (dev, errstr))
@classmethod
def _check_path_symbol(cls, module, symname, addr, pid, sym_off=0):
module = _assert_is_bytes(module)
symname = _assert_is_bytes(symname)
sym = bcc_symbol()
c_pid = 0 if pid == -1 else pid
if lib.bcc_resolve_symname(
module, symname,
addr or 0x0, c_pid,
ct.cast(None, ct.POINTER(bcc_symbol_option)),
ct.byref(sym),
) < 0:
raise Exception("could not determine address of symbol %s" % symname)
new_addr = sym.offset + sym_off
module_path = ct.cast(sym.module, ct.c_char_p).value
lib.bcc_procutils_free(sym.module)
return module_path, new_addr
@staticmethod
def find_library(libname):
libname = _assert_is_bytes(libname)
res = lib.bcc_procutils_which_so(libname, 0)
if not res:
return None
libpath = ct.cast(res, ct.c_char_p).value
lib.bcc_procutils_free(res)
return libpath
@staticmethod
def get_tracepoints(tp_re):
results = []
events_dir = os.path.join(TRACEFS, "events")
for category in os.listdir(events_dir):
cat_dir = os.path.join(events_dir, category)
if not os.path.isdir(cat_dir):
continue
for event in os.listdir(cat_dir):
evt_dir = os.path.join(cat_dir, event)
if os.path.isdir(evt_dir):
tp = ("%s:%s" % (category, event))
if re.match(tp_re.decode(), tp):
results.append(tp)
return results
@staticmethod
def tracepoint_exists(category, event):
evt_dir = os.path.join(TRACEFS, "events", category, event)
return os.path.isdir(evt_dir)
def attach_tracepoint(self, tp=b"", tp_re=b"", fn_name=b""):
"""attach_tracepoint(tp="", tp_re="", fn_name="")
Run the bpf function denoted by fn_name every time the kernel tracepoint
specified by 'tp' is hit. The optional parameters pid, cpu, and group_fd
can be used to filter the probe. The tracepoint specification is simply
the tracepoint category and the tracepoint name, separated by a colon.
For example: sched:sched_switch, syscalls:sys_enter_bind, etc.
Instead of a tracepoint name, a regular expression can be provided in
tp_re. The program will then attach to tracepoints that match the
provided regular expression.
To obtain a list of kernel tracepoints, use the tplist tool or cat the
file /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/available_events.
Examples:
BPF(text).attach_tracepoint(tp="sched:sched_switch", fn_name="on_switch")
BPF(text).attach_tracepoint(tp_re="sched:.*", fn_name="on_switch")
"""
tp = _assert_is_bytes(tp)
tp_re = _assert_is_bytes(tp_re)
fn_name = _assert_is_bytes(fn_name)
if tp_re:
for tp in BPF.get_tracepoints(tp_re):
self.attach_tracepoint(tp=tp, fn_name=fn_name)
return
fn = self.load_func(fn_name, BPF.TRACEPOINT)
(tp_category, tp_name) = tp.split(b':')
fd = lib.bpf_attach_tracepoint(fn.fd, tp_category, tp_name)
if fd < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to attach BPF program %s to tracepoint %s" %
(fn_name, tp))
self.tracepoint_fds[tp] = fd
return self
def attach_raw_tracepoint(self, tp=b"", fn_name=b""):
"""attach_raw_tracepoint(self, tp=b"", fn_name=b"")
Run the bpf function denoted by fn_name every time the kernel tracepoint
specified by 'tp' is hit. The bpf function should be loaded as a
RAW_TRACEPOINT type. The fn_name is the kernel tracepoint name,
e.g., sched_switch, sys_enter_bind, etc.
Examples:
BPF(text).attach_raw_tracepoint(tp="sched_switch", fn_name="on_switch")
"""
tp = _assert_is_bytes(tp)
if tp in self.raw_tracepoint_fds:
raise Exception("Raw tracepoint %s has been attached" % tp)
fn_name = _assert_is_bytes(fn_name)
fn = self.load_func(fn_name, BPF.RAW_TRACEPOINT)
fd = lib.bpf_attach_raw_tracepoint(fn.fd, tp)
if fd < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to attach BPF to raw tracepoint")
self.raw_tracepoint_fds[tp] = fd;
return self
def detach_raw_tracepoint(self, tp=b""):
"""detach_raw_tracepoint(tp="")
Stop running the bpf function that is attached to the kernel tracepoint
specified by 'tp'.
Example: bpf.detach_raw_tracepoint("sched_switch")
"""
tp = _assert_is_bytes(tp)
if tp not in self.raw_tracepoint_fds:
raise Exception("Raw tracepoint %s is not attached" % tp)
os.close(self.raw_tracepoint_fds[tp])
del self.raw_tracepoint_fds[tp]
@staticmethod
def add_prefix(prefix, name):
if not name.startswith(prefix):
name = prefix + name
return name
@staticmethod
def support_kfunc():
if not lib.bpf_has_kernel_btf():
return False;
# kernel symbol "bpf_trampoline_link_prog" indicates kfunc support
if BPF.ksymname("bpf_trampoline_link_prog") != -1:
return True
return False
def detach_kfunc(self, fn_name=b""):
fn_name = _assert_is_bytes(fn_name)
fn_name = BPF.add_prefix(b"kfunc__", fn_name)
if fn_name not in self.kfunc_entry_fds:
raise Exception("Kernel entry func %s is not attached" % fn_name)
os.close(self.kfunc_entry_fds[fn_name])
del self.kfunc_entry_fds[fn_name]
def detach_kretfunc(self, fn_name=b""):
fn_name = _assert_is_bytes(fn_name)
fn_name = BPF.add_prefix(b"kretfunc__", fn_name)
if fn_name not in self.kfunc_exit_fds:
raise Exception("Kernel exit func %s is not attached" % fn_name)
os.close(self.kfunc_exit_fds[fn_name])
del self.kfunc_exit_fds[fn_name]
def attach_kfunc(self, fn_name=b""):
fn_name = _assert_is_bytes(fn_name)
fn_name = BPF.add_prefix(b"kfunc__", fn_name)
if fn_name in self.kfunc_entry_fds:
raise Exception("Kernel entry func %s has been attached" % fn_name)
fn = self.load_func(fn_name, BPF.TRACING)
fd = lib.bpf_attach_kfunc(fn.fd)
if fd < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to attach BPF to entry kernel func")
self.kfunc_entry_fds[fn_name] = fd;
return self
def attach_kretfunc(self, fn_name=b""):
fn_name = _assert_is_bytes(fn_name)
fn_name = BPF.add_prefix(b"kretfunc__", fn_name)
if fn_name in self.kfunc_exit_fds:
raise Exception("Kernel exit func %s has been attached" % fn_name)
fn = self.load_func(fn_name, BPF.TRACING)
fd = lib.bpf_attach_kfunc(fn.fd)
if fd < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to attach BPF to exit kernel func")
self.kfunc_exit_fds[fn_name] = fd;
return self
@staticmethod
def support_raw_tracepoint():
# kernel symbol "bpf_find_raw_tracepoint" indicates raw_tracepoint support
if BPF.ksymname("bpf_find_raw_tracepoint") != -1 or \
BPF.ksymname("bpf_get_raw_tracepoint") != -1:
return True
return False
def detach_tracepoint(self, tp=b""):
"""detach_tracepoint(tp="")
Stop running a bpf function that is attached to the kernel tracepoint
specified by 'tp'.
Example: bpf.detach_tracepoint("sched:sched_switch")
"""
tp = _assert_is_bytes(tp)
if tp not in self.tracepoint_fds:
raise Exception("Tracepoint %s is not attached" % tp)
res = lib.bpf_close_perf_event_fd(self.tracepoint_fds[tp])
if res < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to detach BPF from tracepoint")
(tp_category, tp_name) = tp.split(b':')
res = lib.bpf_detach_tracepoint(tp_category, tp_name)
if res < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to detach BPF from tracepoint")
del self.tracepoint_fds[tp]
def _attach_perf_event(self, progfd, ev_type, ev_config,
sample_period, sample_freq, pid, cpu, group_fd):
res = lib.bpf_attach_perf_event(progfd, ev_type, ev_config,
sample_period, sample_freq, pid, cpu, group_fd)
if res < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to attach BPF to perf event")
return res
def attach_perf_event(self, ev_type=-1, ev_config=-1, fn_name=b"",
sample_period=0, sample_freq=0, pid=-1, cpu=-1, group_fd=-1):
fn_name = _assert_is_bytes(fn_name)
fn = self.load_func(fn_name, BPF.PERF_EVENT)
res = {}
if cpu >= 0:
res[cpu] = self._attach_perf_event(fn.fd, ev_type, ev_config,
sample_period, sample_freq, pid, cpu, group_fd)
else:
for i in get_online_cpus():
res[i] = self._attach_perf_event(fn.fd, ev_type, ev_config,
sample_period, sample_freq, pid, i, group_fd)
self.open_perf_events[(ev_type, ev_config)] = res
def detach_perf_event(self, ev_type=-1, ev_config=-1):
try:
fds = self.open_perf_events[(ev_type, ev_config)]
except KeyError:
raise Exception("Perf event type {} config {} not attached".format(
ev_type, ev_config))
res = 0
for fd in fds.values():
res = lib.bpf_close_perf_event_fd(fd) or res
if res != 0:
raise Exception("Failed to detach BPF from perf event")
del self.open_perf_events[(ev_type, ev_config)]
@staticmethod
def get_user_functions(name, sym_re):
return set([name for (name, _) in
BPF.get_user_functions_and_addresses(name, sym_re)])
@staticmethod
def get_user_addresses(name, sym_re):
"""
We are returning addresses here instead of symbol names because it
turns out that the same name may appear multiple times with different
addresses, and the same address may appear multiple times with the same
name. We can't attach a uprobe to the same address more than once, so
it makes sense to return the unique set of addresses that are mapped to
a symbol that matches the provided regular expression.
"""
return set([address for (_, address) in
BPF.get_user_functions_and_addresses(name, sym_re)])
@staticmethod
def get_user_functions_and_addresses(name, sym_re):
name = _assert_is_bytes(name)
sym_re = _assert_is_bytes(sym_re)
addresses = []
def sym_cb(sym_name, addr):
dname = sym_name
if re.match(sym_re, dname):
addresses.append((dname, addr))
return 0
res = lib.bcc_foreach_function_symbol(name, _SYM_CB_TYPE(sym_cb))
if res < 0:
raise Exception("Error %d enumerating symbols in %s" % (res, name))
return addresses
def _get_uprobe_evname(self, prefix, path, addr, pid):
if pid == -1:
return b"%s_%s_0x%x" % (prefix, self._probe_repl.sub(b"_", path), addr)
else:
# if pid is valid, put pid in the name, so different pid
# can have different event names
return b"%s_%s_0x%x_%d" % (prefix, self._probe_repl.sub(b"_", path), addr, pid)
def attach_uprobe(self, name=b"", sym=b"", sym_re=b"", addr=None,
fn_name=b"", pid=-1, sym_off=0):
"""attach_uprobe(name="", sym="", sym_re="", addr=None, fn_name=""
pid=-1, sym_off=0)
Run the bpf function denoted by fn_name every time the symbol sym in
the library or binary 'name' is encountered. Optional parameters pid,
cpu, and group_fd can be used to filter the probe.
If sym_off is given, attach uprobe to offset within the symbol.
The real address addr may be supplied in place of sym, in which case sym
must be set to its default value. If the file is a non-PIE executable,
addr must be a virtual address, otherwise it must be an offset relative
to the file load address.
Instead of a symbol name, a regular expression can be provided in
sym_re. The uprobe will then attach to symbols that match the provided
regular expression.
Libraries can be given in the name argument without the lib prefix, or
with the full path (/usr/lib/...). Binaries can be given only with the
full path (/bin/sh). If a PID is given, the uprobe will attach to the
version of the library used by the process.
Example: BPF(text).attach_uprobe("c", "malloc")
BPF(text).attach_uprobe("/usr/bin/python", "main")
"""
assert sym_off >= 0
if addr is not None:
assert sym_off == 0, "offset with addr is not supported"
name = _assert_is_bytes(name)
sym = _assert_is_bytes(sym)
sym_re = _assert_is_bytes(sym_re)
fn_name = _assert_is_bytes(fn_name)
if sym_re:
addresses = BPF.get_user_addresses(name, sym_re)
self._check_probe_quota(len(addresses))
for sym_addr in addresses:
self.attach_uprobe(name=name, addr=sym_addr,
fn_name=fn_name, pid=pid)
return
(path, addr) = BPF._check_path_symbol(name, sym, addr, pid, sym_off)
self._check_probe_quota(1)
fn = self.load_func(fn_name, BPF.KPROBE)
ev_name = self._get_uprobe_evname(b"p", path, addr, pid)
fd = lib.bpf_attach_uprobe(fn.fd, 0, ev_name, path, addr, pid)
if fd < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to attach BPF to uprobe")
self._add_uprobe_fd(ev_name, fd)
return self
def attach_uretprobe(self, name=b"", sym=b"", sym_re=b"", addr=None,
fn_name=b"", pid=-1):
"""attach_uretprobe(name="", sym="", sym_re="", addr=None, fn_name=""
pid=-1)
Run the bpf function denoted by fn_name every time the symbol sym in
the library or binary 'name' finishes execution. See attach_uprobe for
meaning of additional parameters.
"""
name = _assert_is_bytes(name)
sym = _assert_is_bytes(sym)
sym_re = _assert_is_bytes(sym_re)
fn_name = _assert_is_bytes(fn_name)
if sym_re:
for sym_addr in BPF.get_user_addresses(name, sym_re):
self.attach_uretprobe(name=name, addr=sym_addr,
fn_name=fn_name, pid=pid)
return
(path, addr) = BPF._check_path_symbol(name, sym, addr, pid)
self._check_probe_quota(1)
fn = self.load_func(fn_name, BPF.KPROBE)
ev_name = self._get_uprobe_evname(b"r", path, addr, pid)
fd = lib.bpf_attach_uprobe(fn.fd, 1, ev_name, path, addr, pid)
if fd < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to attach BPF to uretprobe")
self._add_uprobe_fd(ev_name, fd)
return self
def detach_uprobe_event(self, ev_name):
if ev_name not in self.uprobe_fds:
raise Exception("Uprobe %s is not attached" % ev_name)
res = lib.bpf_close_perf_event_fd(self.uprobe_fds[ev_name])
if res < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to detach BPF from uprobe")
res = lib.bpf_detach_uprobe(ev_name)
if res < 0:
raise Exception("Failed to detach BPF from uprobe")
self._del_uprobe_fd(ev_name)
def detach_uprobe(self, name=b"", sym=b"", addr=None, pid=-1, sym_off=0):
"""detach_uprobe(name="", sym="", addr=None, pid=-1)
Stop running a bpf function that is attached to symbol 'sym' in library
or binary 'name'.
"""
name = _assert_is_bytes(name)
sym = _assert_is_bytes(sym)
(path, addr) = BPF._check_path_symbol(name, sym, addr, pid, sym_off)
ev_name = self._get_uprobe_evname(b"p", path, addr, pid)
self.detach_uprobe_event(ev_name)
def detach_uretprobe(self, name=b"", sym=b"", addr=None, pid=-1):
"""detach_uretprobe(name="", sym="", addr=None, pid=-1)
Stop running a bpf function that is attached to symbol 'sym' in library
or binary 'name'.
"""
name = _assert_is_bytes(name)
sym = _assert_is_bytes(sym)
(path, addr) = BPF._check_path_symbol(name, sym, addr, pid)
ev_name = self._get_uprobe_evname(b"r", path, addr, pid)
self.detach_uprobe_event(ev_name)
def _trace_autoload(self):
for i in range(0, lib.bpf_num_functions(self.module)):
func_name = lib.bpf_function_name(self.module, i)
if func_name.startswith(b"kprobe__"):
fn = self.load_func(func_name, BPF.KPROBE)
self.attach_kprobe(
event=self.fix_syscall_fnname(func_name[8:]),
fn_name=fn.name)
elif func_name.startswith(b"kretprobe__"):
fn = self.load_func(func_name, BPF.KPROBE)
self.attach_kretprobe(
event=self.fix_syscall_fnname(func_name[11:]),
fn_name=fn.name)
elif func_name.startswith(b"tracepoint__"):
fn = self.load_func(func_name, BPF.TRACEPOINT)
tp = fn.name[len(b"tracepoint__"):].replace(b"__", b":")
self.attach_tracepoint(tp=tp, fn_name=fn.name)
elif func_name.startswith(b"raw_tracepoint__"):
fn = self.load_func(func_name, BPF.RAW_TRACEPOINT)
tp = fn.name[len(b"raw_tracepoint__"):]
self.attach_raw_tracepoint(tp=tp, fn_name=fn.name)
elif func_name.startswith(b"kfunc__"):
self.attach_kfunc(fn_name=func_name)
elif func_name.startswith(b"kretfunc__"):
self.attach_kretfunc(fn_name=func_name)
def trace_open(self, nonblocking=False):
"""trace_open(nonblocking=False)
Open the trace_pipe if not already open
"""
if not self.tracefile:
self.tracefile = open("%s/trace_pipe" % TRACEFS, "rb")
if nonblocking:
fd = self.tracefile.fileno()
fl = fcntl.fcntl(fd, fcntl.F_GETFL)
fcntl.fcntl(fd, fcntl.F_SETFL, fl | os.O_NONBLOCK)
return self.tracefile
def trace_fields(self, nonblocking=False):
"""trace_fields(nonblocking=False)
Read from the kernel debug trace pipe and return a tuple of the
fields (task, pid, cpu, flags, timestamp, msg) or None if no
line was read (nonblocking=True)
"""
while True:
line = self.trace_readline(nonblocking)
if not line and nonblocking: return (None,) * 6
# don't print messages related to lost events
if line.startswith(b"CPU:"): continue
task = line[:16].lstrip()
line = line[17:]
ts_end = line.find(b":")
pid, cpu, flags, ts = line[:ts_end].split()
cpu = cpu[1:-1]
# line[ts_end:] will have ": [sym_or_addr]: msgs"
# For trace_pipe debug output, the addr typically
# is invalid (e.g., 0x1). For kernel 4.12 or earlier,
# if address is not able to match a kernel symbol,
# nothing will be printed out. For kernel 4.13 and later,
# however, the illegal address will be printed out.
# Hence, both cases are handled here.
line = line[ts_end + 1:]
sym_end = line.find(b":")
msg = line[sym_end + 2:]
return (task, int(pid), int(cpu), flags, float(ts), msg)
def trace_readline(self, nonblocking=False):
"""trace_readline(nonblocking=False)
Read from the kernel debug trace pipe and return one line
If nonblocking is False, this will block until ctrl-C is pressed.
"""
trace = self.trace_open(nonblocking)
line = None
try:
line = trace.readline(1024).rstrip()
except IOError:
pass
return line
def trace_print(self, fmt=None):
"""trace_print(self, fmt=None)
Read from the kernel debug trace pipe and print on stdout.
If fmt is specified, apply as a format string to the output. See
trace_fields for the members of the tuple
example: trace_print(fmt="pid {1}, msg = {5}")
"""
while True:
if fmt:
fields = self.trace_fields(nonblocking=False)
if not fields: continue
line = fmt.format(*fields)
else:
line = self.trace_readline(nonblocking=False)
print(line)
sys.stdout.flush()
@staticmethod
def _sym_cache(pid):
"""_sym_cache(pid)
Returns a symbol cache for the specified PID.
The kernel symbol cache is accessed by providing any PID less than zero.
"""
if pid < 0 and pid != -1:
pid = -1
if not pid in BPF._sym_caches:
BPF._sym_caches[pid] = SymbolCache(pid)
return BPF._sym_caches[pid]
@staticmethod
def sym(addr, pid, show_module=False, show_offset=False, demangle=True):
"""sym(addr, pid, show_module=False, show_offset=False)
Translate a memory address into a function name for a pid, which is
returned. When show_module is True, the module name is also included.
When show_offset is True, the instruction offset as a hexadecimal
number is also included in the string.
A pid of less than zero will access the kernel symbol cache.
Example output when both show_module and show_offset are True:
"start_thread+0x202 [libpthread-2.24.so]"
Example output when both show_module and show_offset are False:
"start_thread"
"""
#addr is of type stacktrace_build_id
#so invoke the bsym address resolver
typeofaddr = str(type(addr))
if typeofaddr.find('bpf_stack_build_id') != -1:
sym = bcc_symbol()
b = bcc_stacktrace_build_id()
b.status = addr.status
b.build_id = addr.build_id
b.u.offset = addr.offset;
res = lib.bcc_buildsymcache_resolve(BPF._bsymcache,
ct.byref(b),
ct.byref(sym))
if res < 0:
if sym.module and sym.offset:
name,offset,module = (None, sym.offset,
ct.cast(sym.module, ct.c_char_p).value)
else:
name, offset, module = (None, addr, None)
else:
name, offset, module = (sym.name, sym.offset,
ct.cast(sym.module, ct.c_char_p).value)
else:
name, offset, module = BPF._sym_cache(pid).resolve(addr, demangle)
offset = b"+0x%x" % offset if show_offset and name is not None else b""
name = name or b"[unknown]"
name = name + offset
module = b" [%s]" % os.path.basename(module) \
if show_module and module is not None else b""
return name + module
@staticmethod
def ksym(addr, show_module=False, show_offset=False):
"""ksym(addr)
Translate a kernel memory address into a kernel function name, which is
returned. When show_module is True, the module name ("kernel") is also
included. When show_offset is true, the instruction offset as a
hexadecimal number is also included in the string.
Example output when both show_module and show_offset are True:
"default_idle+0x0 [kernel]"
"""
return BPF.sym(addr, -1, show_module, show_offset, False)
@staticmethod
def ksymname(name):
"""ksymname(name)
Translate a kernel name into an address. This is the reverse of
ksym. Returns -1 when the function name is unknown."""
return BPF._sym_cache(-1).resolve_name(None, name)
def num_open_kprobes(self):
"""num_open_kprobes()
Get the number of open K[ret]probes. Can be useful for scenarios where
event_re is used while attaching and detaching probes.
"""
return len(self.kprobe_fds)
def num_open_uprobes(self):
"""num_open_uprobes()
Get the number of open U[ret]probes.
"""
return len(self.uprobe_fds)
def num_open_tracepoints(self):
"""num_open_tracepoints()
Get the number of open tracepoints.
"""
return len(self.tracepoint_fds)
def perf_buffer_poll(self, timeout = -1):
"""perf_buffer_poll(self)
Poll from all open perf ring buffers, calling the callback that was
provided when calling open_perf_buffer for each entry.
"""
readers = (ct.c_void_p * len(self.perf_buffers))()
for i, v in enumerate(self.perf_buffers.values()):
readers[i] = v
lib.perf_reader_poll(len(readers), readers, timeout)
def kprobe_poll(self, timeout = -1):
"""kprobe_poll(self)
Deprecated. Use perf_buffer_poll instead.
"""
self.perf_buffer_poll(timeout)
def free_bcc_memory(self):
return lib.bcc_free_memory()
@staticmethod
def add_module(modname):
"""add_module(modname)
Add a library or exe to buildsym cache
"""
try:
lib.bcc_buildsymcache_add_module(BPF._bsymcache, modname.encode())
except Exception as e:
print("Error adding module to build sym cache"+str(e))
def donothing(self):
"""the do nothing exit handler"""
def cleanup(self):
# Clean up opened probes
for k, v in list(self.kprobe_fds.items()):
self.detach_kprobe_event(k)
for k, v in list(self.uprobe_fds.items()):
self.detach_uprobe_event(k)
for k, v in list(self.tracepoint_fds.items()):
self.detach_tracepoint(k)
for k, v in list(self.raw_tracepoint_fds.items()):
self.detach_raw_tracepoint(k)
for k, v in list(self.kfunc_entry_fds.items()):
self.detach_kfunc(k)
for k, v in list(self.kfunc_exit_fds.items()):
self.detach_kretfunc(k)
# Clean up opened perf ring buffer and perf events
table_keys = list(self.tables.keys())
for key in table_keys:
if isinstance(self.tables[key], PerfEventArray):
del self.tables[key]
for (ev_type, ev_config) in list(self.open_perf_events.keys()):
self.detach_perf_event(ev_type, ev_config)
if self.tracefile:
self.tracefile.close()
self.tracefile = None
for name, fn in list(self.funcs.items()):
os.close(fn.fd)
del self.funcs[name]
if self.module:
lib.bpf_module_destroy(self.module)
self.module = None
def __enter__(self):
return self
def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb):
self.cleanup()
from .usdt import USDT, USDTException