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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""Top-level display functions for displaying object in different formats."""
# Copyright (c) IPython Development Team.
# Distributed under the terms of the Modified BSD License.
from __future__ import print_function
import json
import mimetypes
import os
import struct
import warnings
from IPython.core.formatters import _safe_get_formatter_method
from IPython.utils.py3compat import (string_types, cast_bytes_py2, cast_unicode,
unicode_type)
from IPython.testing.skipdoctest import skip_doctest
__all__ = ['display', 'display_pretty', 'display_html', 'display_markdown',
'display_svg', 'display_png', 'display_jpeg', 'display_latex', 'display_json',
'display_javascript', 'display_pdf', 'DisplayObject', 'TextDisplayObject',
'Pretty', 'HTML', 'Markdown', 'Math', 'Latex', 'SVG', 'JSON', 'Javascript',
'Image', 'clear_output', 'set_matplotlib_formats', 'set_matplotlib_close',
'publish_display_data']
#-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# utility functions
#-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
def _safe_exists(path):
"""Check path, but don't let exceptions raise"""
try:
return os.path.exists(path)
except Exception:
return False
def _merge(d1, d2):
"""Like update, but merges sub-dicts instead of clobbering at the top level.
Updates d1 in-place
"""
if not isinstance(d2, dict) or not isinstance(d1, dict):
return d2
for key, value in d2.items():
d1[key] = _merge(d1.get(key), value)
return d1
def _display_mimetype(mimetype, objs, raw=False, metadata=None):
"""internal implementation of all display_foo methods
Parameters
----------
mimetype : str
The mimetype to be published (e.g. 'image/png')
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display, or if raw=True raw text data to
display.
raw : bool
Are the data objects raw data or Python objects that need to be
formatted before display? [default: False]
metadata : dict (optional)
Metadata to be associated with the specific mimetype output.
"""
if metadata:
metadata = {mimetype: metadata}
if raw:
# turn list of pngdata into list of { 'image/png': pngdata }
objs = [ {mimetype: obj} for obj in objs ]
display(*objs, raw=raw, metadata=metadata, include=[mimetype])
#-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Main functions
#-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
def publish_display_data(data, metadata=None, source=None):
"""Publish data and metadata to all frontends.
See the ``display_data`` message in the messaging documentation for
more details about this message type.
The following MIME types are currently implemented:
* text/plain
* text/html
* text/markdown
* text/latex
* application/json
* application/javascript
* image/png
* image/jpeg
* image/svg+xml
Parameters
----------
data : dict
A dictionary having keys that are valid MIME types (like
'text/plain' or 'image/svg+xml') and values that are the data for
that MIME type. The data itself must be a JSON'able data
structure. Minimally all data should have the 'text/plain' data,
which can be displayed by all frontends. If more than the plain
text is given, it is up to the frontend to decide which
representation to use.
metadata : dict
A dictionary for metadata related to the data. This can contain
arbitrary key, value pairs that frontends can use to interpret
the data. mime-type keys matching those in data can be used
to specify metadata about particular representations.
source : str, deprecated
Unused.
"""
from IPython.core.interactiveshell import InteractiveShell
InteractiveShell.instance().display_pub.publish(
data=data,
metadata=metadata,
)
def display(*objs, **kwargs):
"""Display a Python object in all frontends.
By default all representations will be computed and sent to the frontends.
Frontends can decide which representation is used and how.
Parameters
----------
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display.
raw : bool, optional
Are the objects to be displayed already mimetype-keyed dicts of raw display data,
or Python objects that need to be formatted before display? [default: False]
include : list or tuple, optional
A list of format type strings (MIME types) to include in the
format data dict. If this is set *only* the format types included
in this list will be computed.
exclude : list or tuple, optional
A list of format type strings (MIME types) to exclude in the format
data dict. If this is set all format types will be computed,
except for those included in this argument.
metadata : dict, optional
A dictionary of metadata to associate with the output.
mime-type keys in this dictionary will be associated with the individual
representation formats, if they exist.
"""
raw = kwargs.get('raw', False)
include = kwargs.get('include')
exclude = kwargs.get('exclude')
metadata = kwargs.get('metadata')
from IPython.core.interactiveshell import InteractiveShell
if not raw:
format = InteractiveShell.instance().display_formatter.format
for obj in objs:
if raw:
publish_display_data(data=obj, metadata=metadata)
else:
format_dict, md_dict = format(obj, include=include, exclude=exclude)
if not format_dict:
# nothing to display (e.g. _ipython_display_ took over)
continue
if metadata:
# kwarg-specified metadata gets precedence
_merge(md_dict, metadata)
publish_display_data(data=format_dict, metadata=md_dict)
def display_pretty(*objs, **kwargs):
"""Display the pretty (default) representation of an object.
Parameters
----------
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display, or if raw=True raw text data to
display.
raw : bool
Are the data objects raw data or Python objects that need to be
formatted before display? [default: False]
metadata : dict (optional)
Metadata to be associated with the specific mimetype output.
"""
_display_mimetype('text/plain', objs, **kwargs)
def display_html(*objs, **kwargs):
"""Display the HTML representation of an object.
Parameters
----------
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display, or if raw=True raw HTML data to
display.
raw : bool
Are the data objects raw data or Python objects that need to be
formatted before display? [default: False]
metadata : dict (optional)
Metadata to be associated with the specific mimetype output.
"""
_display_mimetype('text/html', objs, **kwargs)
def display_markdown(*objs, **kwargs):
"""Displays the Markdown representation of an object.
Parameters
----------
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display, or if raw=True raw markdown data to
display.
raw : bool
Are the data objects raw data or Python objects that need to be
formatted before display? [default: False]
metadata : dict (optional)
Metadata to be associated with the specific mimetype output.
"""
_display_mimetype('text/markdown', objs, **kwargs)
def display_svg(*objs, **kwargs):
"""Display the SVG representation of an object.
Parameters
----------
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display, or if raw=True raw svg data to
display.
raw : bool
Are the data objects raw data or Python objects that need to be
formatted before display? [default: False]
metadata : dict (optional)
Metadata to be associated with the specific mimetype output.
"""
_display_mimetype('image/svg+xml', objs, **kwargs)
def display_png(*objs, **kwargs):
"""Display the PNG representation of an object.
Parameters
----------
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display, or if raw=True raw png data to
display.
raw : bool
Are the data objects raw data or Python objects that need to be
formatted before display? [default: False]
metadata : dict (optional)
Metadata to be associated with the specific mimetype output.
"""
_display_mimetype('image/png', objs, **kwargs)
def display_jpeg(*objs, **kwargs):
"""Display the JPEG representation of an object.
Parameters
----------
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display, or if raw=True raw JPEG data to
display.
raw : bool
Are the data objects raw data or Python objects that need to be
formatted before display? [default: False]
metadata : dict (optional)
Metadata to be associated with the specific mimetype output.
"""
_display_mimetype('image/jpeg', objs, **kwargs)
def display_latex(*objs, **kwargs):
"""Display the LaTeX representation of an object.
Parameters
----------
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display, or if raw=True raw latex data to
display.
raw : bool
Are the data objects raw data or Python objects that need to be
formatted before display? [default: False]
metadata : dict (optional)
Metadata to be associated with the specific mimetype output.
"""
_display_mimetype('text/latex', objs, **kwargs)
def display_json(*objs, **kwargs):
"""Display the JSON representation of an object.
Note that not many frontends support displaying JSON.
Parameters
----------
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display, or if raw=True raw json data to
display.
raw : bool
Are the data objects raw data or Python objects that need to be
formatted before display? [default: False]
metadata : dict (optional)
Metadata to be associated with the specific mimetype output.
"""
_display_mimetype('application/json', objs, **kwargs)
def display_javascript(*objs, **kwargs):
"""Display the Javascript representation of an object.
Parameters
----------
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display, or if raw=True raw javascript data to
display.
raw : bool
Are the data objects raw data or Python objects that need to be
formatted before display? [default: False]
metadata : dict (optional)
Metadata to be associated with the specific mimetype output.
"""
_display_mimetype('application/javascript', objs, **kwargs)
def display_pdf(*objs, **kwargs):
"""Display the PDF representation of an object.
Parameters
----------
objs : tuple of objects
The Python objects to display, or if raw=True raw javascript data to
display.
raw : bool
Are the data objects raw data or Python objects that need to be
formatted before display? [default: False]
metadata : dict (optional)
Metadata to be associated with the specific mimetype output.
"""
_display_mimetype('application/pdf', objs, **kwargs)
#-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Smart classes
#-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
class DisplayObject(object):
"""An object that wraps data to be displayed."""
_read_flags = 'r'
_show_mem_addr = False
def __init__(self, data=None, url=None, filename=None):
"""Create a display object given raw data.
When this object is returned by an expression or passed to the
display function, it will result in the data being displayed
in the frontend. The MIME type of the data should match the
subclasses used, so the Png subclass should be used for 'image/png'
data. If the data is a URL, the data will first be downloaded
and then displayed. If
Parameters
----------
data : unicode, str or bytes
The raw data or a URL or file to load the data from
url : unicode
A URL to download the data from.
filename : unicode
Path to a local file to load the data from.
"""
if data is not None and isinstance(data, string_types):
if data.startswith('http') and url is None:
url = data
filename = None
data = None
elif _safe_exists(data) and filename is None:
url = None
filename = data
data = None
self.data = data
self.url = url
self.filename = None if filename is None else unicode_type(filename)
self.reload()
self._check_data()
def __repr__(self):
if not self._show_mem_addr:
cls = self.__class__
r = "<%s.%s object>" % (cls.__module__, cls.__name__)
else:
r = super(DisplayObject, self).__repr__()
return r
def _check_data(self):
"""Override in subclasses if there's something to check."""
pass
def reload(self):
"""Reload the raw data from file or URL."""
if self.filename is not None:
with open(self.filename, self._read_flags) as f:
self.data = f.read()
elif self.url is not None:
try:
try:
from urllib.request import urlopen # Py3
except ImportError:
from urllib2 import urlopen
response = urlopen(self.url)
self.data = response.read()
# extract encoding from header, if there is one:
encoding = None
for sub in response.headers['content-type'].split(';'):
sub = sub.strip()
if sub.startswith('charset'):
encoding = sub.split('=')[-1].strip()
break
# decode data, if an encoding was specified
if encoding:
self.data = self.data.decode(encoding, 'replace')
except:
self.data = None
class TextDisplayObject(DisplayObject):
"""Validate that display data is text"""
def _check_data(self):
if self.data is not None and not isinstance(self.data, string_types):
raise TypeError("%s expects text, not %r" % (self.__class__.__name__, self.data))
class Pretty(TextDisplayObject):
def _repr_pretty_(self):
return self.data
class HTML(TextDisplayObject):
def _repr_html_(self):
return self.data
def __html__(self):
"""
This method exists to inform other HTML-using modules (e.g. Markupsafe,
htmltag, etc) that this object is HTML and does not need things like
special characters (<>&) escaped.
"""
return self._repr_html_()
class Markdown(TextDisplayObject):
def _repr_markdown_(self):
return self.data
class Math(TextDisplayObject):
def _repr_latex_(self):
s = self.data.strip('$')
return "$$%s$$" % s
class Latex(TextDisplayObject):
def _repr_latex_(self):
return self.data
class SVG(DisplayObject):
# wrap data in a property, which extracts the <svg> tag, discarding
# document headers
_data = None
@property
def data(self):
return self._data
@data.setter
def data(self, svg):
if svg is None:
self._data = None
return
# parse into dom object
from xml.dom import minidom
svg = cast_bytes_py2(svg)
x = minidom.parseString(svg)
# get svg tag (should be 1)
found_svg = x.getElementsByTagName('svg')
if found_svg:
svg = found_svg[0].toxml()
else:
# fallback on the input, trust the user
# but this is probably an error.
pass
svg = cast_unicode(svg)
self._data = svg
def _repr_svg_(self):
return self.data
class JSON(DisplayObject):
"""JSON expects a JSON-able dict or list
not an already-serialized JSON string.
Scalar types (None, number, string) are not allowed, only dict or list containers.
"""
# wrap data in a property, which warns about passing already-serialized JSON
_data = None
def _check_data(self):
if self.data is not None and not isinstance(self.data, (dict, list)):
raise TypeError("%s expects JSONable dict or list, not %r" % (self.__class__.__name__, self.data))
@property
def data(self):
return self._data
@data.setter
def data(self, data):
if isinstance(data, string_types):
warnings.warn("JSON expects JSONable dict or list, not JSON strings")
data = json.loads(data)
self._data = data
def _repr_json_(self):
return self.data
css_t = """$("head").append($("<link/>").attr({
rel: "stylesheet",
type: "text/css",
href: "%s"
}));
"""
lib_t1 = """$.getScript("%s", function () {
"""
lib_t2 = """});
"""
class Javascript(TextDisplayObject):
def __init__(self, data=None, url=None, filename=None, lib=None, css=None):
"""Create a Javascript display object given raw data.
When this object is returned by an expression or passed to the
display function, it will result in the data being displayed
in the frontend. If the data is a URL, the data will first be
downloaded and then displayed.
In the Notebook, the containing element will be available as `element`,
and jQuery will be available. Content appended to `element` will be
visible in the output area.
Parameters
----------
data : unicode, str or bytes
The Javascript source code or a URL to download it from.
url : unicode
A URL to download the data from.
filename : unicode
Path to a local file to load the data from.
lib : list or str
A sequence of Javascript library URLs to load asynchronously before
running the source code. The full URLs of the libraries should
be given. A single Javascript library URL can also be given as a
string.
css: : list or str
A sequence of css files to load before running the source code.
The full URLs of the css files should be given. A single css URL
can also be given as a string.
"""
if isinstance(lib, string_types):
lib = [lib]
elif lib is None:
lib = []
if isinstance(css, string_types):
css = [css]
elif css is None:
css = []
if not isinstance(lib, (list,tuple)):
raise TypeError('expected sequence, got: %r' % lib)
if not isinstance(css, (list,tuple)):
raise TypeError('expected sequence, got: %r' % css)
self.lib = lib
self.css = css
super(Javascript, self).__init__(data=data, url=url, filename=filename)
def _repr_javascript_(self):
r = ''
for c in self.css:
r += css_t % c
for l in self.lib:
r += lib_t1 % l
r += self.data
r += lib_t2*len(self.lib)
return r
# constants for identifying png/jpeg data
_PNG = b'\x89PNG\r\n\x1a\n'
_JPEG = b'\xff\xd8'
def _pngxy(data):
"""read the (width, height) from a PNG header"""
ihdr = data.index(b'IHDR')
# next 8 bytes are width/height
w4h4 = data[ihdr+4:ihdr+12]
return struct.unpack('>ii', w4h4)
def _jpegxy(data):
"""read the (width, height) from a JPEG header"""
# adapted from http://www.64lines.com/jpeg-width-height
idx = 4
while True:
block_size = struct.unpack('>H', data[idx:idx+2])[0]
idx = idx + block_size
if data[idx:idx+2] == b'\xFF\xC0':
# found Start of Frame
iSOF = idx
break
else:
# read another block
idx += 2
h, w = struct.unpack('>HH', data[iSOF+5:iSOF+9])
return w, h
class Image(DisplayObject):
_read_flags = 'rb'
_FMT_JPEG = u'jpeg'
_FMT_PNG = u'png'
_ACCEPTABLE_EMBEDDINGS = [_FMT_JPEG, _FMT_PNG]
def __init__(self, data=None, url=None, filename=None, format=u'png',
embed=None, width=None, height=None, retina=False,
unconfined=False, metadata=None):
"""Create a PNG/JPEG image object given raw data.
When this object is returned by an input cell or passed to the
display function, it will result in the image being displayed
in the frontend.
Parameters
----------
data : unicode, str or bytes
The raw image data or a URL or filename to load the data from.
This always results in embedded image data.
url : unicode
A URL to download the data from. If you specify `url=`,
the image data will not be embedded unless you also specify `embed=True`.
filename : unicode
Path to a local file to load the data from.
Images from a file are always embedded.
format : unicode
The format of the image data (png/jpeg/jpg). If a filename or URL is given
for format will be inferred from the filename extension.
embed : bool
Should the image data be embedded using a data URI (True) or be
loaded using an <img> tag. Set this to True if you want the image
to be viewable later with no internet connection in the notebook.
Default is `True`, unless the keyword argument `url` is set, then
default value is `False`.
Note that QtConsole is not able to display images if `embed` is set to `False`
width : int
Width to which to constrain the image in html
height : int
Height to which to constrain the image in html
retina : bool
Automatically set the width and height to half of the measured
width and height.
This only works for embedded images because it reads the width/height
from image data.
For non-embedded images, you can just set the desired display width
and height directly.
unconfined: bool
Set unconfined=True to disable max-width confinement of the image.
metadata: dict
Specify extra metadata to attach to the image.
Examples
--------
# embedded image data, works in qtconsole and notebook
# when passed positionally, the first arg can be any of raw image data,
# a URL, or a filename from which to load image data.
# The result is always embedding image data for inline images.
Image('http://www.google.fr/images/srpr/logo3w.png')
Image('/path/to/image.jpg')
Image(b'RAW_PNG_DATA...')
# Specifying Image(url=...) does not embed the image data,
# it only generates `<img>` tag with a link to the source.
# This will not work in the qtconsole or offline.
Image(url='http://www.google.fr/images/srpr/logo3w.png')
"""
if filename is not None:
ext = self._find_ext(filename)
elif url is not None:
ext = self._find_ext(url)
elif data is None:
raise ValueError("No image data found. Expecting filename, url, or data.")
elif isinstance(data, string_types) and (
data.startswith('http') or _safe_exists(data)
):
ext = self._find_ext(data)
else:
ext = None
if ext is not None:
format = ext.lower()
if ext == u'jpg' or ext == u'jpeg':
format = self._FMT_JPEG
if ext == u'png':
format = self._FMT_PNG
elif isinstance(data, bytes) and format == 'png':
# infer image type from image data header,
# only if format might not have been specified.
if data[:2] == _JPEG:
format = 'jpeg'
self.format = unicode_type(format).lower()
self.embed = embed if embed is not None else (url is None)
if self.embed and self.format not in self._ACCEPTABLE_EMBEDDINGS:
raise ValueError("Cannot embed the '%s' image format" % (self.format))
self.width = width
self.height = height
self.retina = retina
self.unconfined = unconfined
self.metadata = metadata
super(Image, self).__init__(data=data, url=url, filename=filename)
if retina:
self._retina_shape()
def _retina_shape(self):
"""load pixel-doubled width and height from image data"""
if not self.embed:
return
if self.format == 'png':
w, h = _pngxy(self.data)
elif self.format == 'jpeg':
w, h = _jpegxy(self.data)
else:
# retina only supports png
return
self.width = w // 2
self.height = h // 2
def reload(self):
"""Reload the raw data from file or URL."""
if self.embed:
super(Image,self).reload()
if self.retina:
self._retina_shape()
def _repr_html_(self):
if not self.embed:
width = height = klass = ''
if self.width:
width = ' width="%d"' % self.width
if self.height:
height = ' height="%d"' % self.height
if self.unconfined:
klass = ' class="unconfined"'
return u'<img src="{url}"{width}{height}{klass}/>'.format(
url=self.url,
width=width,
height=height,
klass=klass,
)
def _data_and_metadata(self):
"""shortcut for returning metadata with shape information, if defined"""
md = {}
if self.width:
md['width'] = self.width
if self.height:
md['height'] = self.height
if self.unconfined:
md['unconfined'] = self.unconfined
if self.metadata:
md.update(self.metadata)
if md:
return self.data, md
else:
return self.data
def _repr_png_(self):
if self.embed and self.format == u'png':
return self._data_and_metadata()
def _repr_jpeg_(self):
if self.embed and (self.format == u'jpeg' or self.format == u'jpg'):
return self._data_and_metadata()
def _find_ext(self, s):
return unicode_type(s.split('.')[-1].lower())
class Video(DisplayObject):
def __init__(self, data=None, url=None, filename=None, embed=None, mimetype=None):
"""Create a video object given raw data or an URL.
When this object is returned by an input cell or passed to the
display function, it will result in the video being displayed
in the frontend.
Parameters
----------
data : unicode, str or bytes
The raw image data or a URL or filename to load the data from.
This always results in embedded image data.
url : unicode
A URL to download the data from. If you specify `url=`,
the image data will not be embedded unless you also specify `embed=True`.
filename : unicode
Path to a local file to load the data from.
Videos from a file are always embedded.
embed : bool
Should the image data be embedded using a data URI (True) or be
loaded using an <img> tag. Set this to True if you want the image
to be viewable later with no internet connection in the notebook.
Default is `True`, unless the keyword argument `url` is set, then
default value is `False`.
Note that QtConsole is not able to display images if `embed` is set to `False`
mimetype: unicode
Specify the mimetype in case you load in a encoded video.
Examples
--------
Video('https://archive.org/download/Sita_Sings_the_Blues/Sita_Sings_the_Blues_small.mp4')
Video('path/to/video.mp4')
Video('path/to/video.mp4', embed=False)
"""
if url is None and (data.startswith('http') or data.startswith('https')):
url = data
data = None
embed = False
elif os.path.exists(data):
filename = data
data = None
self.mimetype = mimetype
self.embed = embed if embed is not None else (filename is not None)
super(Video, self).__init__(data=data, url=url, filename=filename)
def _repr_html_(self):
# External URLs and potentially local files are not embedded into the
# notebook output.
if not self.embed:
url = self.url if self.url is not None else self.filename
output = """<video src="{0}" controls>
Your browser does not support the <code>video</code> element.
</video>""".format(url)
return output
# Embedded videos uses base64 encoded videos.
if self.filename is not None:
mimetypes.init()
mimetype, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(self.filename)
video = open(self.filename, 'rb').read()
video_encoded = video.encode('base64')
else:
video_encoded = self.data
mimetype = self.mimetype
output = """<video controls>
<source src="data:{0};base64,{1}" type="{0}">
Your browser does not support the video tag.
</video>""".format(mimetype, video_encoded)
return output
def reload(self):
# TODO
pass
def _repr_png_(self):
# TODO
pass
def _repr_jpeg_(self):
# TODO
pass
def clear_output(wait=False):
"""Clear the output of the current cell receiving output.
Parameters
----------
wait : bool [default: false]
Wait to clear the output until new output is available to replace it."""
from IPython.core.interactiveshell import InteractiveShell
if InteractiveShell.initialized():
InteractiveShell.instance().display_pub.clear_output(wait)
else:
from IPython.utils import io
print('\033[2K\r', file=io.stdout, end='')
io.stdout.flush()
print('\033[2K\r', file=io.stderr, end='')
io.stderr.flush()
@skip_doctest
def set_matplotlib_formats(*formats, **kwargs):
"""Select figure formats for the inline backend. Optionally pass quality for JPEG.
For example, this enables PNG and JPEG output with a JPEG quality of 90%::
In [1]: set_matplotlib_formats('png', 'jpeg', quality=90)
To set this in your config files use the following::
c.InlineBackend.figure_formats = {'png', 'jpeg'}
c.InlineBackend.print_figure_kwargs.update({'quality' : 90})
Parameters
----------
*formats : strs
One or more figure formats to enable: 'png', 'retina', 'jpeg', 'svg', 'pdf'.
**kwargs :
Keyword args will be relayed to ``figure.canvas.print_figure``.
"""
from IPython.core.interactiveshell import InteractiveShell
from IPython.core.pylabtools import select_figure_formats
# build kwargs, starting with InlineBackend config
kw = {}
from ipykernel.pylab.config import InlineBackend
cfg = InlineBackend.instance()
kw.update(cfg.print_figure_kwargs)
kw.update(**kwargs)
shell = InteractiveShell.instance()
select_figure_formats(shell, formats, **kw)
@skip_doctest
def set_matplotlib_close(close=True):
"""Set whether the inline backend closes all figures automatically or not.
By default, the inline backend used in the IPython Notebook will close all
matplotlib figures automatically after each cell is run. This means that
plots in different cells won't interfere. Sometimes, you may want to make
a plot in one cell and then refine it in later cells. This can be accomplished
by::
In [1]: set_matplotlib_close(False)
To set this in your config files use the following::
c.InlineBackend.close_figures = False
Parameters
----------
close : bool
Should all matplotlib figures be automatically closed after each cell is
run?
"""
from ipykernel.pylab.config import InlineBackend
cfg = InlineBackend.instance()
cfg.close_figures = close
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