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# stackcount Count events and their stack traces.
# For Linux, uses BCC, eBPF.
# USAGE: [-h] [-p PID] [-c CPU] [-i INTERVAL] [-D DURATION] [-T]
# [-r] [-s] [-P] [-K] [-U] [-v] [-d] [-f] [--debug]
# The pattern is a string with optional '*' wildcards, similar to file
# globbing. If you'd prefer to use regular expressions, use the -r option.
# Copyright 2016 Netflix, Inc.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License")
# 12-Jan-2016 Brendan Gregg Created this.
# 09-Jul-2016 Sasha Goldshtein Generalized for uprobes and tracepoints.
from __future__ import print_function
from bcc import BPF, USDT
from time import sleep, strftime
import argparse
import re
import signal
import sys
import traceback
debug = False
class Probe(object):
def __init__(self, pattern, kernel_stack, user_stack, use_regex=False,
pid=None, per_pid=False, cpu=None):
"""Init a new probe.
Init the probe from the pattern provided by the user. The supported
patterns mimic the 'trace' and 'argdist' tools, but are simpler because
we don't have to distinguish between probes and retprobes.
func -- probe a kernel function
lib:func -- probe a user-space function in the library 'lib'
p::func -- same thing as 'func'
p:lib:func -- same thing as 'lib:func'
t:cat:event -- probe a kernel tracepoint
u:lib:probe -- probe a USDT tracepoint
self.kernel_stack = kernel_stack
self.user_stack = user_stack
parts = pattern.split(':')
if len(parts) == 1:
parts = ["p", "", parts[0]]
elif len(parts) == 2:
parts = ["p", parts[0], parts[1]]
elif len(parts) == 3:
if parts[0] == "t":
parts = ["t", "", "%s:%s" % tuple(parts[1:])]
if parts[0] not in ["p", "t", "u"]:
raise Exception("Type must be 'p', 't', or 'u', but got %s" %
raise Exception("Too many ':'-separated components in pattern %s" %
(self.type, self.library, self.pattern) = parts
if not use_regex:
self.pattern = self.pattern.replace('*', '.*')
self.pattern = '^' + self.pattern + '$'
if (self.type == "p" and self.library) or self.type == "u":
libpath = BPF.find_library(self.library)
if libpath is None:
# This might be an executable (e.g. 'bash')
libpath = BPF.find_exe(self.library)
if libpath is None or len(libpath) == 0:
raise Exception("unable to find library %s" % self.library)
self.library = libpath = pid
self.per_pid = per_pid
self.cpu = cpu
self.matched = 0
def is_kernel_probe(self):
return self.type == "t" or (self.type == "p" and self.library == "")
def attach(self):
if self.type == "p":
if self.library:
fn_name="trace_count", or -1)
self.matched = self.bpf.num_open_uprobes()
self.matched = self.bpf.num_open_kprobes()
elif self.type == "t":
self.matched = self.bpf.num_open_tracepoints()
elif self.type == "u":
pass # Nothing to do -- attach already happened in `load`
if self.matched == 0:
raise Exception("No functions matched by pattern %s" %
def load(self):
ctx_name = "ctx"
stack_trace = ""
if self.user_stack:
stack_trace += """
key.user_stack_id = stack_traces.get_stackid(
);""" % (ctx_name)
stack_trace += "key.user_stack_id = -1;"
if self.kernel_stack:
stack_trace += """
key.kernel_stack_id = stack_traces.get_stackid(
);""" % (ctx_name)
stack_trace += "key.kernel_stack_id = -1;"
trace_count_text = """
int trace_count(void *ctx) {
struct key_t key = {};
key.tgid = GET_TGID;
return 0;
trace_count_text = trace_count_text % (stack_trace)
bpf_text = """#include <uapi/linux/ptrace.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
struct key_t {
// no pid (thread ID) so that we do not needlessly split this key
u32 tgid;
int kernel_stack_id;
int user_stack_id;
char name[TASK_COMM_LEN];
BPF_HASH(counts, struct key_t);
BPF_STACK_TRACE(stack_traces, 1024);
filter_text = []
# We really mean the tgid from the kernel's perspective, which is in
# the top 32 bits of bpf_get_current_pid_tgid().
if self.is_kernel_probe() and
filter_text.append('u32 pid; pid = bpf_get_current_pid_tgid() >> 32; ' +
'if (pid != %d) { return 0; }' %
if self.is_kernel_probe() and self.cpu:
filter_text.append('struct task_struct *task; task = (struct task_struct*)bpf_get_current_task(); ' +
'if (task->cpu != %d) { return 0; }' % self.cpu)
trace_count_text = trace_count_text.replace('FILTER', '\n '.join(filter_text))
# Do per-pid statistics iff -P is provided
if self.per_pid:
trace_count_text = trace_count_text.replace('GET_TGID',
'bpf_get_current_pid_tgid() >> 32')
trace_count_text = trace_count_text.replace('STORE_COMM',
'bpf_get_current_comm(&, sizeof(;')
# skip splitting on PID so these aggregate
# together, and don't store the process name.
trace_count_text = trace_count_text.replace(
'GET_TGID', '0xffffffff')
trace_count_text = trace_count_text.replace('STORE_COMM', '')
self.usdt = None
if self.type == "u":
self.usdt = USDT(path=self.library,
for probe in self.usdt.enumerate_probes():
if not and (probe.bin_path != self.library):
if re.match(self.pattern,
# This hack is required because the bpf_usdt_readarg
# functions generated need different function names for
# each attached probe. If we just stick to trace_count,
# we'd get multiple bpf_usdt_readarg helpers with the same
# name when enabling more than one USDT probe.
new_func = "trace_count_%d" % self.matched
bpf_text += trace_count_text.replace(
"trace_count", new_func)
self.usdt.enable_probe(, new_func)
self.matched += 1
if debug:
bpf_text += trace_count_text
if debug:
self.bpf = BPF(text=bpf_text,
usdt_contexts=[self.usdt] if self.usdt else [])
class Tool(object):
def __init__(self):
examples = """examples:
./stackcount submit_bio # count kernel stack traces for submit_bio
./stackcount -d ip_output # include a user/kernel stack delimiter
./stackcount -s ip_output # show symbol offsets
./stackcount -sv ip_output # show offsets and raw addresses (verbose)
./stackcount 'tcp_send*' # count stacks for funcs matching tcp_send*
./stackcount -r '^tcp_send.*' # same as above, using regular expressions
./stackcount -Ti 5 ip_output # output every 5 seconds, with timestamps
./stackcount -p 185 ip_output # count ip_output stacks for PID 185 only
./stackcount -c 1 put_prev_entity # count put_prev_entity stacks for CPU 1 only
./stackcount -p 185 c:malloc # count stacks for malloc in PID 185
./stackcount t:sched:sched_fork # count stacks for sched_fork tracepoint
./stackcount -p 185 u:node:* # count stacks for all USDT probes in node
./stackcount -K t:sched:sched_switch # kernel stacks only
./stackcount -U t:sched:sched_switch # user stacks only
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(
description="Count events and their stack traces",
parser.add_argument("-p", "--pid", type=int,
help="trace this PID only")
parser.add_argument("-c", "--cpu", type=int,
help="trace this CPU only")
parser.add_argument("-i", "--interval",
help="summary interval, seconds")
parser.add_argument("-D", "--duration",
help="total duration of trace, seconds")
parser.add_argument("-T", "--timestamp", action="store_true",
help="include timestamp on output")
parser.add_argument("-r", "--regexp", action="store_true",
help="use regular expressions. Default is \"*\" wildcards only.")
parser.add_argument("-s", "--offset", action="store_true",
help="show address offsets")
parser.add_argument("-P", "--perpid", action="store_true",
help="display stacks separately for each process")
parser.add_argument("-K", "--kernel-stacks-only",
action="store_true", help="kernel stack only", default=False)
parser.add_argument("-U", "--user-stacks-only",
action="store_true", help="user stack only", default=False)
parser.add_argument("-v", "--verbose", action="store_true",
help="show raw addresses")
parser.add_argument("-d", "--delimited", action="store_true",
help="insert delimiter between kernel/user stacks")
parser.add_argument("-f", "--folded", action="store_true",
help="output folded format")
parser.add_argument("--debug", action="store_true",
help="print BPF program before starting (for debugging purposes)")
help="search expression for events")
self.args = parser.parse_args()
global debug
debug = self.args.debug
if self.args.duration and not self.args.interval:
self.args.interval = self.args.duration
if not self.args.interval:
self.args.interval = 99999999
if self.args.kernel_stacks_only and self.args.user_stacks_only:
print("ERROR: -K and -U are mutually exclusive. If you want " +
"both stacks, that is the default.")
if not self.args.kernel_stacks_only and not self.args.user_stacks_only:
self.kernel_stack = True
self.user_stack = True
self.kernel_stack = self.args.kernel_stacks_only
self.user_stack = self.args.user_stacks_only
self.probe = Probe(self.args.pattern,
self.kernel_stack, self.user_stack,
self.args.regexp,, self.args.perpid, self.args.cpu)
self.need_delimiter = self.args.delimited and not (
self.args.kernel_stacks_only or self.args.user_stacks_only)
def _print_kframe(self, addr):
print(" ", end="")
if self.args.verbose:
print("%-16x " % addr, end="")
if self.args.offset:
print("%s" % self.probe.bpf.ksym(addr, show_offset=True))
print("%s" % self.probe.bpf.ksym(addr))
def _print_uframe(self, addr, pid):
print(" ", end="")
if self.args.verbose:
print("%-16x " % addr, end="")
if self.args.offset:
print("%s" % self.probe.bpf.sym(addr, pid, show_offset=True))
print("%s" % self.probe.bpf.sym(addr, pid))
def _signal_ignore(signal, frame):
def _print_comm(self, comm, pid):
print(" %s [%d]" % (comm, pid))
def run(self):
if not self.args.folded:
print("Tracing %d functions for \"%s\"... Hit Ctrl-C to end." %
(self.probe.matched, self.args.pattern))
b = self.probe.bpf
exiting = 0 if self.args.interval else 1
seconds = 0
while True:
seconds += int(self.args.interval)
except KeyboardInterrupt:
exiting = 1
# as cleanup can take many seconds, trap Ctrl-C:
signal.signal(signal.SIGINT, Tool._signal_ignore)
if self.args.duration and seconds >= int(self.args.duration):
exiting = 1
if not self.args.folded:
if self.args.timestamp:
print("%-8s\n" % strftime("%H:%M:%S"), end="")
counts = self.probe.bpf["counts"]
stack_traces = self.probe.bpf["stack_traces"]
self.comm_cache = {}
for k, v in sorted(counts.items(),
key=lambda counts: counts[1].value):
user_stack = [] if k.user_stack_id < 0 else \
kernel_stack = [] if k.kernel_stack_id < 0 else \
if self.args.folded:
# print folded stack output
user_stack = list(user_stack)
kernel_stack = list(kernel_stack)
line = ['utf-8', 'replace')] + \
[b.sym(addr, k.tgid).decode('utf-8', 'replace') for addr in
reversed(user_stack)] + \
(self.need_delimiter and ["-"] or []) + \
[b.ksym(addr).decode('utf-8', 'replace') for addr in reversed(kernel_stack)]
print("%s %d" % (";".join(line), v.value))
# print multi-line stack output
for addr in kernel_stack:
if self.need_delimiter:
print(" --")
for addr in user_stack:
self._print_uframe(addr, k.tgid)
if not and k.tgid != 0xffffffff:
self._print_comm(, k.tgid)
print(" %d\n" % v.value)
if exiting:
if not self.args.folded:
if __name__ == "__main__":
except Exception:
if debug:
elif sys.exc_info()[0] is not SystemExit:
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