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#!/usr/bin/python
# @lint-avoid-python-3-compatibility-imports
#
# ucalls Summarize method calls in high-level languages and/or system calls.
# For Linux, uses BCC, eBPF.
#
# USAGE: ucalls [-l {java,perl,php,python,ruby,tcl}] [-h] [-T TOP] [-L] [-S] [-v] [-m]
# pid [interval]
#
# Copyright 2016 Sasha Goldshtein
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License")
#
# 19-Oct-2016 Sasha Goldshtein Created this.
from __future__ import print_function
import argparse
from time import sleep
from bcc import BPF, USDT, utils
from bcc.syscall import syscall_name
languages = ["java", "perl", "php", "python", "ruby", "tcl"]
examples = """examples:
./ucalls -l java 185 # trace Java calls and print statistics on ^C
./ucalls -l python 2020 1 # trace Python calls and print every second
./ucalls -l java 185 -S # trace Java calls and syscalls
./ucalls 6712 -S # trace only syscall counts
./ucalls -l ruby 1344 -T 10 # trace top 10 Ruby method calls
./ucalls -l ruby 1344 -L # trace Ruby calls including latency
./ucalls -l php 443 -LS # trace PHP calls and syscalls with latency
./ucalls -l python 2020 -mL # trace Python calls including latency in ms
"""
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(
description="Summarize method calls in high-level languages.",
formatter_class=argparse.RawDescriptionHelpFormatter,
epilog=examples)
parser.add_argument("pid", type=int, help="process id to attach to")
parser.add_argument("interval", type=int, nargs='?',
help="print every specified number of seconds")
parser.add_argument("-l", "--language", choices=languages + ["none"],
help="language to trace (if none, trace syscalls only)")
parser.add_argument("-T", "--top", type=int,
help="number of most frequent/slow calls to print")
parser.add_argument("-L", "--latency", action="store_true",
help="record method latency from enter to exit (except recursive calls)")
parser.add_argument("-S", "--syscalls", action="store_true",
help="record syscall latency (adds overhead)")
parser.add_argument("-v", "--verbose", action="store_true",
help="verbose mode: print the BPF program (for debugging purposes)")
parser.add_argument("-m", "--milliseconds", action="store_true",
help="report times in milliseconds (default is microseconds)")
parser.add_argument("--ebpf", action="store_true",
help=argparse.SUPPRESS)
args = parser.parse_args()
language = args.language
if not language:
language = utils.detect_language(languages, args.pid)
# We assume that the entry and return probes have the same arguments. This is
# the case for Java, Python, Ruby, and PHP. If there's a language where it's
# not the case, we will need to build a custom correlator from entry to exit.
extra_message = ""
if language == "java":
# TODO for JVM entries, we actually have the real length of the class
# and method strings in arg3 and arg5 respectively, so we can insert
# the null terminator in its proper position.
entry_probe = "method__entry"
return_probe = "method__return"
read_class = "bpf_usdt_readarg(2, ctx, &clazz);"
read_method = "bpf_usdt_readarg(4, ctx, &method);"
extra_message = ("If you do not see any results, make sure you ran java"
" with option -XX:+ExtendedDTraceProbes")
elif language == "perl":
entry_probe = "sub__entry"
return_probe = "sub__return"
read_class = "bpf_usdt_readarg(2, ctx, &clazz);" # filename really
read_method = "bpf_usdt_readarg(1, ctx, &method);"
elif language == "php":
entry_probe = "function__entry"
return_probe = "function__return"
read_class = "bpf_usdt_readarg(4, ctx, &clazz);"
read_method = "bpf_usdt_readarg(1, ctx, &method);"
extra_message = ("If you do not see any results, make sure the environment"
" variable USE_ZEND_DTRACE is set to 1")
elif language == "python":
entry_probe = "function__entry"
return_probe = "function__return"
read_class = "bpf_usdt_readarg(1, ctx, &clazz);" # filename really
read_method = "bpf_usdt_readarg(2, ctx, &method);"
elif language == "ruby":
# TODO Also probe cmethod__entry and cmethod__return with same arguments
entry_probe = "method__entry"
return_probe = "method__return"
read_class = "bpf_usdt_readarg(1, ctx, &clazz);"
read_method = "bpf_usdt_readarg(2, ctx, &method);"
elif language == "tcl":
# TODO Also consider probe cmd__entry and cmd__return with same arguments
entry_probe = "proc__entry"
return_probe = "proc__return"
read_class = "" # no class/file info available
read_method = "bpf_usdt_readarg(1, ctx, &method);"
elif not language or language == "none":
if not args.syscalls:
print("Nothing to do; use -S to trace syscalls.")
exit(1)
entry_probe, return_probe, read_class, read_method = ("", "", "", "")
if language:
language = None
program = """
#include <linux/ptrace.h>
#define MAX_STRING_LENGTH 80
DEFINE_NOLANG
DEFINE_LATENCY
DEFINE_SYSCALLS
struct method_t {
char clazz[MAX_STRING_LENGTH];
char method[MAX_STRING_LENGTH];
};
struct entry_t {
u64 pid;
struct method_t method;
};
struct info_t {
u64 num_calls;
u64 total_ns;
};
struct syscall_entry_t {
u64 timestamp;
u64 id;
};
#ifndef LATENCY
BPF_HASH(counts, struct method_t, u64); // number of calls
#ifdef SYSCALLS
BPF_HASH(syscounts, u64, u64); // number of calls per IP
#endif // SYSCALLS
#else
BPF_HASH(times, struct method_t, struct info_t);
BPF_HASH(entry, struct entry_t, u64); // timestamp at entry
#ifdef SYSCALLS
BPF_HASH(systimes, u64, struct info_t); // latency per IP
BPF_HASH(sysentry, u64, struct syscall_entry_t); // ts + IP at entry
#endif // SYSCALLS
#endif
#ifndef NOLANG
int trace_entry(struct pt_regs *ctx) {
u64 clazz = 0, method = 0, val = 0;
u64 *valp;
struct entry_t data = {0};
#ifdef LATENCY
u64 timestamp = bpf_ktime_get_ns();
data.pid = bpf_get_current_pid_tgid();
#endif
READ_CLASS
READ_METHOD
bpf_probe_read(&data.method.clazz, sizeof(data.method.clazz),
(void *)clazz);
bpf_probe_read(&data.method.method, sizeof(data.method.method),
(void *)method);
#ifndef LATENCY
valp = counts.lookup_or_init(&data.method, &val);
++(*valp);
#endif
#ifdef LATENCY
entry.update(&data, &timestamp);
#endif
return 0;
}
#ifdef LATENCY
int trace_return(struct pt_regs *ctx) {
u64 *entry_timestamp, clazz = 0, method = 0;
struct info_t *info, zero = {};
struct entry_t data = {};
data.pid = bpf_get_current_pid_tgid();
READ_CLASS
READ_METHOD
bpf_probe_read(&data.method.clazz, sizeof(data.method.clazz),
(void *)clazz);
bpf_probe_read(&data.method.method, sizeof(data.method.method),
(void *)method);
entry_timestamp = entry.lookup(&data);
if (!entry_timestamp) {
return 0; // missed the entry event
}
info = times.lookup_or_init(&data.method, &zero);
info->num_calls += 1;
info->total_ns += bpf_ktime_get_ns() - *entry_timestamp;
entry.delete(&data);
return 0;
}
#endif // LATENCY
#endif // NOLANG
#ifdef SYSCALLS
TRACEPOINT_PROBE(raw_syscalls, sys_enter) {
u64 pid = bpf_get_current_pid_tgid();
u64 *valp, id = args->id, val = 0;
PID_FILTER
#ifdef LATENCY
struct syscall_entry_t data = {};
data.timestamp = bpf_ktime_get_ns();
data.id = id;
sysentry.update(&pid, &data);
#endif
#ifndef LATENCY
valp = syscounts.lookup_or_init(&id, &val);
++(*valp);
#endif
return 0;
}
#ifdef LATENCY
TRACEPOINT_PROBE(raw_syscalls, sys_exit) {
struct syscall_entry_t *e;
struct info_t *info, zero = {};
u64 pid = bpf_get_current_pid_tgid(), id;
PID_FILTER
e = sysentry.lookup(&pid);
if (!e) {
return 0; // missed the entry event
}
id = e->id;
info = systimes.lookup_or_init(&id, &zero);
info->num_calls += 1;
info->total_ns += bpf_ktime_get_ns() - e->timestamp;
sysentry.delete(&pid);
return 0;
}
#endif // LATENCY
#endif // SYSCALLS
""".replace("READ_CLASS", read_class) \
.replace("READ_METHOD", read_method) \
.replace("PID_FILTER", "if ((pid >> 32) != %d) { return 0; }" % args.pid) \
.replace("DEFINE_NOLANG", "#define NOLANG" if not language else "") \
.replace("DEFINE_LATENCY", "#define LATENCY" if args.latency else "") \
.replace("DEFINE_SYSCALLS", "#define SYSCALLS" if args.syscalls else "")
if language:
usdt = USDT(pid=args.pid)
usdt.enable_probe_or_bail(entry_probe, "trace_entry")
if args.latency:
usdt.enable_probe_or_bail(return_probe, "trace_return")
else:
usdt = None
if args.ebpf or args.verbose:
if args.verbose and usdt:
print(usdt.get_text())
print(program)
if args.ebpf:
exit()
bpf = BPF(text=program, usdt_contexts=[usdt] if usdt else [])
if args.syscalls:
print("Attached kernel tracepoints for syscall tracing.")
def get_data():
# Will be empty when no language was specified for tracing
if args.latency:
data = list(map(lambda kv: (kv[0].clazz.decode('utf-8', 'replace') \
+ "." + \
kv[0].method.decode('utf-8', 'replace'),
(kv[1].num_calls, kv[1].total_ns)),
bpf["times"].items()))
else:
data = list(map(lambda kv: (kv[0].clazz.decode('utf-8', 'replace') \
+ "." + \
kv[0].method.decode('utf-8', 'replace'),
(kv[1].value, 0)),
bpf["counts"].items()))
if args.syscalls:
if args.latency:
syscalls = map(lambda kv: (syscall_name(kv[0].value).decode('utf-8', 'replace'),
(kv[1].num_calls, kv[1].total_ns)),
bpf["systimes"].items())
data.extend(syscalls)
else:
syscalls = map(lambda kv: (syscall_name(kv[0].value).decode('utf-8', 'replace'),
(kv[1].value, 0)),
bpf["syscounts"].items())
data.extend(syscalls)
return sorted(data, key=lambda kv: kv[1][1 if args.latency else 0])
def clear_data():
if args.latency:
bpf["times"].clear()
else:
bpf["counts"].clear()
if args.syscalls:
if args.latency:
bpf["systimes"].clear()
else:
bpf["syscounts"].clear()
exit_signaled = False
print("Tracing calls in process %d (language: %s)... Ctrl-C to quit." %
(args.pid, language or "none"))
if extra_message:
print(extra_message)
while True:
try:
sleep(args.interval or 99999999)
except KeyboardInterrupt:
exit_signaled = True
print()
data = get_data() # [(function, (num calls, latency in ns))]
if args.latency:
time_col = "TIME (ms)" if args.milliseconds else "TIME (us)"
print("%-50s %8s %8s" % ("METHOD", "# CALLS", time_col))
else:
print("%-50s %8s" % ("METHOD", "# CALLS"))
if args.top:
data = data[-args.top:]
for key, value in data:
if args.latency:
time = value[1] / 1000000.0 if args.milliseconds else \
value[1] / 1000.0
print("%-50s %8d %6.2f" % (key, value[0], time))
else:
print("%-50s %8d" % (key, value[0]))
if args.interval and not exit_signaled:
clear_data()
else:
if args.syscalls:
print("Detaching kernel probes, please wait...")
exit()
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