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#!/usr/bin/python
# @lint-avoid-python-3-compatibility-imports
#
# execsnoop Trace new processes via exec() syscalls.
# For Linux, uses BCC, eBPF. Embedded C.
#
# USAGE: execsnoop [-h] [-t] [-x] [-n NAME]
#
# This currently will print up to a maximum of 19 arguments, plus the process
# name, so 20 fields in total (MAXARG).
#
# This won't catch all new processes: an application may fork() but not exec().
#
# Copyright 2016 Netflix, Inc.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License")
#
# 07-Feb-2016 Brendan Gregg Created this.
from __future__ import print_function
from bcc import BPF
from bcc.utils import ArgString, printb
import bcc.utils as utils
import argparse
import re
import time
from collections import defaultdict
# arguments
examples = """examples:
./execsnoop # trace all exec() syscalls
./execsnoop -x # include failed exec()s
./execsnoop -t # include timestamps
./execsnoop -q # add "quotemarks" around arguments
./execsnoop -n main # only print command lines containing "main"
./execsnoop -l tpkg # only print command where arguments contains "tpkg"
"""
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(
description="Trace exec() syscalls",
formatter_class=argparse.RawDescriptionHelpFormatter,
epilog=examples)
parser.add_argument("-t", "--timestamp", action="store_true",
help="include timestamp on output")
parser.add_argument("-x", "--fails", action="store_true",
help="include failed exec()s")
parser.add_argument("-q", "--quote", action="store_true",
help="Add quotemarks (\") around arguments."
)
parser.add_argument("-n", "--name",
type=ArgString,
help="only print commands matching this name (regex), any arg")
parser.add_argument("-l", "--line",
type=ArgString,
help="only print commands where arg contains this line (regex)")
parser.add_argument("--max-args", default="20",
help="maximum number of arguments parsed and displayed, defaults to 20")
parser.add_argument("--ebpf", action="store_true",
help=argparse.SUPPRESS)
args = parser.parse_args()
# define BPF program
bpf_text = """
#include <uapi/linux/ptrace.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#define ARGSIZE 128
enum event_type {
EVENT_ARG,
EVENT_RET,
};
struct data_t {
u32 pid; // PID as in the userspace term (i.e. task->tgid in kernel)
u32 ppid; // Parent PID as in the userspace term (i.e task->real_parent->tgid in kernel)
char comm[TASK_COMM_LEN];
enum event_type type;
char argv[ARGSIZE];
int retval;
};
BPF_PERF_OUTPUT(events);
static int __submit_arg(struct pt_regs *ctx, void *ptr, struct data_t *data)
{
bpf_probe_read(data->argv, sizeof(data->argv), ptr);
events.perf_submit(ctx, data, sizeof(struct data_t));
return 1;
}
static int submit_arg(struct pt_regs *ctx, void *ptr, struct data_t *data)
{
const char *argp = NULL;
bpf_probe_read(&argp, sizeof(argp), ptr);
if (argp) {
return __submit_arg(ctx, (void *)(argp), data);
}
return 0;
}
int syscall__execve(struct pt_regs *ctx,
const char __user *filename,
const char __user *const __user *__argv,
const char __user *const __user *__envp)
{
// create data here and pass to submit_arg to save stack space (#555)
struct data_t data = {};
struct task_struct *task;
data.pid = bpf_get_current_pid_tgid() >> 32;
task = (struct task_struct *)bpf_get_current_task();
// Some kernels, like Ubuntu 4.13.0-generic, return 0
// as the real_parent->tgid.
// We use the get_ppid function as a fallback in those cases. (#1883)
data.ppid = task->real_parent->tgid;
bpf_get_current_comm(&data.comm, sizeof(data.comm));
data.type = EVENT_ARG;
__submit_arg(ctx, (void *)filename, &data);
// skip first arg, as we submitted filename
#pragma unroll
for (int i = 1; i < MAXARG; i++) {
if (submit_arg(ctx, (void *)&__argv[i], &data) == 0)
goto out;
}
// handle truncated argument list
char ellipsis[] = "...";
__submit_arg(ctx, (void *)ellipsis, &data);
out:
return 0;
}
int do_ret_sys_execve(struct pt_regs *ctx)
{
struct data_t data = {};
struct task_struct *task;
data.pid = bpf_get_current_pid_tgid() >> 32;
task = (struct task_struct *)bpf_get_current_task();
// Some kernels, like Ubuntu 4.13.0-generic, return 0
// as the real_parent->tgid.
// We use the get_ppid function as a fallback in those cases. (#1883)
data.ppid = task->real_parent->tgid;
bpf_get_current_comm(&data.comm, sizeof(data.comm));
data.type = EVENT_RET;
data.retval = PT_REGS_RC(ctx);
events.perf_submit(ctx, &data, sizeof(data));
return 0;
}
"""
bpf_text = bpf_text.replace("MAXARG", args.max_args)
if args.ebpf:
print(bpf_text)
exit()
# initialize BPF
b = BPF(text=bpf_text)
execve_fnname = b.get_syscall_fnname("execve")
b.attach_kprobe(event=execve_fnname, fn_name="syscall__execve")
b.attach_kretprobe(event=execve_fnname, fn_name="do_ret_sys_execve")
# header
if args.timestamp:
print("%-8s" % ("TIME(s)"), end="")
print("%-16s %-6s %-6s %3s %s" % ("PCOMM", "PID", "PPID", "RET", "ARGS"))
class EventType(object):
EVENT_ARG = 0
EVENT_RET = 1
start_ts = time.time()
argv = defaultdict(list)
# This is best-effort PPID matching. Short-lived processes may exit
# before we get a chance to read the PPID.
# This is a fallback for when fetching the PPID from task->real_parent->tgip
# returns 0, which happens in some kernel versions.
def get_ppid(pid):
try:
with open("/proc/%d/status" % pid) as status:
for line in status:
if line.startswith("PPid:"):
return int(line.split()[1])
except IOError:
pass
return 0
# process event
def print_event(cpu, data, size):
event = b["events"].event(data)
skip = False
if event.type == EventType.EVENT_ARG:
argv[event.pid].append(event.argv)
elif event.type == EventType.EVENT_RET:
if event.retval != 0 and not args.fails:
skip = True
if args.name and not re.search(bytes(args.name), event.comm):
skip = True
if args.line and not re.search(bytes(args.line),
b' '.join(argv[event.pid])):
skip = True
if args.quote:
argv[event.pid] = [
b"\"" + arg.replace(b"\"", b"\\\"") + b"\""
for arg in argv[event.pid]
]
if not skip:
if args.timestamp:
print("%-8.3f" % (time.time() - start_ts), end="")
ppid = event.ppid if event.ppid > 0 else get_ppid(event.pid)
ppid = b"%d" % ppid if ppid > 0 else b"?"
argv_text = b' '.join(argv[event.pid]).replace(b'\n', b'\\n')
printb(b"%-16s %-6d %-6s %3d %s" % (event.comm, event.pid,
ppid, event.retval, argv_text))
try:
del(argv[event.pid])
except Exception:
pass
# loop with callback to print_event
b["events"].open_perf_buffer(print_event)
while 1:
try:
b.perf_buffer_poll()
except KeyboardInterrupt:
exit()
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